Dr. Steve Clough is a Senior Environmental Toxicologist at Haley & Aldrich in Manchester, NH. Since 1988, Steve has performed ecological risk assessments under CERCLA/RCRA, which require detailed exposure assessments that incorporate bioavailability factors and an in-depth knowledge of the physicochemical parameters that affect them. Steve specializes in assessing the impact of point and non-point sources to benthic communities in estuaries, rivers, and streams and has a wide range of experience using both active and passive pore water sampling techniques. In 1996, Steve worked for NCASI, a pulp and paper trade group, where he conducted field studies to evaluate the uptake of extremely persistent hydrophobic compounds into both aquatic and terrestrial food chains (including the calculation of site-specific bioavailability factors). Steve then joined environmental consulting and has conducted numerous multipathway ecological risk assessments that require formulating a Conceptual Site Models, which are subsequently validated in the field by sampling of sediment and biota to determine the actual exposure and risk that environmental chemicals/stressors may pose to key receptors. Steve specializes in the toxicology of metals, routinely presents at scientific conferences, and has been active in ITRC since 2007. Steve earned a bachelor’s degree in pathobiology from the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut in 1976. After managing both mammalian and aquatic toxicology laboratories addressing product development under TSCA, he attended the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan where he earned a master’s in water quality in 1983 and a Ph.D. in toxicology in 1988. Steve is also certified as a Diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology.