Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), Project ER-200424, CR-NAVFAC ESC-EV-1201, 746 pp, Jan 2012
Despite a multitude of reviews on individual technologies, no comprehensive studies have been completed so far to illustrate which technologies generally are most effective for remediation of DNAPLs under specific site conditions and desired remedial outcomes. ESTCP project ER-200424's main goal was to address this data gap and assist environmental remediation practitioners in evaluating and selecting appropriate remedial technologies, given particular site conditions and performance goals. Recognizing that each site is unique and that performance goals and regulatory constraints will vary from site to site, the DNAPL Technology Evaluation Screening Tool (DNAPL TEST) enables the user to select and constrain their analysis to focus on those performance goals, remedial technologies, and site characteristics of interest. The remedial technologies evaluated in DNAPL TEST include in situ chemical oxidation, thermal technologies (thermal conductive heating, steam flooding, electrical resistive heating, microwave heating, in situ flushing (surfactants, cosolvents, water), hydraulic displacement, enhanced in situ bioremediation, and chemical reduction with zero-valent iron. For these technologies, DNAPL TEST provides a summary of observed remedial performance for various performance metrics, including decrease in the DNAPL mass in the subsurface, decrease in VOC concentrations in soil and groundwater, achievement of MCLs in groundwater, rebound in groundwater concentrations after termination of treatment, duration of treatment, achievement of remedial goals (including achieving desired reductions in DNAPL mass, groundwater and soil concentrations, and contaminant mass discharge and/or flux, as well as achievement of site closure or reduction of groundwater concentrations to below MCLs), and unit treatment cost. The information and screening tool also can be utilized to evaluate existing remedial systems, assist in determining whether there is a realistic expectation of meeting the remedial action objectives for a given site and technology, and provide an assessment of alternative technologies that might offer a higher likelihood of success. http://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/14055/165063/file/ER-200424-
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