For more information on 1,4-Dioxane, please contact:Linda Fiedler
Technology Assessment Branch
PH: (703) 603-7194 | Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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The greatest human health threat from 1,4-dioxane comes from repeated inhalation exposure to low concentrations of 1,4-dioxane among workers at industrial sites. Systemic effects reported among workers from inhalation exposures involve primarily the liver and kidneys. While evidence of carcinogenicity in laboratory animals is sufficient for EPA to classify 1,4-dioxane as a probable human carcinogen, inadequate evidence exists for the carcinogenicity of 1,4-dioxane in humans. EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards has placed 1,4-dioxane in the low category for carcinogenic hazard under Superfund's ranking. Acute inhalation of high levels of 1,4-dioxane may cause vertigo and irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, lungs and skin in mammals.
1,4-Dioxane is absorbed by all exposure routes, including lungs, skin and gastrointestinal tract. Distribution is rapid and uniform in lung, liver, kidney, spleen, colon and skeletal muscle tissue of laboratory animals. In rats, the percentage of covalent binding is highest in the liver, spleen and colon. 1,4-Dioxane is excreted mostly in the urine and through the lungs in expired air.
Although 1,4-dioxane has been detected in surface water and groundwater, human risks from lifetime exposures to contaminated water appear low. EPA estimates that, if an individual were to continuously drink water containing 1,4-dioxane at an average of 3.0 µg/L over his or her entire lifetime, that person would theoretically have no more than a one-in-a-million increased chance of developing cancer as a direct result of drinking water containing this chemical. Rats chronically exposed to 1,4-dioxane in drinking water exhibit liver and kidney damage. Limited data suggest that 1,4-dioxane does not bioaccumulate in fish or food chains.
Memorandum: 1,4-Dioxane Action Level
G. Alexeeff, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 1998.
Re-Evaluation of Some Organic Chemicals, Hydrazine and Hydrogen Peroxide.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man, Vol 71, p 589-602, 1999.
1,4-Dioxane (1,4-Diethyleneoxide): Air Toxics Hazard Summary
U.S. EPA, Technology Transfer Network, Air Toxics Website.
1,4-Dioxane, CAS No. 123-91-1
Report on Carcinogens, Twelfth Edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, 3 pp, 2011.
1,4-Dioxane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals.
1,4-Dioxane (CASRN 123-91-1)
U.S. EPA, Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).
1,4-Dioxane—Emerging Contaminant of Concern: Fact Sheet
Orange County Water District, CA.
1,4-Dioxane: Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet
New Jersey Dept. of Health and Senior Services, 6 pp, 2002.
Contact: NJ Right-to-Know Program, 609-984-2202
1,4-Dioxane - Inhalation
U.S. EPA, Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO).
The studies used in EPA's draft 2010 Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (Inhalation) for IRIS are listed in the HERO database. HERO is updated with newly published 1,4-dioxane toxicity studies as they are identified.
Bioassay of 1,4-Dioxane for Possible Carcinogenicity, CAS No. 123-91-1
U.S. Dept. Of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Institutes of Health.
NCI-CG-TR-80, 124 pp, 1978.
Chronic Toxicity Summary: 1,4-Dioxane
California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Chronic Reference Exposure Levels Adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003.
Memorandum: 1,4-Dioxane Action Level
California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 7 pp, 1998.
Contact: Anna Fan, 510-622-3170
Opinion on the Results of the Risk Assessment of 1,4-DIOXANE - CAS No: 123-91-1, EINECS No: 204-661-8. Final Version, 5 November 1999 carried out in the framework of Council Regulation (EEC) 793/93 on the evaluation and control of the risks of existing substances 1. Opinion expressed at the 19th CSTEE plenary meeting, Brussels, 9 November 2000
European Commission on Public Health.
Safety (MSDS) Data for 1,4-Dioxane
Oxford University, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory.
Studies on Metabolism of 1,4-Dioxane
U.S. Army Public Health Command, Toxicology Report No. 87-XE-08WR-09, 61 pp, 2010
Past work has identified two potential metabolites of 1,4-dioxane, but definitive studies on the relationship of these possible metabolites to one another in living systems and their possible relation to carcinogenesis have remained unanswered. This report provides information pointing to 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEAA) as the principal metabolite and provides the first quantitative data on the chemical equilibrium between HEAA and the other potential metabolite, dioxanone.
Table A-3-92: Chemical-Specific Inputs for 1,4-Dioxane (123-91-1)
Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion Facilities, Volume 2.
Appendix A: Chemical-Specific Data. U.S. EPA, 3 pp, 1998.
Draft Toxicological Profile for 1,4-Dioxane
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 263 pp, 2004
Toxicological Profile for 1,4-Dioxane
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 269 pp, 2006
Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (CAS No. 123-91-1) in Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) http://www.epa.gov/ncea/iris/toxreviews/0326tr.pdf
E.D. McLanahan, R. Sams II, J.A. Davis, H. El-Masri, J.S. Gift, K. Hogan, F. Llados, M. Lumpkin, A. Marcus, M. Odin, S. Rieth, A. Rooney, P. Schlosser, J. Stickney, and J. Vandenberg.
EPA 635-R-09-005-F, 319 pp, 2010
National Library of Medicine Specialized Information Services.
This site contains a cluster of databases on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, and related areas, including the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), and Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). The site supports simultaneous searching in multiple databases.
Chemicals in the Environment: Report on Environmental Survey and Wildlife Monitoring of Chemicals in FY2001
Environmental Health Department, Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan, 126 pp, 2003.
Ecological Benchmark Tool
U.S. DOE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory.