U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Technology Innovation News Survey

Entries for November 1-15, 2014

Market/Commercialization Information
GROUNDWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM DEMOLITION
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USACE District, Sacramento, CA.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4768, Solicitation W91238-15-S-0010, 2014

This sources sought announcement will to be used for market research to determine the availability of firms capable of performing environmental services and support at Tooele Army Depot, North (TEAD-N). The large (~10,000 gpm) groundwater extraction, treatment, and injection system operated by TEAD-N during 1994-2004 has been determined to be ineffective and is no longer needed per TEAD-N's RCRA Post-Closure Permit, modified and approved July 28, 2014. The most challenging aspect of this decommissioning project is the scale of the system, with the large capacity of the treatment system equipment, the miles of piping, and the depth of the wells (250-350 ft bgs) all contributing to the difficulty and cost of the work. Responses will be used to determine the appropriate acquisition method for a potential future acquisition, and firms of all sizes are encouraged to respond (hard copy only) by 3:30 PM PT on or before December 29, 2014. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/DACA05/W91238-15-S-0010/listing.html


FY 2015 DOE OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT (DOE-EM) MINORITY SERVING INSTITUTIONS PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM
Department of Energy, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Aiken, SC.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4765, Solicitation 0000208693, 2014

DOE's Savannah River National Laboratory solicits expressions of interest from minority-serving institutions (MSIs) seeking financial assistance for applied research and related activities that support defined DOE-EM research and development needs in site restoration and in deactivation and decommissioning. MSIs are defined by the U.S. Department of Education as institutions of higher education enrolling populations with significant percentages of minority students, or that serve certain populations of minority students under various programs created by Congress. Eligible MSIs interested in submitting a proposal for financial assistance for applied research and related activities on the identified Sub-Program Priority Areas and Research Needs list must respond via email with a letter of interest by January 9, 2015. Program descriptions are given in the notice at FBO.gov to provide more in-depth information on the topics of interest to DOE. https://www.fbo.gov/notices/9bd124b03fbbf6d91f3407f11c871f2e


AGNOSTIC COMPACT DEMILITARIZATION OF CHEMICAL AGENTS (ACDC)
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Arlington, VA.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4766, Solicitation DARPA-BAA-15-12, 2014

Through this Broad Agency Announcement, DARPA is soliciting innovative research proposals to develop prototype systems for agnostic conversion of chemical warfare agents to inert material. Current destruction approaches, such as hydrolysis, incineration, and supercritical water oxidation are not truly agnostic due to limitations with the chemistry and/or materials of construction. Due to size, they require transport of the agent from the storage site to the neutralization site. In the ACDC program, DARPA will develop new technologies to address these shortcomings with the aim of realizing a transportable, agnostic prototype system that converts 99.9999% of any halogenated or non-halogenated organic compound into constitutive oxides (e.g., SOx, POx, NOx) and stable alkaline or alkaline earth metal salts (or another demonstrated safe form) with minimal consumables and no hazardous waste output. DARPA will respond within 30 calendar days to abstracts that synopsize the proposed project to state whether DARPA is interested in the idea. Abstracts are due by 4:00 PM ET, January 13, 2015. Full proposals will be due by 4:00 PM ET, March 2, 2015. Multiple awards are anticipated. For FAQs regarding this opportunity, see the DSO Solicitation Website at http://www.darpa.mil/Opportunities/Solicitations/DSO_Solicitations.aspx.
https://www.fbo.gov/spg/ODA/DARPA/CMO/DARPA-BAA-15-12/listing.html


FY15 ENVIRONMENTAL WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT AND JOB TRAINING GRANTS: REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-OSWER-OBLR-15-01, 2014

EPA is announcing the availability of funding to nonprofit organizations and eligible entities to deliver environmental workforce development and job training programs focused on hazardous and solid waste management, assessment, and cleanup-associated activities; chemical safety; emergency response; integrated pest management; and waste and stormwater management. These grants are provided to organizations to develop environmental programs that recruit, train, and place unemployed and under-employed personnel with the skills needed to secure full-time, sustainable employment in the environmental field and in the assessment and cleanup work taking place in their communities. Under this competition, applicants will be required to submit their proposals through Grants.gov only by February 3, 2015. The RFP and FAQs are posted at http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/job.htm and http://www.grants.gov.



Cleanup News
FIELD APPLICATION OF MODIFIED IN SITU SOIL FLUSHING IN COMBINATION WITH AIR SPARGING AT A MILITARY SITE POLLUTED BY DIESEL AND GASOLINE IN KOREA
Lee, H., Y. Lee, J. Kim, and C. Kim. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, Vol 11 No 9, 8806-8824, 2014

A modified soil flushing procedure with surfactants and air sparging was implemented in full-scale operation at a fuel-contaminated military site. The objective was to improve removal efficiency at depths >7 m. Slurping and soil flushing operations were conducted for 10 months in the first stage, and a modified process of soil flushing serially operated with air sparging was used in the second stage. TPH removal efficiencies were 52.8%, 57.4%, and 61.8% for the soil layers at 6-7, 7-8, and 8-9 m, respectively. Total TPH and BTEX mass removed during the full-scale operation was 5,109 and 752 kg, respectively. Crucial factors identified from a serial pilot study and during unit process operation provide meaningful information for operations of more than 12 months that use surfactant-aided soil flushing at sites affected by gasoline and diesel. The findings also provide information regarding the scale-up process for modifying technology from a column test to a pilot study and then to full-scale application. This paper is Open Access at http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/11/9/8806/htm.

SMALLEY-PIPER NPL SITE
Annual Legislative Report for July 1, 2012 - June 30, 2013. Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Remediation, p 7, 2013

Industrial activities conducted at the 9-acre Smalley-Piper site included the manufacture of magnesium battery casings utilizing caustic soda, acetic acid, and chromium acid, which contaminated soil, surface water pathways, and groundwater with Cr(VI). All on-site operations ceased in 2007. An amended Superfund State Contract (SSC) addresses the previously performed soil remedy of excavation and ex situ stabilization/solidification as specified in the 2008 ROD and adds a soil flushing component. The original SSC addressing soil remedial action was performed at a cost of $1,982,915. The amended SSC has a total current estimated cost of $7,781,970, with a state 10% match of $778,197. The intent of the in situ flushing remedy is to reduce remaining Cr(VI) subsurface soil concentrations that might leach into groundwater. Water will be extracted by on-site recovery wells; treated ex situ in chemical reduction, precipitation, and ion-exchange treatment modules; and then re-injected into the former source area via an infiltration gallery. The system is expected to operate for one year. http://www.tn.gov/environment//docs/dor/annual_leg_report_fy_2012_2013.pdf
NOTE: Construction of the treatment plant building is scheduled for December 2014, followed by installation of the treatment equipment in January 2015 and system startup in March 2015.


Demonstrations / Feasibility Studies
SHORT-TERM PERFORMANCE OF AN ACTIVATED CARBON AMENDMENT TO REDUCE PCB BIOAVAILABILITY AT AN ACTIVE NAVAL SHIPYARD: INTERIM REPORT
Chadwick, B., V. Kirtay, G. Rosen, R.K. Johnston, J. Conder, M. Grover, R. Webb, J. Collins, J. Germano, and B. Helland. ESTCP Project ER-201131, 42 pp, 2014

The goal of this demonstration is to conduct a full-scale (minimum one-half acre) amendment application at an active deep-water harbor location adjacent to Pier 7 at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility. This white paper summarizes the short-term performance observed to date. This project is demonstrating an activated carbon (AC) amendment over a relatively large-scale footprint (~20,000 ft2) in an active DoD harbor area using a conventional deep-water capping technology (AquaBlock). The AC is combined with a clay and aggregate substrate to form a composite particle that falls readily through the water. The initial layer is expected to be mixed vertically into the sediment by natural bioturbation and physical mixing by propeller wash. During this mixing period, the AC and clay mineral components separate from the aggregate, distribute into the sediment, and bind the target contaminants. Amending contaminated sediments with a chemical sorbent is designed to enhance ecosystem recovery by sequestering the contaminants, thereby reducing uptake by sediment-dwelling organisms and lessening the flux into the overlying water column. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/30353/292663/file/ER-201131-IR.pdf


DEMONSTRATION OF THE GORE MODULE FOR PASSIVE GROUND WATER SAMPLING: ESTCP COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT
ESTCP Project ER-200921, 88 pp, 2014

The objectives of this project were to determine if the GORE® Module passive groundwater samplers can provide (1) technically defensible analytical data for VOCs and SVOCs and (2) substantial cost savings when compared with conventional low-flow purging and sampling methodology. The Gore technology was compared with conventional low-flow purging and sampling at two test sites: the Southern Bush River section of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (for PCE, cDCE, TCE, 1,1,2,2-TetCA, and chloroform), and the former Pease Air Force Base in Portsmouth, New Hampshire (for BTEX, 1,2,4-TMB, 1,3,5-TMB, naphthalene, isopropylbenzene, and 2-methylnaphathalene). NOTE: The sampler is now known as the AGI Universal Sampler following its acquisition by another company. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/31523/300852/file/ER-200921-CP.pdf



Research
REVIEW OF QUANTITATIVE SURVEYS OF THE LENGTH AND STABILITY OF MTBE, TBA, AND BENZENE PLUMES IN GROUNDWATER AT UST SITES
Connor, J.A., R. Kamath, K.L. Walker, and T.E. McHugh.
Groundwater, [Epub prior to print] 2014

Data from 13 published scientific surveys show the observed lengths of benzene and MTBE plumes to be relatively consistent among various regions and hydrogeologic settings, with median lengths at a delineation limit of 10 µg/L falling into relatively narrow ranges from 101 to 185 ft for benzene and 110 to 178?ft for MTBE. The observed statistical distributions of MTBE and benzene plumes show the two plume types to be of comparable lengths, with 90th percentile MTBE plume lengths moderately exceeding benzene plume lengths by 16% at a 10-µg/L delineation limit (400?ft versus 345 ft) and 25% at a 5-µg/L delineation limit (530?ft versus 425?ft). Stability analyses for benzene and MTBE plumes found 94 and 93% of these plumes, respectively, to be in a nonexpanding condition, and over 91% of individual monitoring wells to exhibit nonincreasing concentration trends. Three published studies addressing TBA found TBA plumes to be of comparable length to MTBE and benzene plumes, with 86% of wells in one study showing nonincreasing concentration trends. This paper is Open Access at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gwat.12233/full.


USING PASSIVE SAMPLERS TO CALCULATE THE DIFFUSIVE FLUX OF DDTS AND PCBS FROM SEDIMENTS TO WATER COLUMN AT THE PALOS VERDES SHELF SUPERFUND SITE
Fernandez, L. and R. Burgess.
Battelle International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, 19-22 May 2014, Monterey, California. Battelle Press, OH. Abstract only, 2014

Strips of polymeric passive samplers (polyethylene (PE) and polyoxymethylene) were deployed (1) across the sediment-water interface at four stations within the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund site, including one station within a pilot sand cap, and (2) at a station far from the Superfund site, in Santa Monica Bay. The deployment platforms were designed to allow sampling of the sediment interstitial waters at 2-cm increments to a depth of up to 20 cm, and to sample the bottom water in the 20 cm above the sediment-water interface. Dissolved concentrations deduced using both types of samplers agreed within an order of magnitude for the 19 contaminants measured (i.e., five DDT breakdown products and 14 PCBs). Within the Superfund site, diffusive fluxes measured using PE strips at stations outside a pilot remedial sand cap area were similar to those measured at a station inside the capped area: 240 to 260 ng/cm2/yr for p,p'-DDE. Outside the Superfund site, flux was not detectable at the station in Santa Monica Bay because concentrations in the water column and sediment porewater were too similar. The largest diffusive fluxes were calculated at a station where the highest sediment concentrations have been measured in the past at 1,100 ng/cm2/yr for p,p'-DDE. Longer abstract: http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_file_download.cfm?p_download_id=518958


FIELD APPLICATION OF PASSIVE SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR SENSING HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS
Bao, L.-J. and E.Y. Zeng.
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Vol 1, e19-e24, 2014

This review categorizes field applications of in situ passive sampling methods as (1) measurement of atmospheric and dissolved hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs); (2) measurement of site-specific phase partition coefficients; (3) bioavailability assessment; and (4) measurement of inter-compartmental flux. Compared to the comprehensive global monitoring of atmospheric HOCs, in situ measurement of dissolved HOCs in open water and sediment porewater with passive samplers has remained limited. Polymer-coated fibers with small sampling volumes are preferable for determining site-specific phase partition coefficients, which are important parameters in fugacity-based modeling of the geochemical fate of HOCs. Further validation and field assessment of bioavailability with ex situ or in situ passive samplers is needed. Measurement of fluxes of HOCs across the soil-air and air-water interfaces so far has been unsuccessful. A passive sampling device was developed and used successfully to obtain diffusive fluxes of DDT and its metabolites across the sediment-water interface. This paper is Open Access at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214158813000044.


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ON ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION OF MULTIMETAL-CONTAMINATED SITE: A CASE STUDY
Kim, D.H., J.C. Yoo, B.R. Hwang, J.S. Yang, and K. Baek.
Environmental Science & Pollution Research, Vol 21 No 10, 6751-6758, 2014

Researchers conducted an environmental assessment of an electrokinetic (EK) system for remediation of a specific multimetal-contaminated site using a green and sustainable remediation tool. The entire EK process was classified into major phases of investigation, construction, remedial action operation, and long-term monitoring. In the construction phase, the relative contribution of the greenhouse gas emissions, total energy used, and PM10 emissions were 77.3, 67.6, and 70.4%, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases because of high material consumption and equipment use during construction. In the operation phase, the relative contributions of water consumption and NOx and SOx emissions were 94.7, 85.2, and 91.0 %, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases owing to the consumption of water and electricity required for system operation. The environmental footprints were negligible in the investigation and long-term monitoring phases.


ROLES OF BENTHIC ALGAE IN THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION, AND ASSESSMENT OF STREAM ECOSYSTEMS AFFECTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE
Smucker, N.J., S. Drerup, and M. Vis.
Journal of Phycology, Vol 50 No 3, 425-436, 2014

The authors summarize the state of knowledge regarding how acid mine drainage (AMD)-associated stressors affect patterns of algal diversity, their use as ecological indicators, and their functional roles in stream ecosystems. Measuring the structure and function of algal communities can provide detailed information about the current conditions of streams affected by AMD; inform restoration priorities, decisions, and expectations; and quantify management progress.


HIGH-RESOLUTION MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY MEASUREMENTS FOR INVESTIGATING MAGNETIC MINERAL FORMATION DURING MICROBIAL MEDIATED IRON REDUCTION
Atekwana, E.A., F.M. Mewafy, G.A. Aal, D.D. Werkema Jr., A. Revil, and L.D. Slater.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol 119 No 1, 80-94, 2014

Magnetic susceptibility can play an important role in identifying zones where microbially mediated iron reduction is occurring. Investigation of the magnetic susceptibility variations in a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer where methanogenesis and iron reduction are the main biogeochemical processes showed that magnetic susceptibility values for boreholes within the free-phase plume were higher than values for boreholes within the dissolved-phase plume and background. Magnetic susceptibility values were highest within the zone of water table fluctuation and coincident with high concentrations of dissolved Fe(II) and organic C content, suggesting that the zone of water table fluctuation is most biologically active. High magnetic susceptibility values within the vadose zone above the free-phase plume were coincident with a zone of methane depletion, suggesting aerobic or anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to iron reduction. See additional background on this work in F.M. Mewafy's Ph.D. dissertation: https://shareok.org/bitstream/handle/11244/10975/Mewafy_okstate_0664D_12796.pdf


ECOLOGICAL REMEDIATION AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF AN URBAN INDUSTRIAL SITE: CASE OF AN HISTORICAL POLLUTION BY INORGANIC POTENTIALLY TOXIC ELEMENTS (PB, CD, CU, ZN, SB AND AS)
Foucault, Yann, Ph.D. thesis, University of Toulouse, 206 pp, 2013

This thesis focused on the establishment of multidisciplinary tools for the sustainable management and rehabilitation of a site historically used for lead battery recycling and contaminated mainly with Pb. Plant (borage, phacelia, and mustard) tests in the polluted soils included a study of the mechanisms involved in the fate of pollutants in the rhizosphere and plant-root microorganisms. Results indicate (1) the size separation for soil fractions allows a significant reduction in volumes of contaminated material and therefore costs for landfilling; (2) calculation of eco-scores for the different polluted soil samples based on the results of ecotoxicity tests can discriminate more accurately than physicochemical parameters; and (3) unlike phacelia, borage and mustard improve soil respiration and ecotoxicity and reduce the amount of bioaccessible and total Pb in soil by phytostabilization and storage in roots (Pb, Sb), or phytoextraction and storage in aerial parts, respectively. Molecular screening and meta-analysis of microbial genomics highlighted differences in bacterial communities studied by species and growing conditions. http://ethesis.inp-toulouse.fr/archive/00002412/


METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING THIOARSENIC FORMATION POTENTIAL IN SULFIDIC LANDFILL ENVIRONMENTS
Zhang, J., H. Kim, and T. Townsend.
Chemosphere, Vol 107, 311-318, 2014

A methodology using ion chromatography (IC) with a conductivity detector was developed for the assessment of thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments. Observation of AsSx(-) (x=5-8) in the trithioarsenate and tetrathioarsenate IC fractions suggested the presence of new arsenic polysulfide complexes. All thioarsenate anions, particularly trithioarsenate and tetrathioarsenate, were unstable upon air exposure. The method developed for thioarsenate analysis was validated and used successfully to analyze several landfill leachate samples. Thioarsenate anions were detected in the leachate of all of the construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills tested, which accounted for ~8.5% of the total aqueous As in the leachate. The presence of thioarsenates in C&D debris landfill leachate poses new concerns when evaluating the impact of arsenic mobilization in such environments.


COUPLING ELECTROKINETICS AND IRON NANOPARTICLES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS
Gomes, Helena Isabel Caseiro Rego, Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Nova de Lisboa, 280 pp, 2014

Direct current-assisted transport of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) was studied in model soils: kaolin (low permeability) and mixtures of kaolin and glass beads (variable permeability). Experimental phases tested the combined use of electrokinetics with different electrolytes of varying ionic strengths and initial pH and high NZVI concentrations (typical of field applications) in soil spiked with inorganic and organic contaminants (Cr and the herbicide molinate) and soils historically contaminated with PCBs. The PCB study compared the traditional 3-compartment electrokinetic setup and a new 2-compartment electrodialytic setup developed at the Technical University of Denmark, as well as the effectiveness of two surfactants (saponin and Tween 80) in different soils. The 2-compartment electokinetic setup showed many advantages over the 3-compartment setup. A generalized physicochemical and numerical model was developed to describe NZVI transport through different porous media under electric fields. Direct current enhanced NZVI transport through the different porous media, though aggregation and settling of the iron nanoparticles remained a problem. In some cases, higher removal rates were obtained with NZVI alone or electrokinetics alone. http://run.unl.pt/handle/10362/13321


CO2 RADIOCARBON ANALYSIS TO QUANTIFY ORGANIC CONTAMINANT DEGRADATION, MNA, AND ENGINEERED REMEDIATION APPROACHES
Boyd, T.J., M. Montgomery, R.H. Cuenca, and Y. Hagimoto.
SERDP Project ER-2338, NRL/MR/6110-14-9539, 59 pp, 2014

Following preliminary samples taken in March 2013, a series of coupled measurements was made at the Naval Air Station North Island Installation Restoration Site 5, Unit 2 during July and August 2013. Coupled measurements included CO2 respiration rate, proportion of the CO2 attributable to chlorinated hydrocarbon (CH) mineralization, and a zone of influence (ZOI) model. This coupling led to calculating CH degradation per unit time per unit area. These coupled measurements represent the first analysis where carbon is followed from contaminant to final degradation product (CO2) directly, without need for inference or "lines of evidence." Within the ZOI, residence time for CH averaged just over 4 years, assuming no additional input. At the lowest measured turnover rates, residence time was calculated at 2,400 years. The highest measured rate was 11 months. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/30457/293304/file/ER-2338-FR.pdf


DISSOLUTION OF NTO, DNAN, AND INSENSITIVE MUNITIONS FORMULATIONS AND THEIR FATES IN SOILS
Dontsova, K., S. Taylor, R. Pesce-Rodriguez, M. Brusseau, J. Arthur, N. Mark, M. Walsh, J. Lever, and J. Simunek. SERDP Project ER-2220, ERDC/CRREL TR-14-23, 92 pp, 2014

New explosive compounds that are less sensitive to shock and high temperatures are being tested as replacements for TNT and RDX. Two of these explosives, DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole) and NTO (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one)—the main ingredients in a suite of insensitive munitions (IM) explosives that are being, or soon will be, fielded—are less sensitive to shock and high temperatures, but both are more soluble than either TNT or RDX. Investigators measured how quickly DNAN and NTO dissolve in IM formulations and how solutions of these IM explosives interact with different soil types. This work will help determine the dissolved IM masses, their subsequent transport and fate, and their likelihood of reaching groundwater. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/30459/293320/file/ER-2220%20Interim%20Report.pdf


OVERLOOK OF CARBONACEOUS ADSORBENTS AND PROCESSING METHODS FOR ELEMENTAL MERCURY REMOVAL
Bae, K.-M. Bae, B.-J. Kim, and S.-J. Park.
Carbon Letters, Vol 15 No 4, 238-246, 2014

This review of adsorbents and processing methods for elemental Hg control identifies factors that potentially affect the efficiency of a sorbent to remove mercury from flue gas. These factors include Hg speciation in flue gas; flue gas composition; process conditions; sorbent characteristics; and the presence of other active additives. Engineering development is needed to improve sorbent dispersion and optimize gas-solid contact time. [NOTE: Paper may be very slow to load.] http://carbonlett.org/Upload/files/CARBONLETT/[238-246]-14-2525.pdf


HEAVY METAL REMOVAL IN GROUNDWATER ORIGINATING FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING DEAD BACILLUS DRENTENSIS SP. IMMOBILIZED IN POLYSULFONE POLYMER
Kim, I., M. Lee, and S. Wang.
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol 146, 568-574, 2014

Batch, column, and pilot-scale feasibility experiments for a biosorption process using a bio-carrier (beads) with dead Bacillus drentensis sp. in polysulfone polymer were performed to remove heavy metals in groundwater affected by mine effluent. The pilot-scale test successfully treated a total of 80 tons of groundwater (pH <4) for 40 working days, maintaining Cu, Cd, Zn, and Fe removal efficiencies above 93%. One kg of bio-carrier was used to remediate at least 1,098 L of groundwater in the field.


IN SITU AEROBIC COMETABOLISM OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS: A REVIEW
Frascari, D., G. Zanaroli, and A.S. Danko.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol 283, 382-399, 2015

In this critical review of seven possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism, bioaugmentation of resting cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving air sparging lead to satisfactory pollutant removal but must be integrated with extraction and treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of chlorinated VOCs in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The studies examined indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation timeframes that vary between 1 and 17 months. Modeling of the process has attained a high reliability and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of full-scale systems. The authors also propose a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes.


POLYOXYMETHYLENE PASSIVE SAMPLERS TO MONITOR CHANGES IN BIOAVAILABILITY AND FLUX OF PCBS AFTER ACTIVATED CARBON AMENDMENT TO SEDIMENT IN THE FIELD
Beckingham, B. and U. Ghosh.
Chemosphere, Vol 91 No 10, 1401-1407, 2013

Field and laboratory exposures of polyoxymethylene passive samplers to sediments and the water column were applied to monitor changes in bioavailability and flux of PCBs following a pilot-scale amendment of activated carbon (AC) in Grasse River. Following amendment, reductions in passive sampler uptake tracked reductions in bioaccumulation in a freshwater invertebrate, which supports a biological basis for utilizing passive samplers for in situ site investigations following a remediation. Freely dissolved concentrations of PCBs declined in sediment pore waters compared to untreated sediments, indicating reduced bioavailability of PCBs after AC amendment. Freely dissolved PCB concentrations in sediment pore water in treated sites were lower than overlying water concentrations, indicating reversal of the sediment from a source to a sink of PCBs from the water column. Result indicate that AC amendment to sediment limits contaminant exposure to both the benthic and pelagic food webs through reductions in bioavailability and flux of PCBs into the water column.


TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM RECOVERY FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF A PCB POINT SOURCE AT A FORMER POLE VAULT LINE RADAR STATION IN NORTHERN LABRADOR
Ficko, S.A., C. Luttmer, B.A. Zeeb, and K. Reimer.
Science of the Total Environment, Vols 461-462, 81-87, 2013

Investigators compared PCB concentrations in vegetation and field mice on an abandoned Air Force station before and after PCB remediation work was conducted. Results showed vegetation concentrations were four times lower and concentrations in deer mice were three times lower than prior to remediation.



General News
STANDARDIZED PROCEDURES FOR USE OF NUCLEIC ACID-BASED TOOLS: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS USING QPCR
Lebron, C., P. Dennis, C. Acheson, N. Barros, D. Major, E. Petrovskis, F. Loeffler, K. Ritalahti, C. Yeager, E. Edwards, J. Hatt, and D. Ogles. SERDP Project ER-1561, 12 pp, 2014

SERDP project ER-1561 focused on identifying and minimizing the causes of variability during quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) enumeration of genes of interest in groundwater, with the goal of developing the knowledge needed to standardize methods for collecting, preserving, transporting, storing, and processing environmental samples for qPCR analysis. This document summarizes the project conclusions and recommends procedures for using qPCR analyses that will provide data of sufficient accuracy and reproducibility to allow site management decisions regarding bioremediation or monitored natural attenuation. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/30455/293284/file/ER-1561%20Guidance%20Document.pdf
Further details are available in the ER-1561 Final Report (Lebron et al. 2014, 220 pages) at https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/30456/293294/file/ER-1561%20Final%20Report.pdf.


AIR SENSOR GUIDEBOOK
Williams, R., V. Kilaru, E. Snyder, A. Kaufman, T. Dye, A. Rutter, A. Russell, and H. Hafner.
EPA 600-R-14-159, 73 pp, 2014

This document provides background information on common air pollutants and gives the cost range and performance capability of commercially available air-quality sensors as documented in a market survey. This guide explains data quality considerations in practical terms, such as the need to calibrate sensors; determine the precision of a device's response and its response bias; and other performance characteristics. Examples of performance characteristics determinations are provided to assist the user in understanding these important concepts. http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P100JDZI.txt


LEAD SCAVENGERS SURVEY REPORT
Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials (ASTSWMO), LUST Task Force, 49 pp, 2014

The lead scavengers ethylene dibromide (EDB) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) were present in leaded gasoline nationwide from the early 1920s to the late 1980s, were removed from leaded fuels in the late 1980s due to the potential risks lead poses, and remain a serious potential groundwater contaminant and risk to human health and the environment. In 2013, ASTSWMO requested information from all states and territories to determine what activities are taken by the tanks programs to identify and remediate EDB and 1,2-DCA. Thirty-five states responded, and the Task Force found great variation from state to state on how lead scavenger issues are addressed, as is summarized in this report. http://astswmo.org/Files/Policies_and_Publications/Tanks/2014-08-ASTSWMOLeadScavengersReport-FINAL%20(2).pdf



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