Dr. Klaine’s research focuses on the fate and effects of contaminants in the environment — specifically in contaminants that migrate from various land uses into aquatic ecosystems and their effects on aquatic plants and animals. His laboratory studies contaminant effects on fish, aquatic invertebrates, plants and algae. Currently, they are studying the toxicity of metals and pesticides. In addition, they are collaborating with social scientists to develop strategies that facilitate the coexistence of economically sound land use with good environmental quality. In his recent study published in ES&T (2007) his group shows that when carbon nanotubes are made water-soluble with natural lipid layers, they are readily taken up and structurally modified by daphnids, or water fleas (Daphnia magna). The nanotubes are also toxic to the fleas at high concentrations.