For more information on Perchlorate, please contact:John Quander
Technology Assessment Branch
PH: (703) 603-7198 | Email: email@example.com
- Policy and Guidance
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- Environmental Occurrence
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Treatment of perchlorate contamination in water is complicated because the perchlorate anion does not respond to typical water treatment techniques due to its fundamental physical and chemical nature. The perchlorate tetrahedron itself is structured such that the four oxygen atoms surround the central chlorine atom, effectively blocking reductants from directly attacking the chlorine. The perchlorate anion is soluble and very mobile in aqueous systems. It can persist in the environment for many decades under typical groundwater and surface water conditions because of its resistance to react with other available constituents. While perchlorate is thermodynamically a strong oxidizing agent, it is a kinetically sluggish species, such that its reduction is generally very slow, rendering common reductants ineffective.
Perchlorate treatment technologies may be generally classified into categories of destruction or removal technologies. Destructive processes include biological reduction, chemical reduction, and electrochemical reduction. Physical removal processes include anion exchange, membrane filtration (including reverse osmosis and nanofiltration), and electrodialysis, which all require subsequent disposal of removed perchlorate. The optimum treatment technology for a given perchlorate occurrence may depend on several factors, including perchlorate concentration, the presence and concentration of co-contaminants, other water quality parameters (pH, alkalinity, natural organic matter (NOM), total dissolved solids (TDS), metals, etc.), and geochemical parameters (nitrate, sulfate, chloride, dissolved oxygen, redox potential, etc.). The presence of indigenous perchlorate-reducing microbes (PRM), and substances inhibitory to PRM activity will also influence perchlorate treatment technology effectiveness. For in situ treatment of perchlorate contamination, variables related to the site hydrogeological setting, such as depth to and distribution of contaminants, soil permeability, groundwater flow velocity, etc. are also additionally important.
Diane S. Roote. "Technology Status Report, Perchlorate Treatment Technologies." 1st ed. Ground-Water Remediation Technologies Analysis Center, 2001.
Jump to a SubsectionGeneral Publications | Reports | Literature References | Other Remediation References
Assessing the Outlook for Perchlorate Remediation
Bruce E. Logan
Environmental Science & Technology 35(23) pp 482A-487A, 2001
This article from Environmental Science & Technology discusses the environmental occurrence and health effects of perchlorate contamination and describes a variety of technologies that are emerging for the treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater. Ion exchange, granular activated carbon, chemical reduction, microbiological degradation, and in situ techniques are mentioned or discussed. [This link to the article has been provided with the permission of the American Chemical Society.]
Issues in Managing the Risks Associated with Perchlorate in Drinking Water
E. T. Urbansky and M. R. Schock
Journal of Environmental Management (1999) 56, 79-95
This article provides an overview of perchlorate chemistry and discusses multiple treatment technologies that may be feasible for remediating contaminated groundwater. The article also highlights governmental response to the environmental occurrence of perchlorate, regulatory considerations, and areas in need of further research.
Microbial Perchlorate Reduction: Rocket-Fuelled Metabolism
John D. Coates and Laurie A. Achenbach
Nature Reviews | Microbiology Volume 2 | July 2004 | 569
Perchlorate in the Environment
Edward Todd Urbansky (ed.).
Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers [now Springer], New York, Environmental Science Research,
Vol 57, ISBN: 0-306-46389-X, 316 pp, 2000
Based on a symposium sponsored by the Environmental Division of the American Chemical Society, this text addresses two main topics: analytical chemistry (focusing on ion chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry) and treatment or remediation of perchlorate contamination via methods such as ion exchange, phytoremediation, bacterial reduction, bioreactors, and in situ bioremediation. Chapters on fundamental chemistry, toxicology, and regulatory issues provide background information.
Perchlorate Contamination Treatment Alternatives — Draft
California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention and Technology Development, 23 pp, 2004.
Perchlorate Environmental Occurrence, Interactions and Treatment
Baohua Gu and John D.Coates (Eds.)
Springer, 2006, 411 pp
This book summarizes the most current knowledge and understandings of the extent and potential sources of perchlorate contamination, its behavior, exposure pathways in the environment, toxicology and risk assessment, and recent advances in treatment technologies for removing perchlorate.
Perchlorate (ClO4-) Treatment Technologies Literature Review: Operable Unit 1 Expanded Treatability Study
NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA. 69 pp, 2006
This literature review provides an assessment of the development status of various biological, physical, chemical, and thermal treatment technologies used for the removal of perchlorate from ground water.
Perchlorate Treatment Technology Update
This issue paper has been prepared by EPA's Federal Facilities Forum to provide information about technologies available for treatment of perchlorate contamination in environmental media, including technologies that have been used to date and others that show potential for treating such contamination. Furthermore, this paper provides site-specific information on 51 projects where treatment technologies have been or are being applied for full-scale treatment or field demonstrations. A brief overview of key perchlorate issues, including health effects and risks, regulatory standards and cleanup levels, degradation processes, and treatment technologies, is provided to give the reader context. However, these issues are not addressed in depth in this paper.
Remediation Technologies for Perchlorate Contamination in Water and Soil
Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council, 2008
This report was produced by the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The purpose of this document is to review technologies applicable to the remediation of perchlorate in water and soil. In addition, the social, political, and regulatory barriers to the deployment of these technologies are examined. The goal of the document is to provide industry, responsible parties, and state and federal environmental regulators with reliable guidance to help streamline the review and approval process for selecting and implementing perchlorate treatment technologies
Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment Perchlorate Treatment Technology Fact Sheets
- In Situ Anaerobic Remediation
Contact: Dr. Andrea Leeson, firstname.lastname@example.org
Contact: Erica Becvar, email@example.com
- Ion Exchange
Contact: Erica Becvar, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Permeable Reactive Barriers
Contact: Bryan Harre, Bryan.email@example.com
Contact: Erica Becvar, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Soil Biotreatment
Contact: Bryan Harre, Bryan.email@example.com
Decontamination Methods for Ammonium Perchlorate Contaminated Buildings and Equipment Surfaces
James T. Miller; K.E. Basom, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Div., MD.
Report No: NSWC-IHTR-2375, DTIC: ADA409094. 16 pp, Jul 2002
Contact: Susan Simpson, firstname.lastname@example.org
To assist in identifying the methods that might be used to remove ammonium perchlorate from contaminated surfaces, the authors commissioned an extensive literature search. Candidate reactions were identified and tested under laboratory conditions to select the optimum technique.
Evaluation of an Innovative Technology for Treatment of Water Contaminated with Perchlorate and Organic Compounds
M.A. Downen, Master's thesis, Air Force Inst. of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, AFIT/GEM/ENV/09-M04, 153 pp, 2009
This thesis discusses case studies of granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment of co-mingled contaminant plumes at Edwards AFB, Stringfellow Superfund site, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Massachusetts Military Reservation. T-GAC involves pre-loading GAC with cationic surfactants. TCE and perchlorate were removed successfully by adsorption in a pilot-scale field study using a T-GAC/GAC system. These results motivated the development of a model that could be applied to predict the cost and performance of a T-GAC/GAC system to remove perchlorate and organic co-contaminants from water.
GAC Use, Tailoring, and Regeneration for Perchlorate Removal from Groundwater
F. Cannon, R. Parette, W. Chen, C. Na, R. Rangel-Mendez, and Z. Jiying.
IWA Pub., London. AwwaRF Report 91035F, ISBN: 1843399202, 172 pp, July 2006
This report discusses a technically viable and economically reasonable approach for removing perchlorate from drinking water, to tailor activated carbon in such manner as to extend its bed life for removing perchlorate, and to explore means of regenerating the activated carbon so that it can be reused to remove perchlorate.
Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water, Volume 2: Assessment for Non-Radionuclides, Including Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Nickel, Nitrate, Perchlorate, and Selenium
EPA 600-R-07-140, 2007
In a separate chapter for each listed contaminant, Volume 2 of 3 describes (1) the natural immobilization or degradation processes that can result in the attenuation of the contaminant and (2) data requirements to be met during site characterization. The document emphasizes characterization of immobilization and/or degradation processes that may control contaminant attenuation, as well as technical approaches to assess performance characteristics of the MNA remedy. A tiered analysis approach is presented to assist in organizing site characterization tasks.
Natural Attenuation of Perchlorate in Groundwater: Processes, Tools and Monitoring Techniques: Protocol Report
M.T. Lieberman and R.C. Borden.
ESTCP, Project ER-0428, 80 pp, 2008
This document provides information on fate, transport, and transformation of perchlorate in different geochemical environments; emerging and/or specialized technologies for evaluating perchlorate attenuation in groundwater; and a tiered approach for evaluating MNA of perchlorate. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report; Indian Head Site Demonstration; Elkton Site Demonstration
Tailored Granular Activated Carbon Treatment of Perchlorate in Drinking Water
Lutes, C.C., T. Henderson, D.S. Liles, D. Garcia, R. Clayton, J. Patterson, R. Parette, F.S. Cannon, M. Goltz, D. Craig, D. Felker, W. Powell, M. Downen, J. Graham, T. Peschman, S. Berrum, D. Gillen, and S. Marshall.
ESTCP Project ER-200546, 265 pp, 2010
The tailoring process adsorbs surfactants with quaternary ammonium groups to GAC, which dramatically increases its perchlorate removal capacity while simultaneously allowing it to remove VOCs. A 38 gpm field-scale TGAC demonstration system operated nearly continuously between 1/11/2007 and 12/5/2007 and treated over 16.2 million gallons of perchlorate-contaminated groundwater to below current regulatory standards. Although TGAC currently is not able economically to displace conventional IX resins, it seems best suited for use on aerobic waters with low nitrate concentrations and with VOCs as co-contaminants. ESTCP Cost & Performance Report
Ammonium Perchlorate Biodegradation for Industrial Wastewater Treatment
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program
U.S. Department of Defense, 2000
Contact: James A. Hurley, email@example.com
This report summarizes the cost and performance of a perchlorate biodegradation demonstration project conducted at Tyndall AFB and Thiokol Corporation's production plant in Bringham City, Utah. Cost projections are provided for three different full-scale treatment plants based on the results of the demonstration.
Application of Horizontal Flow Treatment Wells for In Situ Treatment of Perchlorate Contaminated Groundwater
Jeffrey C. Parr
Air Force Institute of Technology, 2002
Contact: Mark N. Goltz, firstname.lastname@example.org
This report describes a Masters thesis research project conducted by a student at the Air Force Institute of Technology to investigate how a horizontal flow treatment well system can be used to treat perchlorate-contaminated groundwater. The project coupled a three-dimensional fate and transport model with a biodegradation model that simulates the reduction of perchlorate and competing electron acceptors. Following development, the model was run using parameters from an actual perchlorate-contaminated site in Nevada to demonstrate how the model can be applied and how the technology can be implemented. The project concluded with a sensitivity analysis to determine how various environmental and engineering parameters affect the model's output.
Biological PRB Used for Perchlorate Degradation in Ground Water
Mark Craig (U.S. Navy/NAVFAC South Division), Alan Jacobs (EnSafe)
Technology News and Trends Newsletter
EPA 542-N-04-001, February 2004
Contact: Mark Craig, email@example.com
Biological Treatment and Downstream Processing of Perchlorate-Contaminated Water
Patrick J. Evans and Bruce Logan.
IWA Pub., London. AwwaRF Report 91017F, ISBN: 1843399091, 48 pp, 2005 [Originally released by the Awwa Research Foundation to its subscribers in 2004]
Biological Treatment of Perchlorate-contaminated Groundwater Using Fluidized Bed Reactors
Hatzinger, et al.
2nd International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May 22 - 25, 2000.
This paper describes an investigation by Envirogen Inc. to assess the effectiveness of a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) to treat perchlorate-contaminated groundwater and to evaluate operating data from a full-scale FBR system. The full-scale system in operation in California consists of four FBRs containing granular activated carbon and fed with ethanol and inorganic nutrients. The system treats groundwater with perchlorate concentrations ranging from 6 to 8 mg/L at a rate of up to 4,000 gal/min and achieves effluent perchlorate concentrations of less than 4 µg/L.
Bioreactor Systems for Treating Perchlorate-Contaminated Water: Bench- and Pilot-Scale Investigations
B. Logan, B. Min, K. Kim, J. Miller, D. LaPoint, J. Batista, J. Liu, P. Evans, A. Chu, and S. Price.
IWA Pub., London. AwwaRF Report 90982F, ISBN: 1843398893, 320 pp, 2005
Results from the bench testing of 3 processes for perchlorate treatment--a packed bed reactor amended with soluble substrates (acetate), a membrane-immobilized biofilm reactor, and a hydrogen gas-fed, four-phase, unsaturated, trickle-type packed column--led to the selection of the acetate-fed packed bed reactor for further pilot-scale tests at the Texas Street well field in Redlands, CA. The Redlands tests showed that perchlorate could be removed to non-detectable levels (<4 g/L) in the fixed-bed reactor. As a side benefit, nitrate is also removed.
Case Study of Ex-Situ Biological Treatment of Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater
Polk, et al.
4th Tri-Services Environmental Technology Symposium, June 18-20, San Diego, CA
Contact: Mark N. Goltz, firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper describes laboratory studies conducted by Envirogen, Inc. on a biological fluidized bed reactor (FBR) system used to treat perchlorate-contaminated groundwater from Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant (LHAAP). Based on the results of the treatability study, a full-scale FBR system was designed and constructed to treat 50 gallons per minute of LHAAP groundwater. Within three weeks of start-up, the system achieved the target effluent concentration of 350 µg/L and routinely removed perchlorate to less than 5 µg/L.
Comparative Demonstration of Active and Semi-Passive In Situ Bioremediation Approaches for Perchlorate Impacted Groundwater: Active In Situ Bioremediation Demonstration (Aerojet Facility)
Cox, E. and T. Krug.
ESTCP Project ER-200219, 848 pp, 2012
During the demonstration of active enhanced in situ bioremediation at the inactive Rancho Cordova test site in California, groundwater containing perchlorate and TCE was extracted from the shallow aquifer, amended with ethanol, and recharged to the shallow aquifer. The active biobarrier provided treatment and containment of a 600-ft wide section of the plume in the shallow aquifer using two groundwater extraction wells and a single groundwater recharge well. Indigenous bacteria were able to biodegrade perchlorate concentrations as high as 4,300 µg/L to less than 4 µg/L within 50 ft of the recharge well. TCE dechlorination followed bioaugmentation of the shallow aquifer with KB-1 to introduce dehalorespiring bacteria.
Comparative Demonstration of Active and Semi-Passive In Situ Bioremediation Approaches for Perchlorate-Impacted Groundwater (Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant)
E. Cox, T. Krug, and D. Bertrand.
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), Project ER-0219, 329 pp, 2009
The project goal was to demonstrate the efficacy of semi-passive enhanced in situ bioremediation (EISB) of perchlorate in groundwater at a scale large enough to generate accurate full-scale design and cost information for widespread technology consideration and application. The semi-passive EISB approach involves periodic (2 or 3 times per year) delivery of electron donor to create a biologically active zone or biobarrier across a perchlorate plume that will promote perchlorate biodegradation and control plume migration. In each of 3 amendment cycles (two in 2004, one in 2005), groundwater was extracted, a 60% sodium lactate solution was added to the injection, intermediate injection, and extraction wells. At the conclusion of each electron donor delivery cycle, the recirculation system was shut off to initiate the passive phase of operation. The costs to implement semi-passive EISB for perchlorate-impacted groundwater will vary significantly from site to site depending upon (1) the dimensions and depth of the plume to be treated, (2) ambient groundwater velocity, (3) hydraulic conductivity (K) of the geological media containing the impacted groundwater and the degree of variation in the K of different layers in the geological media, and (4) concentration of perchlorate and other electron acceptors and the target treatment concentration. See also the ESTCP Cost & Performance Report
Direct Fixed-Bed Biological Perchlorate Destruction Demonstration
J. Brown, C. Lauderdale, G. Estavo, et al.
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), Project ER-0544, 168 pp, 2008
In 2007, a 10-month demonstration study was initiated in Rialto, CA, that used two first-stage, parallel fixed-bed (FXB) bioreactors to remove perchlorate from groundwater. Effluent from these reactors was dosed with hydrogen peroxide to reoxygenate and oxidize residual organics and hydrogen sulfide, and then passed through a biofilter to oxidize any remaining organics and sulfide and to remove turbidity. Chlorine was dosed to the effluent of the biofilter as a final disinfection step. A mathematical model was developed and calibrated to elucidate phenomena observed during pilot testing and to predict the perchlorate removal performance of a FXB bioreactor system at other sites. The results showed that as FXB bioreactor treatment systems scale up, process efficiencies also go up (i.e., required contact times to achieve sustained, robust perchlorate removal decreased substantially relative to contact time requirements established during previous, smaller-scale studies). System operation requires no specialized training or extraordinary maintenance procedures, and costs for FXB biological perchlorate treatment systems can be low. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report
Edible Oil Barriers for Treatment of Perchlorate Contaminated Groundwater
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program
U.S. Department of Defense, 2006
This final technical report documents the demonstration of emulsified edible oil barriers for groundwater remediation at a confidential perchlorate site in Maryland. The general purpose of the demonstration was to evaluate the efficacy of emulsified oils for treating perchlorate contaminated groundwater. A second demonstration was performed as part of this project to evaluate the use of emulsified oils for remediation of chlorinated solvent impacted groundwater at the Charleston Naval Weapons Station (NWS) in South Carolina. The work at the Charleston NWS is still ongoing and will be reported separately. In addition, a technical protocol document is being written under this demonstration project which describes in detail the use of emulsified oils for enhanced anaerobic bioremediation of perchlorate and chlorinated solvents.
Field Demonstration of a Novel Biotreatment Process for Perchlorate Reduction in Groundwater
Deshusses, M.A. and M.R. Matsumoto.
ESTCP, Project ER-200636, 68 pp, 2010
A trailer-mounted pilot demonstration system was designed, built, and mobilized at Well #2 in Rialto, CA, to address perchlorate-contaminated groundwater using autotrophic perchlorate-reducing bacteria immobilized on ZVI. ZVI corrodes in water, releasing hydrogen, and perchlorate-reducing bacteria use the hydrogen as a source of electrons. From August 2007 to May 2008, the pilot reactor's uptime exceeded 98%; however, treatment performance varied considerably, with essentially 3 months of flawless operation followed by numerous treatment performance problems that eventually forced system shutdown. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report
Field Demonstration of In Situ Perchlorate Bioremediation at Building 1419
R.J. Cramer, C. Yates, P. Hatzinger, and J. Diebold. NOSSA-TR-2004-001, 84 pp, 2004.
Final New Pretreatment Plant Pilot-Scale Testing Summary Report, Stringfellow Site, Glen Avon, California
California Department of Toxic Substances Control, 159 pp, July 2008
The soil and ground water of this former Class I industrial waste disposal facility are affected by 1,4-dioxane, perchlorate, NDMA, p-CBSA, organochlorine pesticides, chlorinated ethenes, chlorinated benzenes, and heavy metals. The new pretreatment plant pilot-scale testing program successfully field tested a sequential anoxic/aerobic biotreatment (SAAB) process coupled first with a Fenton's reagent oxidation process and then with an ozone/hydrogen peroxide-based advanced oxidation process (HiPOx), demonstrating that the unit treatment processes that comprise the treatment train can be scaled up successfully. The SAAB process successfully removed p-CBSA, perchlorate, and VOCs, and the HiPOx process successfully oxidized both 1,4-dioxane and NDMA.
In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate
Envirogen, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ.
Report No: SERDP-CU-1163-2, DTIC: ADA412744, 175 pp, May 2002
The development of an effective technology for perchlorate remediation requires a fundamental understanding of the conditions that limit biological perchlorate reduction in ground water and the most effective means to overcome such limitations. The authors hypothesize that four key factors may be contributing to the persistence of perchlorate at various subsurface sites: (1) absence of an appropriate substrate (electron donor) for growth of indigenous perchlorate-degrading bacteria; (2) presence of alternative electron acceptors for bacterial respiration, including 02, NO3, and NO2 in ground water; (3) lack of an indigenous population of bacteria capable of perchlorate reduction; and (4) unfavorable environmental conditions for activity of indigenous perchlorate degraders.
In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Groundwater
P. Hatzinger and J. Diebold.
ESTCP Project ER-0224, 536 pp, 2009
A field demonstration was conducted from September 2004 (beginning with a 6-week tracer test) until December 2006 to evaluate the in situ biological reduction of perchlorate and co-contaminant TCE using a horizontal flow treatment well (HFTW) system to mix electron donor into perchlorate-contaminated groundwater by recirculating the groundwater. The HFTW technology consists of two dual-screened treatment wells, one pumping contaminated groundwater from a deep aquifer region and injecting it into a shallower zone, and the other pumping contaminated groundwater from the shallower aquifer region and injecting it into the deeper zone. Electron donor (citric acid) was added and mixed with contaminated groundwater at each well, creating an anaerobic, bioactive zone between and downgradient of the HFTWs during system operation. After evaluation of initial performance, the electron donor concentration was increased, and the system was augmented with a commercial culture containing Dehalococcoides spp. Under active/passive operation, the treatment of perchlorate, as well as TCE, was equivalent to or better than that observed during the continuous-pumping phases, while biofouling was more readily controlled. See also the ESTCP Cost and Performance Report.
In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Groundwater
H. Stroo and C.H. Ward (eds.).
Springer New York, ISBN: 978-0-387-84920-1, 250 pp, 2009
An overview of the current state of understanding of perchlorate remediation is followed by a discussion of basic principles of microbial and abiotic processes and of the engineering and implementation issues underlying the technologies described. Characterization of both anthropogenic and natural sources of perchlorate, including isotopic analysis to distinguish between differing sources, precedes discussions of the advantages, performance, and relative costs of applying a range of remedial technologies. Active, semi-passive, and passive in situ bioremediation techniques are described and compared, with emphasis on field application. Cost information for each technology has been gathered from case studies, and analyses of several template sites covers capital costs, as well as costs for laboratory testing, pilot-scale demonstration, design, system operation, monitoring and maintenance during operation, and demolition and restoration after remediation. View the table of contents.
In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Vadose Zone Soil Using Gaseous Electron Donors
P. Evans, H. Cai, K. Hopfensperger, E. Opitz, T. Titus, and R. Brennan.
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), Project ER-0511, 638 pp, 2009
Gaseous electron donor injection technology (GEDIT) involves injection of gaseous electron donors (e.g., hydrogen) into the soil to promote anaerobic biodegradation of perchlorate to water and chloride ion. The GEDIT demonstration was conducted at the Inactive Rancho Cordova Test Site Propellant Burn Area in California, achieving average percent perchlorate destruction of 93 +/- 9% within the targeted 10-ft radius of influence and the 10- to 40-ft below ground surface depth interval. The performance objective of 90% destruction within 12 months was met. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report ; Final Report Addendum (2012)
Kinetics of Perchlorate- and Chlorate-Respiring Bacteria
Bruce E. Logan, et al.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67(6) pp 2499-2506, 2001
This article presents a study that was conducted to obtain the growth rates of perchlorate-reducing bacteria using electron acceptors other than perchlorate. These data were sought in order to better analyze and design systems for treating perchlorate-contaminated water that contains dissolved oxygen and other alternative electron acceptors. Ten isolates were taken from wastewater and a perchlorate-degrading bioreactor; the results show that the isolates have dissimilar growth kinetics when using different electron donors and acceptors. Reprinted with permission from the American Society for Microbiology. Please visit the American Society for Microbiology Web site and the Applied and Environmental Microbiology Web site.
Membrane Biofilm Reactor Process for Nitrate and Perchlorate Removal
S. Adham, B. Rittmann, T. Gillogly, G. Lehman, and R. Nerenberg.
IWA Pub., London. AwwaRF Report 91004F, ISBN: 1843398990, 176 pp, 2005 [Originally released by the Awwa Research Foundation to its subscribers in 2004]
Operational Implementation of Ammonium Perchlorate Biodegradation
Air Force Research Laboratory, 1998
Contact: James A. Hurley, email@example.com
This 1998 report describes a demonstration project that was conducted to provide a production-scale, operational validation of a perchlorate treatment process developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory. The demonstration took place in two phases. The system was first assembled at Tyndall Air Force Base and was used to conduct functional and process demonstrations; it was later disassembled and transported to a plant near Bringham City, UT where it was integrated into a perchlorate recovery and wastewater treatment system. The system was tested in multiple configurations and with various nutrients.
Optimizing of In Situ Bioremediation Technology to Manage Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater
M.R. Knarr, Master's thesis, Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.
Report No: AFIT/GEE/ENV/03-14, NTIS: ADA415320, 112 pp, Mar 2003
Combining horizontal flow treatment wells (HFTWs) with in situ biodegradation is an innovative approach with the potential to remediate perchlorate-contaminated ground water. A technology model has been developed that combines the HFTW-induced aeration and volatilization effects of ground-water recirculation with in situ biodegradation processes that result from using the HFTWs to mix electron donor into perchlorate-contaminated ground water.
Optimization of Perchlorate Biodegradation: Performance and Cost Assessment for the Thiokol Prototype
Air Force Research Laboratory, 2000
This report describes research conducted to optimize a biological perchlorate treatment process that was previously tested at Tyndall AFB. The main objective of the optimization study was to reduce nutrient consumption and cost. In addition, simultaneous treatment of alternative effluents and the effects of co-contaminants on the process were investigated.
Perchlorate Remediation at a DOD Facility
Peter J. Hall
This report describes a methanol-fed biological reactor that is being used at a Department of Defense facility to treat groundwater contaminated with 300 to 1000 ppb of perchlorate.
Phase 1 Treatability Study Report - Perchlorate in Groundwater
Harding Lawson Associates Engineering and Environmental Services, 1999
This report describes the first phase of a perchlorate treatability study conducted in Rancho Cordova, California for the Baldwin Park Operable Unit Steering Committee. The purpose of the Phase 1 Treatability Study was to develop a biological treatment technology for remediating various groundwater plumes in the cities of Azusa and Baldwin Park. Objectives included evaluating the potential for treating perchlorate and nitrate concentrations anticipated in the San Gabriel Basin, evaluating the effectiveness of microorganisms from an alternative source, and evaluating the potability of the treated water. (Also see: Phase 2 Treatability Study Report - Aerojet GET E/F Treatment Facility and Review of Phase 2 Treatability Study)
Phase 2 Treatability Study Report - Aerojet GET E/F Treatment Facility
Harding ESE Engineering and Environmental Services, 2001
This report describes the second phase of the perchlorate treatability study conducted at the Aerojet facility in Rancho Cordova, California. The objectives of the Phase 2 Treatability Study were to 1) demonstrate that the technology identified in the Phase 1 Study could effectively and reliably produce potable water, 2) confirm the treatment efficiency of each unit process in the treatment train, and 3) collect data to develop design criteria for a full-scale treatment facility. Results show that the goals of the Phase 2 study were met and that groundwater from the test site could be treated to meet potable water standards. The report concludes with a cost estimate that compares capital and operation and maintenance costs of the fluidized bed reactor to those of an ion exchange treatment system. (Also see: Phase 1 Treatability Study Report - Perchlorate in Groundwater and Review of Phase 2 Treatability Study)
Pilot Scale In-Situ Bioremediation Of Perchlorate-Contaminated Soils At The Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant
Valentine A. Nzengung, K. C. Das, and James R. Kastner
The University of Georgia
This report describes treatability studies conducted to identify suitable carbon sources for treating perchlorate-contaminated soils at the Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant. A series of bench scale experiments were also conducted to measure the kinetics of perchlorate removal in the soil. Based on the results of these studies, three carbon sources were selected for pilot testing and a field demonstration was conducted at the site. The maximum concentration of perchlorate in the selected treatment plots was 400 mg/kg and after 10 months of treatment, complete reduction of perchlorate was observed in the surface soils and varied reduction was observed in deeper levels. Treatment effectiveness was observed to vary with the type of organic amendment, wetness of the soil, and depth.
Prokaryotic cDNA Subtraction: A Method to Rapidly Identify Functional Gene Biomarkers
Kirisits, M.J., K.A. Kinney, and S.K. De Long.
Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Project ER-1563, 42 pp, 2008
This report discusses the utility of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to further improvements in monitoring and understanding perchlorate reduction in a biological system. Prokaryotic complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) subtraction, a gene discovery technique, is also explored for its potential to expand the limited database of functional gene sequences related to perchlorate reduction and aid in the design of more broadly applicable probes and primers.
Protocol for Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation Using Emulsified Edible Oil
Robert Borden, Solutions-IES.
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program, 100 pp, May 2006
Rapid Full-Scale Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Soil at a Large Brownfields Site
P.J. Evans, I. Lo, A.E. Moore, W.J. Weaver, W.F. Grove, and H. Amini.
Remediation Journal, Vol 18 No 2, p 9-25, 2008
The general approach to perchlorate remediation of shallow soil at the former Bermite site north of Los Angeles, CA, involves excavation of affected soils followed by ex situ bioremediation. Glycerin was chosen for use as an electron donor because of its stability, safety, low cost, and regulatory acceptance. Initially, full-scale bioremediation operation with glycerin showed inconsistent results. The addition of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) resulted in consistent and complete perchlorate removal, generally within two weeks of incubation, with a median destruction rate of about 200 g/kg/day. Soil processing rates gradually were increased over the year, and by the summer, approximately 2,000 to 2,500 tons of soil were being processed per day, with a total of approximately 160,000 tons processed by the end of July. The total unit treatment cost for the process is roughly $35/ton.
A Review of Chlorate- and Perchlorate-Respiring Microorganisms
Bruce E. Logan
Bioremediation Journal 2(2) pp 69-79, 1998
This article discusses the characteristics of mixed cultures and isolates of microorganisms and their potential for treating wastewater and drinking water. [This article is posted here with the permission of CRC Press LLC.]
Review of Phase 2 Treatability Study - Aerojet Facility
Robert Clark, et al., 2001
This report describes the findings of an independent expert panel review of the Phase 2 pilot study conducted at the Aerojet facility. The objectives of the panel were to provide independent advice on 1) the adequacy of the treatability studies, 2) the adequacy of the protocols, data gathering, monitoring, process operations, and the application of appropriate scientific principles, 3) reliability and scale-up issues associated with the processes, 4) issues that may affect acceptance of the process from a public health standpoint, and 5) factors that could affect the performance and efficiency of the treatment train. The panel concluded that the Phase 2 Treatability Study demonstrated that the selected treatment train is a viable option for producing potable water from perchlorate-contaminated groundwater. (Also see: Phase 1 Treatability Study Report - Perchlorate in Groundwater and Phase 2 Treatability Study Report - Aerojet GET E/F Treatment Facility)
This document was prepared by Jennifer Raye Hoponick, a National Network of Environmental Management studies grantee, under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report is intended to provide information regarding the in situ remediation of perchlorate-contaminated groundwater. This report focuses on, but is not limited to, using in situ bioremediation as a low-cost treatment technology shown to be effective in treating perchlorate under multiple configurations and different site types. The case studies are designed to serve as examples of successful in situ bioremediation projects that were designed differently and located at separate sites.
A Systematic Approach to In Situ Bioremediation in Groundwater
Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council, 2002
This ITRC Technical Guideline describes a systematic approach for evaluating the feasibility and effectiveness of in situ bioremediation in ground water. Decision trees for reviewing, planning, evaluating, and approving in situ bioremediation techniques are included and site parameters and appropriate ranges of criteria necessary for characterization, testing, design, and monitoring of in situ bioremediation technologies are defined. A section of this document is devoted to perchlorate and the remediation of perchlorate contaminated ground water.
Fundamental Studies of the Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters Via Reduction by Zero-Valent Metals
Jory A. Yarmoff and Christopher Amrhein
U.S. Department of Energy
Report No: DOE/ER/14707, 12 pp, 2002
Contact: Jory A. Yarmoff, firstname.lastname@example.org
This report describes a study conducted to investigate the potential for remediating contaminated groundwater by reacting it with zero-valent iron (ZVI). Bulk chemical studies and model surface science studies were conducted for reactions of oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) with ZVI. The results showed that a palladium coating on the iron tripled the rate of trace element reduction however there was no reduction of perchlorate by either iron or palladium-coated iron.
Ion Exchange and Other Resin Technologies
AMEC Geomatrix/ARA Groundwater Remediation Trip Report
S.A. Simmons, K.M. Hodgson, and M.E. Byrnes.
SGW-38552, 15 pp, 2008
To examine alternatives for capturing carbon tetrachloride, nitrates, and other contaminants from Hanford groundwater, visits were made in July 2008 to 2 California sites to investigate the treatment systems. The City of Rialto's Well #3 currently has a 2,000 gpm single-use resin ion exchange system to treat perchlorate. An under-construction ESTCP demonstration system will use the WBA IX resin selective for nitrate and perchlorate. The Baldwin Park Operable Unit (a Superfund site) system removes carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, TCE, PCE, 1,4,-dioxane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, NDMA, perchlorate, and nitrate from the groundwater. Treatment unit processes include air stripping, with vapor-phase GAC treatment of VOCs, liquid-phase of GAC of l,2,3-TCP, Calgon ISEP ion exchange for nitrate and perchlorate, weak-base one-pass ion exchange (a new perchlorate technology), and UV oxidation for NDMA and 1,4-dioxane.
Integrated Ion Exchange Regeneration Process for Drinking Water
Lutes, C., T. Henderson, C. Singer, D. Garcia, N. Pollack, C. Chiang, and B. Gu.
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), Project ER-0545, 383 pp, 2010
An ion exchange (IX) process for perchlorate treatment in drinking water, regeneration of spent IX resin for re-use, and destruction of perchlorate in the spent regeneration fluid to create an integrated IX regeneration process was demonstrated was at an operating municipal water treatment plant, Fontana Water Company, in Fontana, CA. IX is the only perchlorate treatment technology fully approved by the California Department of Public Health for drinking water treatment applications. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report
Nitrate and Perchlorate Removal from Groundwater by Ion Exchange
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
University of California, 1999
Contact: Rolf Halden, email@example.com
This report documents a study that was conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 to evaluate the ability of an ion exchange unit to remove nitrate and perchlorate from groundwater. Three different treatment options were evaluated ï¿½ treatment of nitrate only, treatment of nitrate and perchlorate, and treatment of perchlorate only. Appendices to the report present the experimental data and a detailed cost analysis.
Perchlorate Remediation Using New Nanoscale Polymer Technology
SERDP Project ER-1599, 87 pp, Nov 2009
Priostar® Dendrigraft Polymer, a scalable dendritic polymer-based filtration material, has a high capacity for the selective extraction of perchlorate ions from groundwater. The resin has binding sites not only on the surface but throughout the volume of the resin particle, resulting in large capacity. The technology involves the synthesis of branched dendrigrafts with perchlorate binding sites, crosslinked with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to strengthen the resin and reduce biofouling. This technology is expected to be implemented as a fixed-bed system with NaCl regeneration.
Perchlorate Removal, Destruction, and Field Monitoring Demonstration
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program, ESTCP CU-0312, 150 pp, 2006
Selective Anion Exchange Resins for the Removal of Perchlorate ClO4- from Groundwater
Environmental Sciences Division
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1999
Contact: Baohua Gu, firstname.lastname@example.org
This report describes laboratory and field flow-through experiments that were conducted to compare the performance of commercially available synthetic anion exchange resins with a new bifunctional resin developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee. The laboratory experiments showed that the bifunctional resins were highly selective toward perchlorate.
Treatability of Perchlorate in Groundwater Using Ion Exchange Technology: Phase II
L. Aldridge, D. Clifford, D. Roberts, T. Gillogly, G. Lehman, and X. Lin.
IWA Pub., London. AwwaRF Report 91016F, ISBN: 1843399229, 136 pp, June 2005 [Originally released by the Awwa Research Foundation to its subscribers in 2004]
Provides an evaluation of three different brine treatment and reuse processes: a biological brine treatment system operated as a sequencing batch reactor, a physical/chemical brine treatment system employing a high-pressure and high-temperature catalytic process, and a simple bipolar electrochemical cell.
Treatment of Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater Using Highly-Selective, Regenerable Anion-Exchange Resins at Edwards Air Force Base
B. Gu; G. M. Brown; Y.-K. Ku, Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN.
ORNL/TM-2002/53, 34 pp, 2003.
Contact: Baohua Gu, email@example.com
Treatment of Perchlorate Using Single-Use Ion-Exchange Resins
L. Aldridge, et al.
IWA Pub., London. AwwaRF Report 91038F, ISBN: 1843399318, 64 pp, Nov 2005 [Originally published by AwwaRF for its subscribers in 2004]
This report updates an existing report—Treatability of Perchlorate in Groundwater Using Ion-Exchange Technology: Phase II—with a discussion of the use of non-regenerable ion-exchange resins for perchlorate removal, anticipated impacts on water quality, and the associated costs for this perchlorate treatment approach.
Biological Reduction of Perchlorate in Ion Exchange Regenerant Solutions Containing High Salinity and Ammonium Levels
Tina M. Gingras and Jacimaria R. Batista
J. Environ. Monit. 4 (1) pp 96-101, 2002
This article from the Journal of Environmental Monitoring discuses the capability of a microbial culture to degrade perchlorate in ion exchange regenerant solutions with high salinity and ammonium levels. The preliminary results from their research show that various concentrations of these constituents significantly reduced the rate of perchlorate biodegradation. [The link to this article has been provided with the permission of the Royal Society of Chemistry.
Demonstration of a Fluidized Bed Bioreactor for the Treatment of Perchlorate at Low Concentrations in Groundwater
T.S. Webster and P. Togna.
ESTCP Project ER-0543, 255 pp, 2009
A demonstration study conducted in California at the City of Rialto Wellhead #2 to treat perchlorate-contaminated groundwater successfully demonstrated complete treatment of nitrate and perchlorate to drinking water standards (6 ug/L for perchlorate) using a fluidized bed biological reactor (FBR) treatment train. Additional downstream equipment comprised a post-aeration tank for oxygen concentration increase of the water, a multimedia filter for solids removal, a liquid granular activated carbon system for color and odor removal, a back-flush/effluent tank system for storing backwash water for the multimedia filter system and effluent water, and a UV reactor for microbial disinfection.
Evaluation of Biological Treatment for Perchlorate-Impaired Water Supplies
S.G. Lehman, S. Adham, A. Burbano, and S. Surendran.
U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Desalination and Water Purification, Research and Development Program Report No. 116, 78 pp, 2008
Of the available technologies for treatment of perchlorate, ion exchange with brine treatment has the advantage of destroying perchlorate and nitrate in the spent brine without producing a secondary waste stream. A mobile water treatment trailer containing an ion exchange pilot plant was set up at Azusa, California. The ion exchange process produced perchlorate- and nitrate-free water, and the Purolite A-850 polyacrylic resin used in the test was regenerated using biologically treated brine housed in a sequencing batch reactor. The process reduced perchlorate and nitrate concentrations consistently in the spent brine (6% NaCl) to below treatment goals (perchlorate < 100 µg/L and NO(3-) < 0.5 mg/L) for 20 (re)cycles.
Innovative Alternatives to Minimize Arsenic, Perchlorate, and Nitrate Residuals
J. Min, L. Boulos, J. Brown, D. Cornwell, Y. Le Gouellec, E. Coppola, J. Baxley, J. Rine, J. Hering, and N. Vural.
IWA Pub., London. AwwaRF Report 91054F, ISBN: 1843399342, 200 pp, 2006
This report presents treatment and residuals minimization technologies for arsenic (backwash minimization, backwash stabilization, and brine solidification), perchlorate and nitrate (biological brine treatment, thermal brine treatment, and biological treatment of perchlorate- and nitrate-laden wastewater).
Technology Status Report, Perchlorate Treatment Technologies, First Edition (and Appendix)
Diane S. Roote
Ground-Water Remediation Technologies Analysis Center, 2001.
This report released by the Ground-Water Remediation Technologies Analysis Center in May 2001 provides an update of the activities that are going on in the research and demonstration of perchlorate treatment methods. The appendix to this report contains project summaries and lists of reports and publications for the sixty-five perchlorate treatment technology projects in its case study database.
Permeable Reactive Barriers
Development of Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRB) Using Edible Oils
SERDP Project ER-1205, 159 pp, 2008
A detailed field pilot test was conducted to evaluate the use of an emulsified oil biobarrier to enhance the in situ anaerobic biodegradation of perchlorate and chlorinated solvents in groundwater. The biobarrier was installed by injecting 380 L of commercially available soybean oil-in-water emulsion through 10 direct-push injection wells over a 2-day period. Field monitoring results over a 2.5 year period following emulsion injection indicates the oil injection generated strongly reducing conditions in the oil-treated zone with depletion of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate, and increases in dissolved iron, manganese, and methane. Perchlorate at 3,100 to 20,000 µg/L was degraded to below detection (<4 µg/L) in the injection and nearby monitor wells within 5 days of injection. Two years after the single emulsion injection, perchlorate was less than 6 µg/L in every downgradient well compared to an average upgradient concentration of 13,100 µg/L. Emulsion injection stimulated reductive dechlorination of 1,1,1-TCA, PCE, and TCE during groundwater migration through the biobarrier but did not reduce them to target treatment levels.
Use of a Unique Biobarrier to Remediate Nitrate and Perchlorate in Groundwater
Betty A. Strietelmeier, 2001
Contact: Betty A. Strietelmeier, firstname.lastname@example.org
This extended abstract and poster presentation describe work that has been conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory using a biobarrier to destroy nitrate in contaminated ground water and to investigate the potential for perchlorate reduction using the same technique. During the study, evidence was produced indicating that a pecan shell biobarrier is able to destroy perchlorate. Additional work is underway to eliminate analytical problems that were encountered and to provide valid results.
Laboratory Characterization of Phyto-transformation Products of Perchloroethylene (PCE), Trichloroethylene (TCE) and Perchlorate
Valentine A. Nzengung
The University of Georgia Athens
This report describes part of a laboratory phytoremediation project conducted at the University of Georgia to investigate the use of woody plants and herbs to remediate perchlorate-contaminated groundwater. Seven plant species and one mixed species microbial mat were screened. Phytoremediation mechanisms identified in the study include phytoextraction, rhizostimulation, and phytodegradation.
Phytoremediation and Bioremediation of Perchlorate at the Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant
Jerald L. Schnoor, et al.
University of Iowa, 2002
This report describes efforts carried out by the University of Iowa to investigate the uptake and fate of perchlorate in poplar trees and to assess the transformation of perchlorate by microorganisms. This work was conducted with regard to specific objectives at the Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant. Using radio labeled perchlorate and working under sterile conditions, the researchers produced evidence that plants are capable of reducing and detoxifying perchlorate. Additionally, seven new perchlorate-degrading bacteria were isolated from soil microcosm enrichments, including two hydrogen-utilizing, autotrophic perchlorate degraders.
Phytoremediation of Perchlorate Contaminated Soils and Water
Air Force Research Laboratory
Contact: Valentine A. Nzengung, email@example.com
This report describes studies conducted at the University of Georgia with funding provided by the Wright Patterson AFB. The data collected by these studies indicates that selected woody, edible, and aquatic plants and microbial mats can be used to remediate environments contaminated with perchlorate. Results from experiments conducted with radio-labeled perchlorate indicate that the rapid removal of perchlorate ions from the rhizosphere of plants under anaerobic conditions is due to rhizodegradation.
Potential Species for Phytoremediation of Perchlorate
National Exposure Research Laboratory
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999
Contact: Steven McCutcheon, firstname.lastname@example.org
This report describes three laboratory scale experiments intended to evaluate the ability of selected plants to remove perchlorate from an aqueous solution, compare the performance of one plant species at various ages, evaluate the role of nutrients on perchlorate removal, determine the fate of perchlorate removed from solution, observe plant responses to perchlorate, and predict field-scale performance of the plant species evaluated. Thirteen vascular plant species were selected for the experiments - four were trees, one was an herbaceous upland specie, four were herbaceous wetland species, and four were herbaceous aquatic species. Results showed perchlorate depletion from the test solutions in the presence of all but two of the species tested.
This report describes a project that was carried out by Applied Research Associates, Inc. to demonstrate the decomposition of perchlorate in ion exchange regenerant solutions by means of hydrothermal and thermal processes. Results from the tests indicated that spent brine solutions can be regenerated for reuse in the ion exchange process.
Technology Innovation News Survey Archives
The Technology Innovation News Survey archive contains resources gathered from published material and gray literature relevant to the research, development, testing, and application of innovative technologies for the remediation of hazardous waste sites. The collected abstracts date from 1998 to the present, and the archive is updated twice each month.
DoD Perchlorate Remediation Research Projects
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program.
This website maintained by the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Penn State University contains pdf copies of papers about perchlorate remediation work.