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In Situ Oxidation
This page provides links to case studies of ISCO applications, beginning with resources in which multiple case studies have been compiled. The next section lists projects in which treatment was achieved using combinations of oxidants, and it is followed by sections broadly organized by oxidant type: hydrogen peroxide (including catalyzed hydrogen peroxide), ozone, permanganates, and persulfate.
Jump to a SubsectionCase Study Compilations | Combinations of Oxidants | Hydrogen Peroxide | Ozone | Permanganates | Persulfate
Information about completed and ongoing applications of in situ chemical oxidation technologies to treat chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, and pesticide compounds in groundwater and soil are captured in this web site. The information is provided in project profiles that summarize relevant site information, contaminants and media, technology design and operation, and cost and performance results, as well as point(s) of contact and references.
Critical Analysis of The Field-Scale Application of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for the Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater
Krembs, Friedrich J., Master's thesis, Colorado School of Mines, 226 pp, 2008 [supported by SERDP/ESTCP]
This thesis creates a database from 242 ISCO sites. The thesis analyzes trends for the sites and allows for interactive activity with the user.
The DNAPL Remediation Challenge: Is There a Case for Source Depletion?
EPA 600-R-03-143, 2003
The Bachman Road and Sages sites, summarized in Appendix A, are examples of removing substantial amounts of DNAPL, with subsequent changes to the geochemical environment that enhance biodegradation of the remaining mass of DNAPL. These technologies are not likely to be effective at removing DNAPL present in low permeability source zones, such as fractured systems. At the time this report was written, neither field-scale demonstrations nor full-scale applications of in situ flushing were known to have achieved site closure at a DNAPL source zone.
- In Situ Treatment at Three Dry Cleaner Sites, Various Locations (2004)
[ozone (1) and modified Fenton's reagent (2)]
- In Situ Chemical Oxidation at Two Drycleaner Sites, Hutchinson, Kansas and Jacksonville, Florida (2003)
[ozone (1) and hydrogen peroxide (1)]
- In Situ Chemical Oxidation at Six Drycleaner Sites, Various Locations (2001, 2002)
[permanganate (3), peroxide (2), ozone (1)]
Field Applications of In Situ Remediation Technologies: Chemical Oxidation
EPA 542-R-98-008, 1998
Describes pilot demonstrations and full-scale applications that either treat soil and ground water in place or increase the solubility and mobility of contaminants to improve their removal by other remediation technologies.
Chemical Oxidation Using Ozone, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Air Injection Systems for Aggressive Remediation of BTEX, MTBE, and TBA
White paper, 6 pp, 2006
This paper presents two case studies of projects to address BTEX, MTBE, and TBA impact in soil and groundwater (including separate-phase hydrocarbons): 1) ozone and hydrogen peroxide injection using a PulseOx system an active gasoline service station site, and 2) hydrogen peroxide and air injection using a HypeAir system at an inactive service station site. These aggressive chemical oxidation techniques have been used to remediate BTEX- and MTBE-contaminated soil and groundwater through monthly and short-term (daily/weekly) events at relatively low life-cycle remediation costs ($15,000 to $200,000) in varying lithologies and within different regulatory environments.
Draft Removal Action Closeout Report: Time-Critical Removal Action, Installation Restoration Site 5, Unit 2, Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California
U.S., Department of the Navy, NAVFAC, San Diego, CA. 363 pp, 2003
The removal action was conducted 2002-2003 to mitigate a VOC groundwater plume by the use of ISCO in sequential application of hydrogen peroxide, Fenton's reagent, and potassium permanganate to reduce site contaminant mass to the extent that remediation by natural attenuation is an effective remedy for residual chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in groundwater. Contaminant levels detected in the groundwater included cis-1,2-DCE 19,000 µg/L, 1,4-dichlorobenzene at 21 µg/L, benzene at 180 µg/L, methylene chloride at 1,900 µg/L, PCE at 1,200 µg/L, TCE at 11,000 µg/L, VC at 48,000 µg/L, 2,4-dimethylphenol at 9,800 µg/L, acenaphthylene at 200 µg/L, and bis(2-chloroethyl)ether at 3,000 µg/L. Hydraulic fracturing was executed to enhance oxidant delivery. Based on the quantity of mass removed (2 tons of VOCs) and identified post-treatment site conditions, the TCRA goal was achieved.
Expediting Cleanup of a Pump and Treat Site by Use of Chemical Oxidation Technology
G. Cronk and L. Stevens.
Sixth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, May 19-22, 2008. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH. 11 pp, 2008
At the U.S. Gypsum Company site in La Mirada, CA, a pump-and-treat system has operated for over 10 years (1996 to 2006), successfully reducing the size of two co-mingled contaminant plumes, one with benzene and one with dissolved-phase TCE. To expedite this cleanup, two ISCO technologies were implemented. For the TCE plume, a pilot test using potassium permanganate achieved TCE reductions ranging from 85 to 100% in 120 days, and a full-scale permanganate treatment is planned to address the remaining TCE plume. For the benzene plume, injections of catalyzed hydrogen peroxide and activated sodium persulfate resulted in a reduction in benzene concentrations from a pre-ISCO maximum of 5,500 µg/L to 98 µg/L, a 98% reduction. Other wells have shown benzene reductions from 96 to 99.9%.
In Situ Chemical Oxidation Pilot Test: Design Criteria and Results for Ozone and Hydrogen Peroxide Injection
Pavlik, J.D. and J.P. Gwinn.
The First International Conference on Challenges in Site Remediation, Chicago, Illinois, 23-27 October 2005. 8 pp, 2005
A pilot text was designed and conducted to test ISCO effectiveness, collect design data for full-scale implementation, and develop protocols for future pilot tests for multiple sites affected by total petroleum hydrocarbons, including BTEX, MTBE, and TBA. Originally planned for 8 weeks, the pilot was continued for an additional 4 weeks because TPHg, BTEX, and MTBE concentrations were reduced significantly. By the end of the pilot test, DO exceeded 20 mg/L within a 15-ft radius of the injection points. TPHg and benzene concentrations fell by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude and MTBE concentrations by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. Additionally, if a pronounced smear zone is present, remediation effectiveness can be increased by (1) injecting peroxide into the capillary fringe, (2) operating the injection system to provide controlled fluctuations of the water table, or (3) operating the system during periods of seasonally high water levels.
In Situ Chemical Oxidation in Clays Using Hydraulic Fracturing
Bures, G.H., T.J. Williams, E. Mance, and C. Clark.
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Monterey, CA; May 2010). Battelle Press, ISBN: 978-0-9819730-2-9, Paper & presentation D-085, 8 pp & 21 slides, 2010
A soil fracturing program was conducted a former dry cleaning facility to mitigate PCE and its daughter products to risk-based soil and groundwater remediation criteria by enhancing the zone of influence of peroxidants injected through permeable sand fractures in the clay subsoil. Following two unsatisfactory applications of modified Fenton's reagent into the fracture network (32% PCE decrease on average), potassium permanganate slurry was injected into the fracture network on six occasions during 2007, followed by 12 injections of sodium permanganate in 2008 and 2009. Sampling results as of August 27, 2009, indicated that PCE concentrations had decreased on average by 95% in wells inside the perimeter of the plume and 78% in wells centered in the core of the plume. With a general decrease in soil PCE concentrations, the quantity of soil classified as hazardous fell by ~62% across the site. Ongoing peroxidant injections are anticipated to destroy chlorinated constituents that leach from core area clays into the fracture network.
In-Situ DUOXTM Chemical Oxidation Technology to Treat Chlorinated Organics the Roosevelt Mills Site, Vernon, CT: Site Characterization and Treatability Study Report
U.S. EPA, Superfund Innovative Site Evaluation (SITE) Program, Washington, DC.
EPA 540-R-05-008, 45 pp, 2005.
The DUOX™ technology uses a combination of persulfate and permanganate to destroy unsaturated chlorinated solvents. The major benefit of the process, as compared to single-phase oxidation technologies, is in the treatment of impacted media with significant soil oxidant demand. Because the media evaluated during this study did not exhibit significant soil oxidant demand, the full utility of the process was not demonstrated.
Revised Work Plan and Trial Management Plan: Surfactant Enhanced In Situ Chemical Oxidation (S-ISCO®) & Surfactant Enhanced Product Recovery (SEPR™), Block 5 and Hickson Road, Barangaroo, Pilot Trial
New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage, Australia. 355 pp, 2011
From 1840 to 1921, sections of the Barangaroo site were used to manufacture gas. Portions of the contaminated former gas works infrastructure remain in place beneath the current slab surface and adjacent roadway. This work plan describes the contaminated areas, explains in detail the workings of the innovative SEPR™ and S-ISCO® technologies, provides design information for the pilot test and the injection and SVE systems, and discusses performance measures and the monitoring, health and safety, and waste management plans. S-ISCO® is designed to solubilize contaminants rather than mobilize them. The co-eluted surfactant/co-solvent and oxidant fronts move through the subsurface together and solubilization and oxidation occur simultaneously, such that the contaminants (i.e., TPH, BTEX, PAHs, coal tar) are destroyed in place. The system incorporates water, activator (Fe-TAML and/or sodium hydroxide), VeruSOL® surfactant, and oxidant (hydrogen peroxide and/or sodium persulfate).
Behavior of a Chlorinated Ethene Plume following Source-Area Treatment with Fenton’s Reagent
F.H. Chapelle, P.M. Bradley, and C.C. Casey.
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation, Vol 25 No 2, p 131-141, 2005
Six years of monitoring data show that a plume of chlorinated ethene-contaminated groundwater has contracted significantly following treatment of the contaminant source area with in situ oxidation using Fenton's reagent. Prior to treatment in 1998, concentrations of PCE exceeded 4,500 µg/L in a contaminant source area associated with a municipal landfill in Kings Bay, GA. Vinyl chloride concentrations exceeded 800 µg/L in the plume emanating from the source area. In situ oxidation lowered PCE concentrations in the source area below 100 µg/L, and PCE concentrations have not rebounded above this level since treatment. VC concentrations in the plume fell significantly in the 6-year monitoring period.
This report contains information on the implementation and results of a full-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) pilot study conducted using the BIOX® technology (a proprietary oxidant now known as ChemOx®) in three areas affected by benzene, PCE, TCE, VC, and xylenes.
- In Situ Chemical Oxidation, Soil Vapor Extraction, and In Situ Bio-Stimulation at Hanner's Dry Cleaners, Pompano Beach, Florida (2007)
- Soil Vapor Extraction and In Situ Chemical Oxidation at Swift Cleaners, Jacksonville, Florida (2007)
- Soil Vapor Extraction, Pump and Treat, and In Situ Chemical Oxidation at Dry Clean USA No. 11502, Orlando, Florida (2007)
- In Situ Chemical Oxidation Using Hydrogen Peroxide at Four Dry Cleaner Sites (2005)
- In Situ Treatment at Three Dry Cleaner Sites, Various Locations (2004)
1) OZONE and 2) ISOTEC's
- In situ Chemical Oxidation Using Fenton's Reagent at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida (2001)
- In Situ Chemical Oxidation Geo-Cleanse Process at the Naval Air Station Pensacola Florida, Operable Unit 10, Pensacola, Florida (2000)
- In situ Chemical Oxidation Using Fenton's Reagent at Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Site 11, Camden County, Georgia (2000)
Final Report for Demonstration of In Situ Oxidation of DNAPL Using the Geo-Cleanse Technology
K.M. Jerome, B. Riha, and B.B. Looney.
WSRC-TR-97-00283, NTIS: DE98050456, 83 pp, 1997
In April 1997, in situ oxidation (Fenton's chemistry) was demonstrated the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site to address a small groundwater plume and 600 lbs of DNAPL (TCE and PCE) in a 64,000 cubic ft soil treatment zone. A destruction efficiency of 94% was achieved in this small-scale test. Additional information: DOE/EM-0484(1999)
In-Situ Chemical Oxidation via Ozone a Multiple-Remedy UST Site
F.R. Coll and R.A. Moore.
WM2009: Waste Management Conference, 1-5 March 2009, Phoenix, Arizona. Paper 9124, 12 pp, 2009
A multiple-remedy corrective action for BTEX and MTBE contamination a former leaking underground storage tank site was complicated by its current occupation by an active retail establishment. ISCO via a patented combined ozone-hydrogen peroxide process was implemented in the former source area, replacing an SVE system. The remedial technology and design implemented resulted in significant reduction of source area concentrations and the associated development of subsurface conditions conducive to bioremediation. Additional remedial measures undertaken at the site include passive oxygen addition and plume cut-off.
Independent Review of the X-701B Groundwater Remedy, Portsmouth, Ohio: Technical Evaluation and Recommendations
B.B. Looney, C. Eddy-Dilek, J. Costanza, J. Rossabi, T. Early, K. Skubal, and C. Magnuson.
SRNL-STI-2008-00424, 83 pp, 2008
The review team (1) assessed the performance of an ongoing oxidant-based treatment technology that uses lances to inject catalyzed hydrogen peroxide, (2) provided specific recommendations for DOE and Ohio EPA to consider if oxidant injections are to be continued, and (3) recommended alternatives to the current remediation strategy for the X-701B TCE plume.
Independent Technical Review of the X-740 Groundwater Remedy, Portsmouth, Ohio: Technical Evaluation and Recommendations
B.B. Looney, D.G. Jackson, B.D. Riha, R. Ramirez, L. Whitehurst, and C.A. Eddy-Dilek.
SRNL-STI-2010-00176, 53 pp, 2010
Two technologies implemented this site—phytoremediation using a stand of hybrid poplar trees from 1999-2007 and ISCO using modified Fenton's Reagent from 2008-2009—have proven ineffective in achieving remedial action objectives. The contaminated aquifer zone (the Gallia) is currently dominated by slow release of TCE from formations above, below, and within the Gallia itself. The review has indicated that the slow release of TCE from clay and sandstone into the Gallia represents a long-term source of TCE that can re-contaminate the Gallia in the future; hence, otherwise effective technologies that do not leave residual treatment capacity in the system are unlikely to achieve the cleanup goals. The review team classified 3 technologies as potentially viable: (1) enhanced anaerobic bioremediation using long-lived electron donor and low-pressure liquid deployment; PRBs; and passive upgradient drains to divert water around the contaminant source zone and plume.
Multiphase Approach to Remediation Using Subsurface Fracturing, Surface Extraction and Modified Fenton Chemistry
Owens, D.C., Oxy Teknologies.
REMTECH 2010: The Remediation Technologies Symposium, Banff, AB, Canada, 20-22 Oct 2010. Environmental Services Association of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada), 14 slides, 2010
ISCO with modified Fenton chemistry in conjunction with subsurface fracturing and surface extraction was conducted to remediate 11,325 cubic meters of diesel- and gasoline-contaminated soil and groundwater at a trucking terminal operated 24 hour per day without disrupting terminal operations. Free-phase liquid petroleum hydrocarbons (LPH) covered an area extending ~1,100 square meters. Subsurface fracturing was effective in about half the contaminated area and showed no significant results in the other half. Costs were high compared to the added value of the fracturing. The unpredictability of fracturing routes and fracture diffusion also are problems with this technology. Surface extraction of LPH was limited by cold surface conditions, limited fracturing effectiveness, and seasonality of the water table; overall, the surface extraction gave results equal or superior to pump and treat at significantly lower costs. The third technology evaluated, ISCO with stabilized hydrogen peroxide, was very effective in degrading the LPH in free, dissolved, and absorbed phases. The limiting factor was the ability to get the oxidant into contact with the LPH due to the tight soil conditions. Undermining the asphalt during ISCO was an ongoing problem but was handled with spot repairs. Winter conditions were also a limiting factor because of the difficulty of locating injection wells in snow and ice. The combining of methods used in this remediation project resulted in cost savings of roughly $2.3 million when compared to standard dig and haul, plus an additional $3.6 million in potential relocation and lost business costs for a total savings of $5.9 million. In 10 months of treatment, the average thickness of LPH decreased 94%, while total dissolved-phase PHCs fell by 96%, demonstrating that a multi-phased remediation approach can provide remediation without disruption to an operating facility.
Periodic Review: Dexter Horton Building, Facility Site ID#: 68766933, 710 2nd Avenue, Seattle, Washington
State of Washington, Northwest Region Office, Toxics Cleanup Program, 27 pp, 2011
ISCO treatment with hydrogen peroxide was conducted under the Dexter Horton Building to remediate soil contaminated with Bunker C fuel oil in July and August 2005. Subsequent soil sampling showed that the ISCO treatment had reduced TRPH concentrations in soil from a pre-injection concentration of 18,000 mg/kg TRPH to a post-injection concentration of 400 mg/kg. A 'No Further Action' letter was issued February 16, 2006, with registration of a deed restriction owing to a small area of residual contamination that remains beneath the foundation.
- City Hall (Former Swift Cleaners), Jacksonville Beach, Florida (2002)
- Daisy Fresh Dry Cleaners, College Park, Georgia (2002)
- Denver Colorado Dry Cleaner, Denver, Colorado (2001)
- Park Avenue Cleaners, Richardson, Texas (2000)
- Spin City Dry Cleaners, Plano, Texas (2000)
A pilot-scale field evaluation was carried out to assess the effectiveness of ISCO using ozone, with and without hydrogen peroxide, to remediate 1,4-dioxane and chlorinated VOC in groundwater the Cooper Drum Company site in Los Angeles County, CA. The pilot study took place between July 2005 and June 2006 for a period of 321 days, and results showed that ozone alone, as well as ozone combined with hydrogen peroxide, was effective in destroying up to 90% of all contaminants of concern.
Innovative Technology Pilot Program Remediation Summary Report: Strickland Contracting Company, Quincy, Gadsden County, Florida
Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Petroleum Storage Systems, Tallahassee, FL. 17 pp, 2007
In March 2005, operation of the pilot system began using low flow-rate ozone and oxygen injection to initiate chemical oxidation of petroleum compounds (2 distinct areas of diesel and gasoline) and enhance their biodegradation by elevating DO concentrations in the groundwater. Soil and groundwater remediation success was achieved during a 10-month period of operation in subsurface conditions of tight soil with low groundwater transmissivity.
SRS Data Report for Lynntech Soil Ozone Treatment Demonstration Adjacent to the 321-M Solvent Storage Tank Pad
K.M. Vangelas, B. Riha, B.B. Looney, W.K. Hyde, J.L. Simmons, and R. Raymond.
WSRC-TR-2000-00255, 29 pp, 2000
The 2000 demonstration of ozone oxidation involved treating a small vadose zone DNAPL plume in the A/M Area over a 29-day period. An active SVE system in this immediate area had achieved decreasing concentrations of DNAPL (PCE and TCE) over a 10-yr period. During ozone injection, the SVE unit removed an estimated 2,390 lbs of PCE. The treatment zone was defined as the vertical distance between 30 ft bgs and 40 ft bgs and a 15 ft radius around the center injector. The estimated pre-test mass of DNAPL in the treatment zone was 319 lbs, and the estimated post-test mass of DNAPL was 24.3 lbs, indicating a 92% destruction rate for the treatment zone. The 295 pounds of DNAPL removed from the treatment zone were either removed through the SVE unit or destroyed by the ozone. Based on the data collected, it was not possible to determine the method, either removal or destruction.
Comparison of EHC, EOS, and Solid Potassium Permanganate Pilot Studies for Reducing Residual TCE Contaminant Mass
E2S2: Environment, Energy Security and Sustainability Symposium and Exhibition, 9-12 May 2011, New Orleans, Louisiana. Presentation 12621, 30 slides, 2011
At the Defense Distribution Depot San Joaquin-Sharpe (DDJC-Sharpe) site, Lathrop, CA, three treatment technologies were evaluated for their potential to increase TCE mass removal in the saturated zone. Introduction of emulsified oil (EOS) in the North Balloon began in April 2008, injection of solid potassium permanganate in the South Balloon began in May 2008, and injection of a redox compound (EHC, complex organic carbon plus ZVI) in the Central Area began in August 2008. Where the amendment was able to contact the contaminant, all three amendments reduced TCE concentrations to <5 ug/L (the cleanup level). All three amendments continued to distribute/diffuse horizontally after injection and had secondary water quality impacts. Solid potassium permanganate was selected as the preferred amendment because it distributed/diffused significantly more in fine-grained soils than the other two amendments, destroyed TCE more quickly without formation of daughter products, and was cost effective because multiple injections were not necessary. The pilot study results also showed that hydraulic fracturing increased the distribution of the amendment in fine-grained soils when compared to gravity-fed injection wells. Additional information: Longer Abstract; DDJC-Sharpe 2009 5-Year Review
Demonstration of ISCO Treatment of a DNAPL Source Zone Launch Complex 34 in Cape Canaveral Air Station
2002. A. Gavaskar and W. Yoon, Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH. AFRL-ML-TY-TR-2003-4522, NTIS: ADA414447, 295 pp.
Details for Site ID 3222, Springvilla Dry Cleaner
Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Environmental Cleanup Site Information Database.
DEQ, with cooperation from the owner, McKay Investment Company, conducted a removal action in August and September 2004 to address the PCE in source soils present beneath the former dry cleaner building. McKay removed the cleaner's building and temporarily supported the adjacent building to allow DEQ's contractor to excavate about 150 cubic yards of soil from the former dry cleaning operation and treat it on site by SVE with vapor-phase carbon filtration to below residential risk-based levels. During excavation, the contractor installed subsurface piping near the water table to allow for injection of chemical or biological agents. In September 2004, 1,100 gallons of 4% sodium permanganate solution were injected into the gallery to address residual hot-spot soil and groundwater contamination. A groundwater bioremediation project was implemented in August 2007 to reduce levels of VOCs and downgradient of the former dry cleaner. In August 2009, DEQ injected emulsified oil into direct push borings in a grid array beneath the adjacent building as part of the removal action to reduce VOC concentrations in underlying shallow groundwater and to mitigate potential vapor intrusion issues. Groundwater recirculation ended in late August 2009.
- State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners Site Profile (2006)
- Former Springvilla Dry Cleaners 2006 Interim Removal Action Measure Report (ISCO)
- Large Scale Bioremediation Using Multiple Electron Donors (2009)
- Optimizing Remediation Strategies for a Former Dry-Cleaner Site (2010, abstract only)
- Former Springvilla Dry Cleaners 2009 Interim Remedial Action Measure Data Summary Report (Biostimulation)
EPA Superfund Record of Decision: Newton County Wells, OU 01, Joplin, MO
Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Jefferson City, MO.
EPA ROD-R07-04-655, 102 pp, 2004
A Removal Action required under the 1998 Consent Decree began in 2002 to address the principal waste threat. The contractor used ISCO with potassium permanganate to destroy the TCE DNAPL present in a pipeline trench, injecting ~35,000 gallons of 3% potassium permanganate solution. The contractor conducted monitoring over an extended period of time to determine the complete removal of the contaminant source. ISCO was limited to the pipeline trench area, where nearly 20 gallons of DNAPL was destroyed. About 4 gallons of TCE remain distributed in the overburden soils, the uppermost groundwater, and the Mississippian Aquifer site area.
- Remediation of DNAPL through Sequential In Situ Chemical Oxidation and Bioaugmentation (2010)
- Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging to Evaluate Permanganate Performance During In Situ Chemical Oxidation Treatment of a RDX-Contaminated Aquifer (2010)
- In Situ Chemical Oxidation at Four Dry Cleaner Sites, Various Locations (2005)
- In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) Treatment of DNAPL Source Zone at Launch Complex 34, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida (2003)
- Pump and Treat, In Situ Chemical Oxidation, and Soil Vapor Extraction at the Union Chemical Company Superfund Site, South Hope, ME (2001)
- In Situ Chemical Oxidation Using Potassium Permanganate at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, X-701B Facility (2000)
A Full-Scale Demonstration of In Situ Chemical Oxidation through Recirculation the X-701B Site
West, O.R., et al.
ORNL/TM-13556, 110 pp, 1997
In 1997, the Department of Energy undertook a month-long, field-scale treatability study using in situ chemical oxidation through recirculation (ISCOR) technology a Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site where TCE contaminates groundwater and sediments. Additional information: Innovative Technology Summary Report, DOE/EM-0496
In Situ Chemical Oxidation Through Lance Permeation the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)
M.Z. Martin and O.R. West.
ORNL/TM-2002/272, 37 pp, 2002
Sodium permanganate was delivered to the subsurface using vertical lance-like injectors deployed relatively close spacing in TCE-contaminated sediments in a field demonstration conducted in July-August 2000 at DOE's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The demonstration was not completed due to an accident that caused a worker serious injuries. Although the performance assessment data are limited, the study highlights important health and safety issues that must be considered when implementing ISCO.
OU III Building 96, Recommendation for Source Area Remediation
Holzmacher, J.R. and Brookhaven National Laboratory, 28 pp, 2009
In 2005, an initial round of potassium permanganate was injected to address a PCE groundwater source area Building 96 (AOC 26B) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Following two additional injections, one performed in 2005 and one in 2006, monitoring data indicated that PCE concentrations were rebounding to pre-injection levels. In 2007, Cr(VI) was detected in well influent at concentrations up to 124 µg/L, and elevated levels of Cr(VI) were detected immediately downgradient of the source area, correlating to areas treated with permanganate. Manganese oxide is a byproduct of the potassium permanganate treatment process, which oxidizes Cr(III) to Cr(VI). In 2008, additional soil characterization identified a discrete area of PCE soil contamination 25 x 25 ft in the unsaturated zone from just below the surface to a depth of 15 feet bgs and not below the water table. PCE soil concentrations reached a maximum of 1,800,000 µg/kg. The unsaturated zone was also characterized by interbedded thin silt layers. These findings explained the lack of success of the permanganate injections. BNL recommended optimization of the Building 96 remedy through the excavation of contaminated soil (~350 cubic yds) with off-site disposal. [Additional note: BNL published an Explanation of Significant Differences in July 2009, and the New York DEC and EPA agreed to the excavation remedy in August 2009. More information about this cleanup]
Remediation System Evaluation: 10th Street Superfund Site, OU2, Columbus, Nebraska
U.S. EPA, Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI).
EPA 540-R-10-012, 77 pp, Feb 2010
Groundwater contamination the 10th Street Superfund Site consists primarily of PCE, TCE, and cis-1,2-DCE. Three active components provide the groundwater remedy: 1) a groundwater extraction and treatment (GET) system; 2) an AS/SVE system located at the One Hour Martinizing (OHM) source area; and 3) ISCO treatment at the OHM source area and also at locations between OHM and the GET system. Optimization recommendations are provided in four primary categories: effectiveness, cost reduction, technical improvement, and sustainability.
Remediation of DNAPL through Sequential In Situ Chemical Oxidation and Bioaugmentation
ESTCP Project ER-0116, 92 pp, 2009
This project was conducted to assess the technical feasibility of sequential application of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) and in situ bioremediation (ISB) and to identify the optimal timing of the transition from ISCO to ISB. The field demonstration was conducted Launch Complex 34, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, where an extensive TCE DNAPL source is present in the groundwater. In 1999, a demonstration of ISCO using potassium permanganate at LC-34 was completed in a 75 ft x 50 ft test plot. Construction of a groundwater recirculation treatment system was initiated and completed in 2003, and injections of ethanol (ISB, or biostimulation) and KB-1 (bioaugmentation) took place in 2004. The system was operated between June 2003 and August 2004. Electron donor addition (ISB) after ISCO resulted in partial biodegradation of TCE, with complete biodegradation observed after bioaugmentation. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report
Second Five-Year Review Report for Tibbetts Road Superfund Site, Town of Barrington, Strafford County, New Hampshire
U.S. EPA Region 1, Boston, MA. 79 pp, 2008
EPA completed the first 5-year review in September 2003. Monitoring continues the site to assess the effectiveness of the reduction of ground-water contaminants (acetone, toluene, benzene, xylenes, PCE, TCE, MIBK, PCBs, and metals) by a vacuum-enhanced recovery system for hot-spot remediation, phytoremediation via 1,600 poplar trees, and intrinsic biodegradation. An ISCO pilot injection program began in November 2003 with the injection of 100 gal of sodium permanganate, followed by injection of 55 gal in December 2003. The initial ISCO pilot treatment successfully reduced many of the chlorinated and non-chlorinated organics, but benzene was not reduced significantly; future injections would require longer reaction times. A second phase of ISCO pilot injections took place in June and November of 2006. EPA's second 5-year review of the remedy confirms that progress is being made in site cleanup and that the soil and ground-water remedies already in place continue to be protective, but the restoration timeframe to attain the interim cleanup levels likely will take longer than the 2012 estimate.
Sites 2 and 12 In-Situ Oxidation Pilot Study Report, Former Fort Ord, California
2003. Harding Engineering & Environmental Services, Novato, CA. 45 pp.
A pilot study was conducted to evaluate site-specific conditions associated with in situ chemical oxidation using potassium permanganate for vinyl chloride in ground water and to establish preliminary design and performance criteria for full-scale implementation.
Stabilizing the NAPL Threat: In-Situ Biogeochemical Stabilization and Flux Reduction Using Catalyzed Permanganate
J. Mueller, J. Moreno, M. Dingens, and P. Vella.
Pollution Engineering, Mar 2007
Creosote and pentachlorophenol were found over an 11,000 cubic meter volume in consolidated shallow alluvium deposit an operating wood treatment facility in Colorado. In pilot-scale field studies of in situ biogeochemical stabilization initiated in 2002, 24,050 gallons of a 3% aqueous potassium permanganate solution were injected into 13 locations within a test area, achieving rapid and complete stabilization of NAPL, contaminant mass reduction of 10 to 79%, and flux reduction of 56 to 99%. Regulators approved a full-scale application of the technology at the site.
- American Cleaners, St. Peters, Missouri (2005)
- Barb & Ron's Cleaners, Appleton, Wisconsin (2004)
- Former Cowboy Cleaners, Broomfield, Colorado (2001)
- One Hour Martinizing, Darlington, South Carolina (2003)
- Paramount Cleaners, Florissant, Missouri (2003-2004)
- Quick-N-Easy Wash-O-Mat and Artistic Cleaners, Wichita, Kansas (1999)
- Rummel Creek Shopping Center, Houston, Texas (2001)
Successful Unsaturated Zone Treatment of PCE with Sodium Permanganate
J.R. Hesemann and M. Hildebrandt.
Remediation Journal, Vol 19 No 2, p 37-48, 2009
A pilot test of ISCO with permanganate to reduce PCE soil concentrations within the source area was conducted an active dry cleaner located in Topeka, Kansas, where a relatively small area of residual contamination adjacent to the active facility building was identified as the source of a large, site-wide groundwater contamination plume with off-site receptors. The pilot-test approach consisted of injecting aqueous sodium permanganate using direct-push technology with a sealed borehole, and ~12,500 pounds of sodium permanganate was injected at a concentration of ~3% (by weight). Confirmation soil sampling conducted after the injection event indicated PCE reductions ranging from 79 to >99%. After additional injection of 6,200 pounds of sodium permanganate to address residual soil impacts in the soil source zone, confirmation sampling indicated a PCE reduction of >90% at the most heavily contaminated sample location and additional reductions in four of the six samples collected.
Use of In Situ Chemical Oxidation with Permanganate in PCE-Contaminated Clayey Till with Sand Lenses
Technical University of Denmark, Ph.D Thesis, 76 pp, 2007
This thesis discusses the interaction of permanganate with sedimentary reductants and suggests that that the chemical oxygen demand of the sediments themselves is an important factor in planning a remedial action.
Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging to Evaluate Permanganate Performance during an In Situ Treatment of a RDX-Contaminated Aquifer
S. Comfort, V. Zlotnik, and T. Halihan.
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), Project ER-0635, 132 pp, 2009
Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical technique that can infer subsurface water and soil electrical properties, providing a spatially extensive, high-density, high-quality model of subsurface conditions. ERI was used to monitor an injection of sodium permanganate to mineralize RDX the former Nebraska Ordnance Plant. [RDX and TCE were commingled in the plume, but TCE is not discussed.] ERI showed that the permanganate injection flowed against the regional groundwater gradient, and that the solution was able to sink below the monitoring well screens. Without geophysical observations, no information would have been available to explain the permanganate and RDX concentrations observed in the wells. The same data were used to guide the boring of additional holes. See also the ESTCP Cost and Performance Report.
XPERT Design and Diagnostics' (XDD) In Situ Chemical Oxidation Process Using Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4): Innovative Technology Evaluation Report
U.S. EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH.
EPA 540-R-07-005, 96 pp, 2007
Describes an evaluation of the XDD ISCO process using potassium permanganate a site in Hudson, NH, to address chlorinated volatile organics, including PCE, TCE, cDCE, 1,1,1-TCA, and 1,1-DCA.
Case Study Comparison of Multiple Activation Methods for Sodium Persulfate ISCO Treatment
Sixth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, May 19-22, 2008, Monterey, California. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH. 8 pp, 2008.
Six brief in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) case studies (full and pilot scale) from sites in California illustrate the use of different methods--hydrogen peroxide, ferrous or chelated iron, alkaline conditions (high pH)--for persulfate activation. Good to excellent contaminant reductions (generally >85%) were achieved in all 6 cases for contaminants such as 1,4-dioxane and chlorinated solvents (2), a mixed chlorinated solvent plume (1), methylene chloride DNAPL (1), gasoline-range hydrocarbons (1), and benzene (1).
Coal Tar Contamination Remediation
Pollution Engineering 44(5):26-30(2012) [a Pollution Engineering white paper]
At a New York City brownfield, site of a former roofing products manufacturer, a surfactant-enhanced ISCO (S-ISCO) system was implemented to remediate coal tar present as residual NAPL held within the pore spaces of the predominately sandy and silty soil, which included lenses of silt and silty clay. A patented, plant-based surfactant/co-solvent mixture and alkaline-activated sodium persulfate were delivered into the subsurface using a pressure-pulsing injection enhancement technology. Between October 2010 and March 2011, the supplier conducted five months of S-ISCO injections that destroyed >90% of coal tar-related contaminants—PAHs, naphthalene, and BTEX—in the targeted interval.
Controlled Vadose Zone Saturation and Remediation (CVSR) Using Chemical Oxidation
Cronk, G., S. Koenigsberg, B. Coughlin, M. Travers, and D. Schlott.
The 7th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, May 24-27, 2010. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH. 8 pp, 2010
CVSR was implemented with ISCO an active industrial site in Illinois to address PCE, TCE, methylene chloride, ethylbenzene, toluene, and total xylenes in the soil. Alkaline-activated sodium persulfate using sodium hydroxide was applied to shallow soils to a depth of 15 ft. The vadose zone soils were saturated using a combination of vertical injection wells, an infiltration gallery, and horizontal injection wells installed beneath two small buildings. Due to the presence of low permeability silts and clays, the ROI of each vertical injection well was ~10 ft. About 4,700 gallons of sodium hydroxide (25% concentration) and 11,500 lbs of sodium persulfate were injected over a 27-day period in November/December 2008. A second injection of activated persulfate was performed in Area 1 in August 2009. The concentrations of the compounds of concern all decreased by 88 to 99% within 180 days after treatment.
Cost And Performance Report for a Persulfate Treatability Study Naval Air Station North Island
Gavaskar, A. and W. Condit, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH.
NAVFAC Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA. TR-2306-ENV, 28 pp, 2008
A pilot treatability study of persulfate was conducted Operable Unit 20, Naval Air Station North Island, between November 2006 and June 2007. The groundwater treatment targeted the removal of chlorinated VOCs (primarily TCE) located at a depth of up to 54 ft bgs.
Cost and Performance Report for Persulfate Treatability Studies
S. Rosansky and A. Dindal.
Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA. TR-2333-ENV, 103 pp, 2010
Five persulfate pilot projects four Navy sites and one Marine Corps site conducted between 2006 and 2009 yielded useful information on the performance of ISCO using different activators and under different site conditions. The demonstrations took place at Naval Air Station North Island (TCE, DCE); NAS Alameda (VC); Alleghany Ballistics Laboratory (TCE, 1,2-DCE, 1,1,1-TCA, methylene chloride, acetone); Marine Corps Base Quantico (1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, TCE, PCE, DCE, VC); and Washington Yard (LNAPL). ISCO at Washington Yard occurred in June 2009 and data were not available for this report. Performance data from the first 4 sites indicate that persulfate application was successful at reducing chlorinated solvent constituents; however, reductions were not uniform across the sites, possibly due to the difficulty of distributing the reagent evenly throughout the target treatment areas. Specific conclusions pertaining to contaminant reduction at the first four sites are provided.
Evaluation of Lime and Persulfate Treatment for Mixed Contaminant Soil from Plum Brook Ordnance Works (Sandusky, OH)
V.F. Medina, S.A. Waisner, A.B. Morrow, C.C. Nestler, and M. Jones.
ERDC/EL TR-07-19, 116 pp, 2007
Soil contaminated with TNT, DNT, a PCB (Aroclor 1260), PAHs, and lead was addressed with a series of chemical-based treatments, i.e., application of lime to treat the explosives, advanced oxidation (persulfate and Fenton's reagent) for treatment of PCBs and PAHs, and use of phosphate for stabilizing lead. Lime treatment degraded 98% of TNT, 75% of DNT, and 80% of PCBs, with minimal removal (41%) of PAHs. Similar removal levels were found for persulfate treatment and lime followed by persulfate. Treatments of the most contaminated soil did not meet preliminary remediation goals for explosives or PCBs.
Fast-Track Remedial Design of Full-Scale ISCO Application Using Pilot Scale Testing and Field Screening Parameters
Dombrowski, P.M., B.A. Weir, K.M. Kelly, and J. Brown.
Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Soils, Sediments, Water and Energy 15(16):169-194(2010)
At the Ottati and Goss Superfund Site in Kingston, NH, soil and groundwater contaminated with chlorinated VOCs, BTEX, and 1,4-dioxane were addressed with base-activated persulfate. This paper describes pilot test planning, performance monitoring, and full-scale design using data collected from the 2007-2008 pilot test for this fast-track remediation. The full-scale application was completed between July and September 2008. Additional information: Ottati & Goss/Kingston Steel Drum, Kingston, NH.
Focused In-Situ Chemical Oxidation of Chlorinated VOCs and 1,4-Dioxane Using Sodium Persulfate in Fine-Grained Soils
K.S. Houston, J. Horst, and G. Wroblewski.
Pollution Engineering, 8 pp, Mar 2009
At a former machining and metal working site where the groundwater is affected by PCE, TCE, 1,1-DCE, and 1,4-dioxane, focused ISCO using sodium persulfate was considered for discrete source mass treatment to expedite mass removal and decrease the operational timeframe, but lab treatability tests indicated that strategic oxidant dosing would achieve the remediation goal. In a field pilot test, effective 1,4-dioxane and VOC treatment was achieved, likely the result of naturally occurring reduced metals (e.g., ferrous iron) that facilitated sulfate radical formation, which also showed that oxidant field loading based solely on lab-determined total oxidant demand of site soil and groundwater slurries can overstate the mass of oxidant required to achieve effective treatment.
In-Situ Chemical Oxidation to Address Residual VOC Plumes on the Savannah River Site
Seaman, J.C., B. Kramer, J. Kupar, M. Malin, and P.C. Knapp.
Proceedings of the 2011 Georgia Water Resources Conference, April 11-13, 2011, University of Georgia. Abstract only, 2011
A field-scale demonstration was conducted to evaluate ISCO for residual TCE on DOE's Savannah River site. TCE concentrations in the plume ranged from 10 to 40 mg/L. Catalyzed persulfate was injected intermittently over a 10-day period as 10 oxidant batches (~230 g sodium persulfate/L) totaling 4,800 gallons (18,168 L). Quantifiable concentrations of persulfate were detected in observation well 1 (OW1) ~2 weeks after injection, peaking ~150 mg/L and then slowly decreasing over 295 days of monitoring. Subsequent lab experiments confirmed the somewhat limited mobility of persulfate in the SRS subsurface environment due to sorption in Fe-oxide rich materials. Batch results confirmed the continued effectiveness of persulfate in degrading VOCs in the absence of an activating agent at the relatively low persulfate concentrations (< or = 192 mg/L) observed in OW1. Additional information: 21 slides about this project Laboratory and Modeling Efforts
Revisiting a Closed Site: Expedited Treatability Testing and High Pressure Injection of Activated Sodium Persulfate to Move Site toward Closure, Again
Jacobs, J.A., A. Adini, and D. Rao.
The 20th International Conference on Soils, Sediments, Water and Energy, March 15-18, 2010, San Diego, California. Poster presentation, 2010
A 3,000-gallon gasoline underground storage tank in the Charnock Sub-Basin in Los Angeles was removed and remediation was considered complete in 1997, but the case was reopened in 2000 following MTBE discoveries in the area. In 2007, treatability testing was performed for ISCO using Fenton's reagent and sodium persulfate with three activators. A one-week ISCO pilot test in April 2008 used 10 closely spaced probe-driven injection ports to inject 10,000 gallons of treatment chemicals using computer-controlled, high-pressure injection equipment. The pilot achieved average soil concentration reductions of TPH-g, BTEX, and MTBE >60%. Average shallow groundwater concentrations in nearby groundwater wells showed reductions of over 99% for TPH-g and benzene. Full-scale treatment took place in April 2009, when 12,000 gallons of sodium persulfate and iron EDTA Catalyst with no pH adjustment were injected into a closely spaced injection matrix of 12 ports in the treatment zone.
Source Area MIP Investigation and Pilot-Scale Groundwater Remediation Using Activated Persulfate
Rees, A. and T. Taylor.
AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition, April 22-25, 2012, Long Beach, California. Poster, Search and Discovery #80246, 2012
An ISCO pilot test was performed at a site in Southern California in 2010 to address residual gasoline free product and high concentrations of BTEX and MTBE. High-resolution results from a membrane interface probe investigation to characterize the lithology and total VOCs in the source area were used to design the ISCO injection grid. A mixture consisting of 6,600 lbs of sodium persulfate mixed with 660 pounds of iron EDTA and water was injected across the top 10 ft of the saturated zone using direct-push methods. Persulfate distribution and oxidation were achieved within the injection zone, 20 ft cross-gradient, and 35 ft downgradient. Although the iron-activated persulfate effectively reduced dissolved-phase VOC concentrations, rebound was observed.