For more information on 1,4-Dioxane, please contact:Linda Fiedler
Technology Assessment Branch
PH: (703) 603-7194 | Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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1, 4-Dioxane generally is used as a solvent or intermediate. Only one manufacturer now produces the compound in the United States. Production of the chemical has fallen significantly from the nearly 15 million pounds produced in 1982, possibly because all but critical uses of trichloroethane, to which it was added as a stabilizer, have been banned in this country. According to the Toxic Release Inventory for 2009, 69,358 pounds of 1,4-Dioxane were released to the air, 45,146 to surface waters, none to land, and 136,034 pounds were transferred from the user to off-site disposal.
Due to its widespread use as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents, the chemical is detected frequently at sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Because conventional pump-and-treat technologies such as air stripping and carbon adsorption do not capture the compound, reinjection of treated ground water from which 1,4-dioxane has not been adequately removed has resulted in shutdown of domestic and municipal supply wells. 1,4-Dioxane has been found in the ground water of several Superfund sites and has become a chemical of concern for drinking water supplies in California.
The primary routes of potential human exposure to 1,4-dioxane are inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. 1,4-Dioxane can be formed as a byproduct of reactions based on condensing ethylene oxide or ethylene glycol during the production of certain consumer products. Exposure of the general population to 1,4-dioxane might occur from contact with products containing residues of the compound. According to the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), consumers could be exposed to residual levels of 1,4-dioxane formed during the manufacture of detergents, shampoos, surfactants, and certain pharmaceuticals. CPSC reported that the presence of 1,4-dioxane, even as a trace contaminant, is cause for concern, and the Commission continues to monitor its use in consumer products. Residues can be present in food packaged in 1,4-dioxane-containing materials, or on food crops treated with pesticides containing 1,4-dioxane. The compound has been noted as a component in vine-ripened tomatoes and tomato products, fresh shrimps, brewed coffee and fried chicken. Potential occupational exposure to 1,4-dioxane could occur during its production and use as a stabilizer or solvent.
1,4-Dioxane, CAS No. 123-91-1, Report on Carcinogens, 12th ed.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011.
Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals, Volume II Solvents
P. Howard. Lewis Publishers, 1991.
The 2001 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Public Data Release Report
EPA 260-R-03-001, 2003
U.S. International Trade Commission: Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales USITC Publication Number 1588.
Bally Groundwater Contamination Superfund Site Progress Profile
Bally Borough, Berks County, PA.
Geohydrology, Water Quality, and Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in the Vicinity of a Former Waste-Oil Refinery near Westville, Indiana, 1997-2000
R. Duwelius, D. Yeskis, J. Wilson, and B. Robinson.
U.S. Geological Society Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4221, 169 pp, 2002.
Contact: Richard Duwelius, email@example.com
Undertaken as a result of a consent decree between EPA and the Environmental Defense Fund, this final report of the study on spent solvents discusses the wastes associated with the use of the materials as solvents, the toxicity of the wastes, and the management practices for the wastes. The chemicals addressed in this study are diethylamine, aniline, ethylene oxide, allyl chloride, 1,4-dioxane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and bromoform.
Tucson Airport Remediation Project (TARP) (Part of the TIAA CERCLA Site)
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality.
Contact: Bill Ellett, firstname.lastname@example.org