U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Technology Innovation News Survey

Entries for August 16-31, 2014

Market/Commercialization Information
SMALL BUSINESS EVENT: OSWER VENDOR DAY
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Small Business Programs, Washington, DC.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4684, 2014

EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) invites small businesses to participate in Vendor Day on Tuesday, October 21, 2014, 8:30 AM - 4 PM, at 2777 South Crystal Drive (Potomac Yard), Arlington, Virginia. Vendor Day is designed to provide small firms with an overview of the various OSWER programs and the status of upcoming contracting opportunities. The meeting also provides an opportunity for businesses to interact with OSWER program managers and contracting officials, ask questions, and develop partnering and mentoring relationships with other firms. To attend this invitation-only event, register at https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/OSWER by Friday, October 10, 2014. Registration will be limited to the first 120 registrants, and only one person from each company will be permitted to attend. https://www.fbo.gov/notices/c6e4e57c6cf58dde041f649f4f8dd212


ICBM EMERGENCY RESPONSE SUPPORT SERVICES
Department of the Air Force, Air Force Materiel Command, Hill AFB, Utah.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4682, Solicitation FA8204-14-R-RFIERPROGRAM, 2014

The Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) emergency response program for the ICBM Systems Directorate at Hill AFB, Utah, consists of planning, performing training exercises, responding to real-world incidents, and recovery, remediation, decontamination, and disposal of liquid and solid propulsion rocket propellants. The Air Force is conducting market research to determine the best acquisition strategy for this procurement. The proposed NAICS code is 541990. Responses to the sources sought are due by 4:00 PM MT, October 17, 2014. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USAF/AFMC/OOALC/FA8204-14-R-RFIERPROGRAM/listing.html


EPA REMEDIAL ACQUISITION FRAMEWORK
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4684, 2014

As explained in the Sources Sought/Request for Information (SS/RFI) for the Superfund Remedial Acquisition Framework (RAF) dated February 27, 2014, under SOL-R3-13-00006, full service Remedial Action Contracts (RACs) will no longer be used to deliver Superfund remedial program requirements. Instead, requirements will be met with three different suites of contracts: (1) Design and Engineering Services contractors will perform professional services of a scientific, architecture, and engineering nature for remedial investigations, feasibility studies, remedial designs, and general technical assistance; (2) Remediation Environmental Services contractors will perform remedial and removal action services, which may include significant construction components; and (3) Environmental Services and Operations contracts will be for EPA-lead remedy operation (e.g., groundwater restoration and source treatment activities), general technical assistance and support, and technical oversight of environmental remediation work financed and performed by a state, tribe, PRP, or another federal agency.
  1. SOL-HQ-00022: Design and Engineering Services (DES).
    https://www.fbo.gov/spg/EPA/OAM/HQ/SOL-HQ-14-00022/listing.html
    EPA has issued a draft announcement to provide industry with time to submit comments and begin developing responses in advance of EPA's official final request for SF 330s for the DES portion of the Superfund RAF.
  2. SOL-HQ-14-00023: Remediation Environmental Services (RES).
    https://www.fbo.gov/spg/EPA/OAM/HQ/SOL-HQ-14-00023/listing.html
    EPA has issued an SS/RFI to conduct market research.
  3. SOL-R1-14-00003: Environmental Services and Operations (ESO).
    https://www.fbo.gov/spg/EPA/OAM/RegI/SOL-R1-14-00003/listing.html
    EPA has issued an SS/RFI to conduct market research.
Responses to each of the three notices must be received by October 22, 2014. Details and attachments for all three notices can be located through the search interface at https://www.fedconnect.net. EPA plans to hold a webinar to explain the RAF and answer vendor questions at http://www.clu-in.org/conf/tio/RAF/ on October 8, 2014, at 2:30-4:30 PM ET.


EPA REGION 2 EMERGENCY AND RAPID RESPONSE SERVICES (ERRS) SOLICITATION
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 1, Boston, MA.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4680, Solicitation SOL-R2-14-00003, 2014

EPA Region 2 has a requirement for contractor support in providing Emergency and Rapid Response Services for time-critical removals and rapid remedial actions, which includes cleanup for incidents involving weapons of mass destruction; acts of terrorism; nuclear, biological, and chemical incidents; and natural or man-made disasters. Services will be provided within the EPA Region 2 geographic area, i.e., the states of New York and New Jersey, and the territories of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The solicitation and its attachments can be located through the search interface at https://www.fedconnect.net. Responses to this small business set-aside are due by 3:00 PM ET, October 22, 2014. https://www.fbo.gov/index?s=opportunity&mode=form&id=9525c987bcff8b345c5f2d11e79a36a3&tab=core&_cview=1


SYNOPSIS FOR WATER QUALITY AND CONTAMINANTS
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), USACE ITL, GSL, EL, CHL, Vicksburg, MS.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-4684, Solicitation W912HZ14R0021, 2014

This synopsis is in reference to the pending solicitation for W912HZ-14-R-0021, which is expected to be available in early October 2014. This procurement is 100% set-aside for small business, NAICS code 541512, size standard of $25.5M. The contract will provide tasks for the R&D being executed by the teams of the Water Quality and Contaminants Branch at Vicksburg, Mississippi, and at remote field sites. Teams at the Engineer Research and Development Center's Environmental Laboratory—the Numerical Models for Assessment of Watershed Contaminants and Living Resources Team and the Cognitive Ecology and Ecohydraulics Team—require support for the development and application of predictive mathematical models to solve complex environmental challenges, such as ecological process issues that reduce the contamination of waterways and groundwater to protect the environment, fish, and wildlife. An IDIQ 5-year contract is anticipated. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/329/W912HZ14R0021/listing.html



Cleanup News
REMEDIATION OF MTBE & TBA IN GROUNDWATER USING A FLUIDIZED BED BIOREACTOR
O'Connell, J.E.
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference on Soil, Water, Energy & Air, 18-21 March 2013, San Diego, CA. Vol 1, 42-59, 2013

Biological fluidized bed reactors (FBRs) are being used at over 30 sites around the country to remove the fuel oxygenates TBA and MTBE from groundwater and convert them to carbon dioxide and water. The basic FBR system has been adapted for use in a variety of conditions around the country, and a bioreactor can be moved to another site for reuse upon remediation completion. This paper describes the bioreactor operating principles, process, and equipment; reviews capital and operating costs; and provides analytical data for water treated at various sites. Field experiences with FBRs operated at six gas station sites in California, New Hampshire, Maryland, and Florida are briefly reviewed. See pages 42-59 at http://www.aehsfoundation.org/Member/AEHSFoundation/Images/ImageGallery/WCC-2013/Proceedings-WCC-2013.pdf.

TREATMENT OF 1,4-DIOXANE IN GROUNDWATER
Putnam, R. and S. Welt.
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference on Soil, Water, Energy & Air, 18-21 March 2013, San Diego, CA. Vol 1, 80-97, 2013

At a site in Colorado, the state has required the removal of 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) in addition to chlorinated VOCs. Under the right conditions, the advanced oxidation process (AOP) used at the Colorado site can reduce the dioxane concentration to nondetect levels. A three-part remediation strategy is being implemented: groundwater containment with pump and treat; remediation of the groundwater outside the containment system; and a bedrock remedy intended to reduce the contaminant concentrations leaching from the bedrock. Treatment of dioxane is only required within the containment system, where concentrations are as high as 600 µg/L, averaging 110 µg/L in the treatment system influent. This paper presents the approaches taken to determine the most effective treatment option and describes the treatment requirements and lessons learned from using the AOP system. See pages 80-97 at http://www.aehsfoundation.org/Member/AEHSFoundation/Images/ImageGallery/WCC-2013/Proceedings-WCC-2013.pdf.

LNAPL INVESTIGATION AND BEHAVIOR IN A SAPROLITE AQUIFER
Mulry, C.J. and D.A. Lundy.
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference on Soil, Water, Energy & Air, 18-21 March 2013, San Diego, CA. Vol 1, 173-193, 2013

Operation of a fuel bulk storage and distribution terminal in the Piedmont region of northwestern South Carolina from the 1940s through the late 1980s resulted in a large LNAPL plume, consisting primarily of kerosene/jet fuel at 45 ft bgs. Over 100 monitoring wells, recovery wells, and small-diameter piezometers have been installed in six or more discrete investigative events over the past 30 years. Pump and treat has been ongoing since the early 1990s, recovering >159,000 gallons of fuel to date with a clear decline in recovery rate over time. Recent efforts to clarify regulatory drivers and evaluate site strategy led to a reappraisal of the LNAPL plume, which revealed that although LNAPL well thickness was a poor indicator of recoverability, oil transmissivity proved to be a meaningful basis for gauging relative LNAPL recoverability. Results are presented with discussion of their applicability and utility to this site. See pages 173-193 at http://www.aehsfoundation.org/Member/AEHSFoundation/Images/ImageGallery/WCC-2013/Proceedings-WCC-2013.pdf.

GRANTS CHLORINATED SOLVENTS PLUME SITE (CIBOLA COUNTY), GRANTS, NEW MEXICO
U.S. EPA Region 6, 3 pp, 2014

The Grants site is an area of contaminated groundwater containing chlorinated solvents (mainly PCE) at concentrations greater than EPA drinking water standards. Major construction activities were completed and the site achieved construction completion status on September 10, 2012. The cleanup system incorporates more than 570 wells placed throughout the plume. The selected remedy was implemented in a multi-pronged approach. Thermal treatment of ~33,000 yd3 of soil in the source area removed an estimated 85-95% of contaminant mass in July 2012. In situ bioremediation (enhanced reductive dechlorination) began in March 2012 with the first round of vegetable oil injection in eight transects. Additional vegetable oil injections will be conducted once every 18 to 24 months until groundwater cleanup is achieved. The selected remedy includes mitigation for vapor intrusion in buildings above the defined plume. The site is currently in operation and maintenance mode. http://www.epa.gov/region6/6sf/pdffiles/grants-chlor-nm.pdf
See also the site's 2013 five-year review at http://www.epa.gov/superfund/sites/fiveyear/f2013060004655.pdf.

INDOOR THERMAL REMEDIATION IN AN OLD INDUSTRIAL AREA IN THE CAPITAL REGION OF DENMARK
Hantzi, K., I. Damgaard, J. Holm, and P. Kjaersgaard.
NORDROCS 2014: 5th Nordic Joint Meeting on Remediation of Contaminated Sites, International Conference, Stockholm, Sweden. Abstract and 16 slides, 2014

Degreasing activities by a former metalworking business on the site allowed roughly 80 kg of TCE to leak into the subsurface. Investigators estimated about 25 kg of TCE remained in the unsaturated zone 0-15 m bgs. The Capital Region of Denmark launched a thermal remediation project using electric resistance heating (ERH) in the unsaturated zone, heating the target area with electricity to around 100°C to vaporize the solvents and enable their removal by vacuum extraction. The contaminants then were collected as vapor in a closed system and cleaned with activated charcoal; the scrubbed air was released to the environment. ERH setup and remediation took place inside the building from September 2012 to December 2013, achieving removal of 32 kg TCE. Challenges included moving the current on-site business, coordinating with district heating works, drilling problems caused by large stone beds and low ceiling heights, establishment of electrodes with low ceiling heights, and timing remediation completion and wrap-up.
Slides: http://www.nordrocs.org/wp-admin/2014/presentations/Pernille-Katerina.pdf


Demonstrations / Feasibility Studies
DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND PRELIMINARY TESTING OF A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR DIESEL FUEL REMEDIATION AT CASEY STATION, ANTARCTICA
Mumford, K.A., J.L. Rayner, I. Snape, S.C. Stark, G.W. Stevens, and D.B. Gore.
Cold Regions Science and Technology, Vol 96, 96-107, Dec 2013

A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) designed to promote hydrocarbon biodegradation was installed in summer 2005-06 at Australia's Casey Station, Antarctica, to prevent further migration of a decade-old fuel spill during summer melt periods by intercepting catchment flow downgradient of the spill. This paper reports on the design, installation, and testing of the PRB throughout its first summer of operation. To determine the most effective treatment media, the initial installation of the PRB's funnel-and-gate configuration contained five different treatments of three zones each: one zone of slow fertilizer release (MaxBac™, ZeoPro™, and zeolite preconditioned with ammonium); one for hydrocarbon and nutrient capture and degradation (GAC and either raw St. Cloud zeolite, sodium Australian zeolite, or ZeoPro); and one for cation capture to contain excess nutrients released from the first zone (sodium Australian zeolite). Sand was used for a control. The PRB was keyed into the permafrost with insulation to limit the potential for flow bypassing the treatment zone. http://www.academia.edu/7067741/Mumford_K.A._Rayner_J.L._Snape_I._Stark_S.C._Stevens_G.W_and_Gore_D.B._2013._Design_installation_and_preliminary_testing_of_a_permeable_reactive_barrier_for_diesel_fuel_remediation_at_Casey_Station_Antarctica._Cold_Regions_Science_and_Technology_96_96-107


EISB PILOT STUDY REPORT FOR THE INTERMEDIATE GROUNDWATER NEAR WELL 128, POMPTON LAKES WORKS, POMPTON LAKES, NEW JERSEY
U.S. EPA Region 2, 1,619 pp, 2014

This report presents the results of an enhanced in situ bioremediation (EISB) pilot study conducted in the intermediate alluvial zone south of the Pompton Lakes Works. The pilot study system encompassed extraction of groundwater containing chlorinated VOCs (primarily PCE, TCE, and daughter products), amendment of the extracted groundwater with electron donor (sodium lactate and a consortium of bacterial cultures), and recharge of the amended groundwater to promote VOC biodegradation. The objective of the 6-month pilot was to collect the data necessary to evaluate the effectiveness and implementability of EISB as a remedial technology for the intermediate zone of the aquifer. This report presents information on site conditions; an overview of the pilot objectives, system components, and operation; the pilot study results; and an evaluation of potential full-scale configurations for EISB at the 128 area. The pilot showed that system geochemistry could be manipulated, to a limited extent, to promote VOC biodegradation. Based on the information generated during the study and subsequent evaluations, it does not appear that EISB is a technology to be carried forward as a potential remedy for the proposed area. http://www.epa.gov/region2/waste/dupont_pompton/pdf/tr0352a_128im_eisb_report_final_2014_04_24.pdf
Additional documents: http://www.epa.gov/region2/waste/dupont_pompton/additionaldocs.html#AcidBrook.


GEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS DURING IN SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION AND IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION AT A DIESEL CONTAMINATED SITE
Sutton, N.B., M. Kalisz, J. Krupanek, J. Marek, T. Grotenhuis, H. Smidt, J. de Weert, H.H.M. Rijnaarts, P. van Gaans, and T. Keijzer.
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol 48 No 4, 2352-2360, 2014

To gain a better understanding of the interactions of persulfate with the subsurface and determine the compatibility with further bioremediation, two pilot-scale persulfate injection events followed by a single nutrient amendment were conducted at a diesel-contaminated location. Groundwater parameters measured throughout the 225-day study showed a significant decrease in pH and an increase in dissolved diesel and organic carbon within the treatment area. Molecular analysis of the microbial community size and alkane degradation capacity by qPCR indicated a significant yet temporary impact: while gene copy numbers initially decreased 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, they returned to baseline levels within 3 months of the first injection for both targets. Analysis of soil samples showed irreversible oxidation of metal sulfides, thereby changing subsurface mineralogy and potentially mobilizing Fe, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Together, these results give insight into persulfate application in terms of risks and effective coupling with bioremediation.


THE USE OF ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS AS A NOVEL STRATEGY FOR CHLOROFORM REMEDIATION: THE FEASIBILITY OF USING CONSTRUCTION WASTES AND EVALUATION OF CARBON ISOTOPIC FRACTIONATION
Torrento, C., C. Audi-Miro, G. Bordeleau, M. Marchesi, M. Rosell, N. Otero, and A. Soler.
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol 48 No 3, 1869-1877, 2014

Lab and pilot experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of chloroform degradation by alkaline hydrolysis and the potential of C-13 values to assess this induced reaction process at contaminated sites. In batch experiments, alkaline conditions were induced by adding crushed concrete, a filtered concrete solution, a filtered cement solution, or a pH 12 buffer solution, which after 28 days achieved chloroform degradation of 94, 96, 99, and 72%, respectively. In field-scale pilot studies, alkaline conditions were induced in two recharge water interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes. A maximum of ~30-40% of chloroform degradation was achieved during the two studied recharge periods. The treatment of chloroform in groundwater through the use of concrete-based construction wastes would allow the recycling of the wastes for value-added applications. See the text of this paper and supporting information in Annex C (PDF pages 160-215) of Audi-Miro's Ph.D. thesis at http://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/145921.



Research
VAPOR INTRUSION FROM ENTRAPPED NAPL SOURCES AND GROUNDWATER PLUMES: PROCESS UNDERSTANDING AND IMPROVED MODELING TOOLS FOR PATHWAY ASSESSMENT
Illangasekare, T., B. Petri, R. Fucik, C. Sauck, L. Shannon, T. Sakaki, K. Smits, A. Cihan, J. Christ,
P. Schulte, B. Putman, and Y. Li. SERDP Project ER-1687, 206 pp, 2014

Mechanisms controlling vapor generation and subsequent migration through the subsurface in naturally heterogeneous subsurface under different physical and climatic conditions were investigated using lab and modeling studies alongside the development of new modeling tools. Dynamic and complex subsurface vapor pathways sometimes contribute to counterintuitive cause-effect relationships. Infiltration affects vapor signals in indoor air, with the time scales and the strength of the vapor signals depending on the interplay of the intensity, duration of rainfall, and subsurface heterogeneity. Water table fluctuation imparts very complex transport behavior within the capillary fringe, which has significant effects on vapor loading from the groundwater plumes. Trapped sources in the unsaturated zone are capable of loading significant mass into the unsaturated zone, but the loading rate is a strong function of the moisture distribution in the vicinity of the source. Indoor sampling strategies need to factor in the transients associated with climate and weather. http://www.estcp.com/content/download/29232/285575/file/ER-1687%20Final%20Report.pdf


RHIZOSPHERE BACTERIAL DEGRADATION OF RDX: UNDERSTANDING AND ENHANCEMENT
Strand, S., D. Stahl, N. Bruce, E. Rylott, and B. MacGregor.
SERDP Project ER-1504, 225 pp, 2014

Project ER-1504 measured aerobic RDX degradation in surface soils extracted from a highly used target area of Eglin Air Force Base bombing range. RDX-degradation activity was spatially heterogeneous and dependent upon the addition of exogenous carbon sources to the soils. A Rhodococcus species was the most prominent genus in the RDX-degrading microcosms and was completely labeled with 15N-nitrogen from the RDX. Other highly labeled species identified in the gradient included Mesorhizobium sp., Variovorax sp., Rhizobium sp. and unspecified Proteobacteria. A Rhodococcus sp. (EG2B) and a Williamsia sp. capable of degrading RDX were isolated from these soils, and each possessed the genetic element encompassing the xplB and xplA genes. The presence of these genes suggests that xplA/B can persist in military range soils and would be a candidate genetic biomarker to indicate the potential for RDX degradation. http://www.estcp.com/content/download/29231/285565/file/ER-1504%20Final%20Report.pdf


ASSESSMENT OF PHYTOSTABILIZATION OF PB/ZN MINE SOILS WITH ORGANIC AMENDMENTS AND A NATIVE METALLICOLOUS ECOTYPE OF FESTUCA RUBRA L.: IMPLICATIONS FOR AMENDMENT SELECTION AND RECOVERY OF SOIL HEALTH
Galende-Gullon, Maria Asuncion, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain. 218 pp, 2013

This work evaluated soil health in microcosms and field studies during phytostabilization of a Pb/Zn mine soil using organic amendments (cow slurry, poultry manure, sheep manure, and paper mill sludge mixed with poultry manure) and/or Festuca rubra (red fescue), a native metallicolous species. Cow slurry and paper mill sludge/poultry manure were the most effective treatments under field conditions. Poultry manure was the best treatment to stimulate native spontaneous vegetation and promote plant growth. A plant-based test—root elongation bioassay—proved a sensitive, straightforward, cost-effective method to assess metal bioavailability and soil ecotoxicity. Other biomarkers of phytotoxicity, such as tocopherols, also could be used for bioassays. https://addi.ehu.es/bitstream/10810/10695/2/TESIS%20DOCTORAL_%20Galende.pdf


ECOSYSTEMS IN FRACTURED AQUIFER GROUNDWATER CAN TREAT CONTAMINATION
van Biljon, W.J.
GWC 2013: 13th Biennial Groundwater Division Conference and Exhibition, 17-19 September 2013, Durban, South Africa. 8 pp, 2013

In a case study of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination existing in a fractured rock aquifer, the presence of microorganisms has been inferred by monitoring for secondary lines of evidence to prove attenuation of the contaminants occurs through metabolism as well as by dilution, adsorption, or diffusion into the matrix. Specifically, sulfate is consumed and manganese is reduced, with some iron reduction also observed. Monitoring results showed increased biodegradation as groundwater recharge brought in new nutrients. DNA testing identified definitively the contribution made by microorganisms. Outside the contaminated zone, very low populations of organisms were detected in the groundwater, while larger populations were observed inside the contaminated zone, indicating that active biodegradation is taking place. The edges of the plume, where contaminant levels are mostly below detection, contained a more diverse population of microorganisms than the central area. Conditions on the edge of the plume probably represent an ideal nutrient environment for the organisms as opposed to the high-concentration, potentially toxic source. Better understanding of the biodynamics of this fractured aquifer allows opportunities for better management to enhance contaminant remediation, e.g., by adding nutrients when appropriate and cultivating naturally occurring organisms to augment the population. http://gwd.org.za/sites/gwd.org.za/files/04%20WJ%20van%20Biljon_Ecosystems%20in%20fracured%20rock%20aquifer%20v1.pdf


IS IT CHROMIUM III OR CHROMIUM VI? ARE YOU SURE?
Wellbrock, R. and A. Rattonetti.
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference on Soil, Water, Energy & Air, 18-21 March 2013, San Diego, CA. Vol 1, 113-124, 2013

Methods for the determination of Cr(VI) concentrations range from selective solvent extraction to chromatography. The only EPA-approved method capable of achieving the California Public Health Goal (PHG) is EPA 218.7, which uses ion chromatography for species separation followed by UV/Vis detector for quantitation. Three requirements must be met for accurate measurement of trace amounts of Cr(VI): (1) proper preservation and holding time (these have been issues of contention and continue to be so), (2) reagents and apparatuses must be free of significant chromium contamination, and (3) "real world" certified reference materials (CRMs) must be used to validate findings. In lieu of available CRMs, a second independent analytic method is needed. A high-pressure liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) procedure for a collision/reaction cell-equipped ICP-MS developed for this purpose is described, with discussion of its capabilities and limitations. See pages 113-124 at http://www.aehsfoundation.org/Member/AEHSFoundation/Images/ImageGallery/WCC-2013/Proceedings-WCC-2013.pdf.


LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) AS A MEANS OF COMPARISON BETWEEN ACTIVE AND PASSIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTEWATER AND CONTAMINATED SOILS
Bonoli, A., L. Antonozzi, and S. Zanni.
Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, Vol 12 No S11 Suppl, 141-144, Nov 2013

The authors performed a life cycle assessment (LCA) of two remediation technologies: a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) of funnel-and-gate design (a passive in situ remediation technology) and a pump-and-treat system (PTS) using activated carbon (an active remediation technology). The sizing and design of the PRB were based on an actual installation, while the sizing and design of the PTS were based on data from the literature. Observation and analysis of preliminary results from comparing the environmental performance of the two technologies has indicated the need for refinement of critical impact categories for both to tune the LCA model and related assumptions. http://omicron.ch.tuiasi.ro/EEMJ/pdfs/vol12/no11suppl/37_Bonoli_13.pdf


INNOVATIVE MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION
Yeh, G.T., J.P.J. Gwo, M.D. Siegel, M.H. Li, Y. Fang, F. Zhang, W. Luo, and S.B. Yabusaki.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Vol 119, 26-38, 2013

Modeling studies were conducted to simulate various mechanisms of mobilization and immobilization of radioactive waste and to illustrate how to apply reactive transport models for environmental remediation. Four example problems previously carried out show how numerical experimentation can be used to evaluate the feasibility of different remediation approaches. The first one involved the application of a 56-species uranium tailing problem to the Melton Branch subwatershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the parallel version of the model. The second problem simulated a lab-scale system to investigate the role of natural attenuation in potential off-site migration of uranium from uranium mill tailings after restoration. The third example simulated laboratory experiments involving extremely high concentrations of uranium, technetium, aluminum, nitrate, and metals (Ni, Cr, Co). The fourth example modeled microbially mediated immobilization of uranium in an unconfined aquifer using acetate amendment at field scale. http://www.emsgi.org/emsgi/htmls/hydrogeochem/JENVRAD-D-10-00038R1.pdf


APPLICATION OF A SOLAR UV/CHLORINE ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS TO OIL SANDS PROCESS-AFFECTED WATER REMEDIATION
Shu, Z., C. Li, M. Belosevic, J.R. Bolton, and M. Gamel El-Din.
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol 48 No 16, 9692-9701, 2014

Under natural processes, reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds typically takes 20-plus years to break down of a mixture of suspended solids, salts, and other dissolvable compounds, such as benzene, acids, and hydrocarbons. Researchers at the University of Alberta have determined that a solar UV/chlorine treatment process can rapidly decontaminate and detoxify oil sands pond water (OSPW). When sunlight reacts with and decomposes chlorine (or bleach) added to the OSPW, it produces hydroxyl radicals that remove the remaining toxins efficiently. In lab tests the solar UV/chlorine treatment process removed 75-84% of the toxins. The researchers are seeking funds for a pilot-plant demonstration and looking at commercializing the technology as they investigate innovative designs for a mixing system, such as rafts floating on the ponds to circulate the water.


FLOATING TREATMENT WETLANDS (FTWS) IN WATER TREATMENT: TREATMENT EFFICIENCY AND POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF ACTIVATED CARBON
Dodkins, I. and A.F. Mendzil.
Sustainable Expansion of the Applied Coastal and Marine Sectors (SEACAMS), Swansea University, Wales, UK. 44 pp, 2014

Following a review of the literature, the authors note that floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) have many benefits over free water surface (FWS) wetlands: (1) exposed plant roots assist in filtering and settling processes for sediment-bound P and metals; (2) the plant roots act as a large surface area for microbial activity in decomposition, nitrification, and denitrification (removal of BOD and N); and (3) the islands adjust easily to varying water levels. Percentage removal of nutrients and metals from effluent is around 20-40% higher in FTWs than in conventional FWS ponds. Removal efficiency, particularly of nitrogen, can be further increased with tighter control on the water chemistry (aeration; adding calcium carbonate or a carbon source). Although the passive use of activated carbon within layers of floating islands has been considered, the measure is unlikely to be cost-effective due to a diffusion gradient between the surface of the basin and the bottom of the basin and the passive nature of adsorption (i.e., the effluent is not being filtered through the medium). The proper establishment of plants, correct basin design, and water chemistry control is likely to be a more effective use of resources. http://www.floatingislandinternational.com/wp-content/plugins/fii/research/29.pdf


PHYTOMONITORING OF CHLORINATED ETHENES IN TREES: A FOUR-YEAR STUDY OF SEASONAL CHEMODYNAMICS IN PLANTA
Limmer, M.A., A.J. Holmes, and J.G. Burken.
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol 48 No 18, 10634-10640, 2014

The use of trees to provide long-term monitoring (phytomonitoring) of contaminant plumes in groundwater has been limited by the heretofore unexplained variability of contaminant concentrations in trees. To assess variability, the authors developed an in planta sampling method to obtain high-frequency measurements of PCE and TCE in oak and baldcypress trees growing above a plume during a 4-year trial. The data set revealed that contaminant concentrations increased rapidly with transpiration in the spring and decreased in the fall, resulting in PCE and TCE concentrations in sapwood an order of magnitude higher in late summer than in winter. PCE and TCE concentrations in heartwood were more buffered against seasonal effects. Rainfall events caused negligible dilution of contaminant concentrations in trees after precipitation events.



General News
PROCEEDINGS OF THE 23RD ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOIL, WATER, ENERGY & AIR, 18-21 MARCH 2013, SAN DIEGO, CA: SELECTED MANUSCRIPTS
Association for Environmental Health and Sciences Foundation, Inc. (AEHS), Amherst, MA. ISBN: 978-0-9888932-0-7, Vol 1, 224 pp, 2013

AEHS has published selected manuscripts from the proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference on Soil, Water, Energy & Air. The selected papers cover a variety of environmental topics, including bioremediation, engineered remediation, hydrocarbons, metals, modeling, and site characterization. http://www.aehsfoundation.org/Member/AEHSFoundation/Images/ImageGallery/WCC-2013/Proceedings-WCC-2013.pdf


FIRE FIGHTING FOAMS WITH PERFLUOROCHEMICALS: ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW
Seow, J.
Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australia, 76 pp, 2013

This review and position paper discusses current environmental and human issues regarding the use of fire fighting foams containing perfluorochemicals in many industrialized countries, as well as fluorine-free foams now commercially available. http://www.hemmingfire.com/news/get_file.php3/id/287/file/Seow_WADEC_PFCs_Firefighting_Foam_final_version_7June2013.pdf


SIMULATION PROGRAM I-SVOC USER'S GUIDE
Guo, Z.
EPA 600-R-13-212, 92 pp, 2013

The i-SVOC simulation program estimates the emissions, transport, and sorption of semivolatile organic compounds in the indoor environment as functions of time when a series of initial conditions is given. This program implements a framework for dynamic modeling of indoor SVOCs and covers six types of indoor compartments: air (gas phase), air (particle phase), sources, sinks (i.e., sorption by interior surfaces), contaminant barriers, and settled dust. Potential applications of this program include (1) use as a stand-alone simulation program to obtain information that the current equilibrium models cannot provide, including evaluation of the effectiveness of pollution mitigation methods such as variable ventilation rates, source removal, and source encapsulation; (2) reducing the uncertainties in the existing multimedia models; and (3) use as a front-end component for stochastic exposure models to provide information about the SVOC distribution in indoor media in the absence of experimental data. This program is intended for advanced users who are involved in and familiar with indoor environmental quality modeling or indoor exposure assessment.
Users guide: http://nepis.epa.gov/Adobe/PDF/P100HYEF.pdf
i-SVOC setup: http://www.epa.gov/ordntrnt/ORD/NRMRL/appcd/mmd/i-sovc.html



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