U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Technology Innovation News Survey

Entries for September 16-30, 2017

Market/Commercialization Information
STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (SERDP)
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USACE HEC, Ft. Belvoir, VA.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-5818, 2017

DoD's SERDP office intends to competitively fund research and development for innovative research in FY 2018. Details of the statements of need and the application process are posted at https://www.serdp-estcp.org/Funding-Opportunities/SERDP-Solicitations.
In Solicitation W912HQ-18-S-0001, four needs areas are identified under Environmental Restoration (ER) and two under Munitions Response (MR):
  1. ERSON-19-C1: Ecological Risk Characterization of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in the Subsurface: Bioavailability, Bioaccumulation, and Biomagnification.
  2. ERSON-19-C2: Development of Standardized Analytical and Environmental Sampling Methods for Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in the Subsurface.
  3. ERSON-19-C3: Innovative Treatment Options to Mitigate Munitions Constituent Transport on DoD Testing and Training Ranges.
  4. ERSON-19-C4: Cost-Effective Options for Treatment of Wastes from Munitions Constituents Manufacturing.
  5. MRSON-19-C1: Detection, Classification, and Remediation of Military Munitions Underwater.
  6. MRSON-19-C2: Modeling Predictions of Munitions Penetration in a Variety of Soils.
Pre-proposals must be received no later than 2:00 PM ET on January 4, 2018, via the SERDP and ESTCP Management System (SEMS). Multiple awards totaling ~$12M are anticipated.
In Solicitation W912HQ-18-S-0002, SERDP seeks proposals for its SERDP Exploratory Development (SEED) program—MRSEED-19-S1—for Detection, Classification, and Remediation of Military Munitions Underwater. Projects to establish proof of concept will be funded at a level not to exceed $200,000 in total cost and ~one year in duration. Proposals must be received by 2:00 PM ET on March 6, 2018, via SEMS.


SOCIETY OF AMERICAN MILITARY ENGINEERS FEDERAL SMALL BUSINESS CONFERENCE
Department of Veterans Affairs, Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, Alexandria, VA.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-5805, Solicitation 00036, 2017

The Society of American Military Engineers (SAME) Federal Small Business Conference is an annual event where the public and private sectors come together to help federal agencies succeed with their small business missions and market research. Around 2,500 attendees are expected at the 2017 meeting, which will be held November 15-17, 2017, at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Pre-conference courses and training are available on November 14. For details and registration, visit http://www.samesbc.org. Interested parties do not need to be a SAME member to attend. Among the many NAICS codes of interest listed for this conference are 541620 (Environmental Consulting Services), 541690 (Other Scientific and Technical Consulting Services), 541712 (Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences [except Biotechnology]), 562211 (Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal), and 562910 (Remediation Services). https://www.fbo.gov/spg/VA/VA00SB/VACO10100SB/00036/listing.html


2017 ARKANSAS REGIONAL INDUSTRY DAYS FORUM: SMALL BUSINESS
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USACE District, Little Rock, Arkansas.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-5816, Solicitation 2017-industry5, 2017

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Little Rock District will hold the 2017 Arkansas Regional Industry Days on December 6 and 7, 2017. This two-day event will be held at the Arkansas Regional Innovation Hub located at 201 E. Broadway in North Little Rock. This event will provide industry with opportunities to network with government and other large and small business contractors; discuss upcoming contracting opportunities; and allow training in important contracting topics. Registration information is available at https://goo.gl/forms/BzacPvFxdwwmlSJR2. Registration for this event closes at 11:59 PM ET on November 30, 2017. https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/DACA03/2017-industry5/listing.html


BUILDING 8130 HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM REMEDIATION
Department of the Air Force, Air Force Global Strike Command, 7 CONS, Dyess AFB, Texas.
Federal Business Opportunities, FBO-5817, Solicitation FA4661-18-R-0001, 2017

This acquisition is set aside for woman-owned small business firms under NAICS code 562910. The Government intends to award a firm-fixed-price contract, magnitude between $250,000 and $500,000. Building 8130 (~20,720 s.f.) was constructed in 1959 as a guided missile field maintenance shop and has experienced numerous renovations and additions since that time. This project requires remediation and selective demolition. Contractor shall provide the personnel, equipment, and permit fees to perform heavy metal and asbestos remediation from the facility. All horizontal surfaces above and including the floor/walls shall be assumed to hold metals-contaminated dust (Cr(VI), Pb, and Cd). See the Statement of Work for details. Proposals must be received via email no later than 12:00 noon CT on November 27, 2017. https://www.fbo.gov/notices/22aa93eb705a32305145d289242347ef


SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT GRANT PROGRAM
Department of Agriculture, Utilities Programs, Funding Opportunity SWMFY2018, 2017

Under this grant program, funds may be used to evaluate current landfill conditions to determine threats to water resources in rural areas; provide technical assistance and/or training to enhance operator skills in the maintenance and operation of active landfills in rural areas; provide technical assistance and/or training to help associations reduce the solid waste stream; and provide technical assistance and/or training for operators of landfills in rural areas that are closed or will close in the near future with the development/implementation of closure plans, future land use plans, safety and maintenance planning, and closure scheduling within permit requirements. The closing date for applications is January 2, 2018. Approximately 33 awards are anticipated from estimated total program funding of $4M. http://www.grants.gov/web/grants/view-opportunity.html?oppId=297812



Cleanup News
REGULATORY CLOSURE OF A LARGE GROUNDWATER PLUME AND REDEVELOPMENT AT A LEGACY AEROSPACE SITE: NASA, DOWNEY, CA
Payne, F., P. Nicolay, K. Stevens, P. Weaverling, S. Potter, and K.S. Houston.
Groundwater Solutions: Innovating to Address Emerging Issues for Groundwater Resources, August 8-9, 2017, Arlington, VA. Paper 1160, 2017

Regulatory closure has been achieved for the 4,000-ft plume of chlorinated solvent constituents (PCE, TCE, and daughter products) underlying the former NASA Industrial Plant located in Downey, Calif. Initial treatment with soil vapor extraction (2000-2008) was followed by installation of 10 injection well transects (144 injection wells) perpendicular to groundwater flow to support an inject-and-drift carbohydrate amendment process that stimulated enhanced reductive dechlorination (2005-2012). The transect strategy allowed concurrent remedial action and site redevelopment. Spot treatments using permanganate-based ISCO in the lower vadose zone and bioaugmentation in the groundwater were also implemented. The site was in post-remediation monitoring 2012-2016, and the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board issued a no-further-requirements-for-groundwater letter in March 2017. At the former NASA Industrial Plant, a large plume cleanup was achieved concurrent with an extensive redevelopment effort. See additional information on this cleanup under Site Maps/Documents at http://geotracker.waterboards.ca.gov/profile_report?global_id=SL2045E1618.

FUNCTION AND PERFORMANCE OF PHYTOINTEGRATED™ REMEDIATION SYSTEMS ON DEEP GROUNDWATER AND/OR TARGETED HORIZONS: HYDRAULICS AND TREATMENT
Gatliff, E.G., P.J. Linton, D.J. Riddle, B.E. Smith, P.R. Thomas, M. Wissler, and J. Fronczek.
IPEC 2016: 23rd Annual International Petroleum Environmental Conference, 25 slides, 2016

Engineered phytoremediation was employed as a component to address downgradient plumes of chlorinated VOCs in shallow and deep groundwater at three U.S. sites: 1,4-dioxane in Florida, TCE/TCA in Pennsylvania, and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in Illinois). Source areas at each site were addressed using other treatment technologies. In Florida and Pennsylvania, the contaminant plumes had migrated into fractured bedrock of the aquifer to depths of 10 to 30 ft bgs. The engineered phytoremediation systems were developed to complement source area treatment systems. In Florida, TreeWell units were installed on ~1.5 acres to capture the entire downgradient plume of 1,4-dioxane/VOCs in combination with pump and treat and an HDPE containment wall. In Pennsylvania, rows of units were installed immediately downgradient of the source area to further reduce TCE and 1,1,1-TCA concentrations following limited source removal, SVE, enhanced in situ bioremediation, and in situ chemical reduction. In Illinois the dissolved-phase CCl4 migrated through sand/silt seams 15 to 25 ft deep in the soil profile of dense silty clay. Following electrical resistance heating, plans for the large source area involve in situ chemical reduction with a funnel-and-gate permeable reactive barrier (PRB). In addition, a segment of the phytoremediation installation at the PRB site will function as a downgradient pump to draw source area groundwater through the PRB. A pilot study area was established to evaluate requirements for a larger scale system for downgradient plume control of CCl4. https://cese.utulsa.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/2016-IPEC-FUNCTION-AND-PERFORMANCE-OF-PHYTO-INTEGRATED%E2%84%A2-REMEDIATION-SYSTEMS-ON-DEEP-GROUNDWATER-AND-OR-TARGETED-HORIZONS.pdf

PHYTO-ASSISTED REMEDIATION OF A CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SITE: A LONG-TERM STUDY
Widdowson, M.A., B.J. Harding, and J.T. Novak.
10th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Palm Springs, CA; May 2016). Battelle, Columbus, OH. Presentation E-068, 2016

Decades after the discovery of creosote DNAPL at a legacy rail-tie yard through a 20-year on-site program of remediation, no further action is required. Site closure was accomplished through a combination of source removal, hydraulic containment, and phytoremediation of target PAHs in soil and groundwater. The creosote source derived from a former dip pond and an aboveground storage tank. PAH contamination was present as a dissolved-phase plume, primarily naphthalene in a shallow overburden unconfined aquifer, and as a DNAPL source present above dense shale. The initial remedial effort included removal of ~1147 tons of creosote-impacted soil, chemical oxidation in residual source areas, and construction of a groundwater collection system. The phytoremediation system planted in 1998 comprised ~1,200 hybrid poplar trees installed for hydraulic control of dissolved-phase constituents and enhancement of natural biodegradation. Instrumentation of the phytoremediation system enabled in situ measurement of water and naphthalene uptake by the trees. A significant reduction in the areal extent of the PAH plume was seen in the upper half of the 2-m thick saturated zone beginning with the third and fourth growing seasons, which coincided with the propagation of the tree roots to the water table region. Remediation was limited primarily to naphthalene and several 3-ring PAHs. During the seventh growing season, peak rates of direct transpiration ranged from 15 to 49 L/d. Naphthalene mass loss resulting from plant uptake was ~335 mg/d. Final performance monitoring work in 2015 included assessment of the health and physical attributes of the existing hybrid poplar tree stand, groundwater sampling and assessment, analysis of the soil microbial community, and contaminant and elemental analysis of tree tissue using tree-core sampling.

REQUEST FOR AMENDED RESTRICTIVE COVENANT FOR THE SCHMID 32ND STREET PROPERTY, WASHOUGAL, WASHINGTON: VOLUNTARY CLEANUP PROGRAM
Washington State Department of Ecology, 80 pp, 2017

Starting in the mid-1930s, the Schmid 32nd Street site was used for agricultural and residential purposes. Light industrial use of the property began in the 1950s, with the main shop/office building constructed in the 1970s. Other structures were constructed in the 1990s. On-site operations included heavy equipment maintenance and repair, power washing, sandblasting, equipment storage, and administrative business operations. All structures were removed from the property by 2010. Contaminated soil was removed at four locations, and groundwater impacts identified near a former diesel underground storage tank (UST) were treated using in situ injections of Advanced Oxygen Release Compound (Regenesis, ORC Advanced®) to enhance the bioremediation of hydrocarbons in groundwater. From August 10-12, 2015, in situ groundwater treatment by injection of ORC Advanced was applied to the contaminant plume via 18 injection points covering an area of 1,800 ft2 near the former diesel UST. The injection points were advanced to a depth of 26 ft for a treatment interval from 12 to 26 ft. The single round of injections is expected to achieve the cleanup goals, although multiple years will be required for all groundwater contamination to reach levels below Model Toxics Control Act cleanup levels. See this report and other project cleanup information at https://fortress.wa.gov/ecy/gsp/CleanupSiteDocuments.aspx?csid=12445.


Demonstrations / Feasibility Studies
DEMONSTRATION AND COMMERCIALIZATION OF THE SEDIMENT ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT PROTOCOL (SEAP): ESTCP COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT
Rosen, G.
ESTCP Project 201130, 83 pp, 2017

This project was designed to demonstrate, commercialize, and promote regulatory awareness and acceptance of the Sediment Ecosystem Assessment Protocol (SEAP), an integrated assessment ecological risk assessment approach developed under SERDP Project ER-1550, which was focused largely on the performance of a field-deployed device referred to as the Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring (SEA Ring). The now commercially available SEA Ring, developed and refined under this project, consists of a circular carousel capable of housing an array of in situ bioassay chambers and passive sampling devices. Results from a total of eight SEA Ring deployments at three demonstration sites, in addition to third-party technology verification under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification program, were used to assess performance. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/45724/426238/file/ER-201130%20Cost%20&%20Performance%20Report.pdf


EVALUATING LONG-TERM IMPACTS OF SOIL-MIXING SOURCE-ZONE TREATMENT USING CRYOGENIC CORE COLLECTION
Olson, M., W. Clayton, T. Sale, S. De Long, M. Irianni-Renno, and R. Johnson.
ESTCP Project ER-201587, 232 pp, 2017

This project focused on DNAPL source zone remediation using soil mixing with zero-valent iron and bentonite, a technology referred to as ZVI-clay soil mixing. In November 2012, the soil mixing technology was implemented in a TCE DNAPL source zone at Site 17, Naval Support Facility Indian Head, Maryland. Four years of remediation performance data indicate that TCE concentrations in soil and groundwater within the treated-soil zone had been reduced by up to four and five orders of magnitude, respectively. Groundwater concentrations in portions of the former-DNAPL source-zone approached MCLs within four years of soil-mixing completion. To assess post-remediation potential for TCE concentrations to rebound, as well as effects of remediation on natural fate and transport processes, high-resolution data representing both high-permeability and low-permeability soil strata were collected using cryogenic core collection. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/45611/425408/file/ER-201587%20Final%20Report.pdf


CONTAMINANT FLUX REDUCTION BARRIERS FOR MANAGING DIFFICULT-TO-TREAT SOURCE ZONES IN UNCONSOLIDATED MEDIA
Higgins, E.A., P.R. Kulkarni, C.J. Newell, and B.A. Strasters.
ESTCP Project ER-201328, 163 pp, 2017

The overall objective of this project was to evaluate if inexpensive flow reduction agents delivered via permeation grouting technology could help manage difficult-to-treat chlorinated solvent source zones. Two types of flow-reduction materials for permeation grouting were evaluated in terms of performance (i.e., flux reduction properties), cost, ease of installation, and longevity: conventional physical compounds, such as silica gel, and a novel vegetable oil formulation. This report describes the results of a small-scale demonstration (three small barriers) constructed in a clean zone that achieved an average 64% reduction in flow-through, which was lower than the performance objective of a 90% reduction in flow, likely owing to the low permeability of silty sands in the test area. The main goal of the demonstration was to show that remediation technology (direct push rigs and subsurface injection) could be used to make permeation grouting barriers at contaminated sites and to compare the relative performance of the flow-reduction materials in reducing aquifer transmissivity. Applications of one acre in area or more are estimated to be significantly less costly than conventional in situ remediation technologies ($996K/acre and $21/yd3 for a one-acre site). https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/45694/425998/file/ER-201328%20Final%20Report.pdf See also the ESTCP Cost and Performance report at https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/45695/426008/file/ER-201328%20Cost%20&%20Performance%20Report.pdf.


VALIDATION OF PASSIVE SAMPLING DEVICES FOR MONITORING OF MUNITIONS CONSTITUENTS IN UNDERWATER ENVIRONMENTS
Rosen, G., M. Colvin, R. George, G. Lotufo, C. Woodley, D. Smith, and J. Belden.
ESTCP Project ER-201433, SPAWAR Technical Report 3076, 248 pp, 2017

Underwater military munitions (UWMM) have the potential to corrode, breach, and leak munitions constituents (MCs) such as TNT, RDX, and their major degradation products into aquatic environments. Accurate assessment of environmental exposure using traditional water, sediment, and tissue sampling and analyses can be challenged by the high level of effort or difficulty required to (1) measure MC at very low (ng/L) concentrations; (2) identify leaking UWMM and evaluate the nature of the leakage; (3) measure MC release during episodic events; and (4) measure MC in biota despite low bioaccumulation potential. This demonstration focused on field validation of commercially available passive sampling devices, specifically polar organic chemical integrative samplers, or POCIS, for estimating time-averaged water concentrations at underwater sites as previously calibrated for detection of MC in lab studies. This report provides new results from further optimization efforts and results from two field studies, including a positive-control field study in Santa Rosa Sound, Florida, and a larger scale effort conducted in a bay adjacent to the former Vieques Naval Training Range at Vieques Island, Puerto Rico. Appendix H comprises a 24-page Technology User's Manual. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/45674/425866/file/ER-201433%20Final%20Report.pdf



Research
HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM BIOREDUCTION AND CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION OF SULPHATE AS A TREATMENT OF SITE-SPECIFIC FLY ASH LEACHATES
Cason, E.D., P.J. Williams, E. Ojo, J. Castillo, M.F. DeFlaun, and E. van Heerden.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 33(5):88(2017)

Researchers demonstrated an efficient and sustainable dual treatment remediation strategy for removal of high levels of Cr(VI) and sulfate introduced by fly ash leachate generated by a coal-fired power station in South Africa. The treatment consisted of a primary fixed-bed bioreactor kept at a reduction potential for Cr(VI) reduction. Metagenome sequencing clearly indicated a diverse bacterial community containing various bacteria, predominantly of the phylum Proteobacteria, which includes numerous species known for their ability to detoxify metals such as Cr(VI). The bioreactor treatment was followed by a secondary barium carbonate/dispersed alkaline substrate column for sulfate removal. The combination of these biological and chemical systems achieved removal of 99% Cr(VI) and 90% sulfate present in fly ash leachate.


1,4-DIOXANE DRINKING WATER OCCURRENCE DATA FROM THE THIRD UNREGULATED CONTAMINANT MONITORING RULE
Adamson, D.T., E.A. Pina, A.E. Cartwright, S.R. Rauch, R.H. Anderson, T. Mohr, J.A. Connor.
Science of the Total Environment 596-597:236-245(2017)

Scientists examined data collected from U.S. public water systems (PWSs) in support of the recently-completed third round of the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR3) to gain a better understanding of the nature and occurrence of 1,4-dioxane and the basis for establishing drinking water standards. The study confirmed that 21% of the public water supplies detected this compound, a rate that ranks relatively high when compared to the other UCMR3 contaminants. Dioxane detections and exceedances were primarily associated with large systems, and there was a slightly greater likelihood of dioxane presence in groundwater than in surface water; however, the comparable detection rates and concentrations in surface water and groundwater source run counter to the assumptions that dioxane in drinking water is largely related to contaminated groundwater sites. Furthermore, dioxane showed evidence of a decreasing trend in concentration and detection frequency over time based on aggregated nationwide data. The collected UCMR3 occurrence data are posted at https://www.epa.gov/dwucmr/occurrence-data-unregulated-contaminant-monitoring-rule.


ASSOCIATING POTENTIAL 1,4-DIOXANE BIODEGRADATION ACTIVITY WITH GROUNDWATER GEOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT FOUR DIFFERENT CONTAMINATED SITES
da Silva, M.L.B., C. Woroszylo, N.F. Castillo, D.T. Adamson, and P.J.J. Alvarez.
Journal of Environmental Management 206:60-64(2017) doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.10.031

Pearson's and Spearman's correlation and linear regression analyses were conducted to discern associations between 1,4-dioxane biodegradation activity measured in aerobic microcosms and groundwater geochemical parameters at four different contaminated sites. Dissolved oxygen, which is known to limit dioxane biodegradation, was excluded as a limiting factor. Biodegradation activity was positively associated with dioxane concentrations as well as the number of catabolic thmA gene copies encoding dioxane monooxygenase. While environmental factors such as pH, temperature, and nutrients might influence dioxane biodegradation, the in situ concentration of substrate dioxane at the time of sampling had the greatest influence in that the analysis infers that aerobic sites with higher dioxane concentrations are more likely to select and sustain a thriving population of dioxane degraders. Under low dioxane concentrations, the contaminant likely would have greater difficulty attenuating naturally.


USING AEROBIC COMETABOLIC BIODEGRADATION AND GROUNDWATER RECIRCULATION TO TREAT 1,4-DIOXANE AND CO-CONTAMINANTS IN A DILUTE PLUME
Chu, M.-Y.J., P. Bennett, M. Dolan, M. Hyman, R. Anderson, A. Bodour, and A. Peacock.
The 10th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Palm Springs, CA; May 2016). Battelle, Columbus, OH. Poster F-010, 2016

Although numerous studies on aerobic cometabolic biodegradation (ACB) of 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) have been published, most of them have been lab studies at high 1,4-D concentrations, not the low levels typically found at cleanup sites. A field test is underway at the former McClellan AFB to evaluate the potential of ACB to treat 1,4-D and co-contaminants in a dilute plume using groundwater recirculation to deliver substrates along with bioaugmentation. Groundwater in the test area is aerobic and contains 1,4-D (~50 mg/L), 1,1-DCA (~10 mg/L), and TCE (~5 mg/L). An injection/extraction well pair, a monitoring network, and an above-ground substrate delivery system were constructed to facilitate groundwater recirculation and propane and oxygen addition. A conservative tracer test was conducted to characterize the travel times from the injection well to individual monitoring wells. The lab study phase revealed that a strain of Mycobacterium sp. capable of degrading MTBE had substantial 1,4-D transformation activity when using propane as the primary substrate. Following the biostimulation phase, the recirculation zone will be bioaugmented. http://www.haleyaldrich.com/Portals/0/Downloads/battelle-chlorinated/aerobic-cometabolic-biodegradation-groundwater-14dioxane-haleyaldrich-battelle.pdf


SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGEN 1,4-DIOXANE AND MALODOROUS ALKYL-1,3-DIOXANES AND ALKYL-1,3-DIOXOLANES IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS BY SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY
Carrera, G., L. Vegue, M.R. Boleda, and F. Ventura.
Journal of Chromatography A 1487:1-13(2017)

The suitability of a solid-phase extraction method and further analysis by GC/MS-MS for simultaneous determination of 1,4-dioxane, alkyl-1,3-dioxanes, and dioxolanes has been demonstrated. Recoveries in surface waters spiked at 25 ng/L ranged from 76-105%, whereas method quantification limits varied from 0.7 to 26 ng/L for dioxanes and dioxolanes, and 50 ng/L for 1,4-dioxane. Uncertainties were evaluated at two different concentrations, 0.02 µg/L and 0.4 µg/L, with values of 25% for 1,4-dioxane and of 16-28% for alkyl-1,3-dioxanes and alkyl-1,3-dioxolanes. The methodology was applied successfully to samples from the aquifer of the Llobregat River in Northeast Spain.


HIGH-RESOLUTION SITE CHARACTERIZATION OF 1,4-DIOXANE SITES USING NEW ON-SITE, REAL-TIME ANALYSIS
Davis, W.M., C.P. Antworth, C.A. Horrell, J. Wright, and P. Curry.
The 10th International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (Palm Springs, CA; May 2016). Battelle, Columbus, OH. Presentation F-001, 22 slides, 2016

Current lab methods for 1,4-dioxane use either purge and trap (EPA Methods 524.2 or 8260b) or solid-phase extraction (EPA Method 522). Due to the high water solubility of 1,4-dioxane, purging methods show high limits of detection and require special method adjustments, including heating the sample and/or addition of salt. Solid-phase extraction methods are time consuming with multiple steps, including concentration of the final extract to obtain the desired sensitivity. These factors make the use of these methods impractical for rapid, on-site analysis of 1,4-dioxane. A new 1,4-dioxane analysis method is based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by mass spectrometric analysis using the direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometer (DSITMS). This method has been demonstrated to provide quantitative analysis of 1,4-dioxane to limits of detection of 1-2 µg/L for groundwater and 5-8 µg/kg for soil samples. Due to the extremely simple nature of the SPME extraction and the rapid DSITMS analysis (5 minutes), an analyst operating a single DSITMS can provide up to 50 on-site analyses per day. The method has been applied to provide high-resolution site characterization at a number of sites. Case studies are presented. https://cese.utulsa.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/IPEC-2015-HIGH-RESOLUTION-SITE-CHARACTERIZATION-OF-14-DIOXANE-SITES-USING-A-NEW-ON-SITE-REAL-TIME-ANALYSIS.pdf


PREDICTING DNAPL SOURCE ZONE AND PLUME RESPONSE USING SITE-MEASURED CHARACTERISTICS
Annable, M.D., K. Hatfield, J.W. Jawitz, M.C. Brooks, A.L. Wood, and P.S.C. Rao.
SERDP Project ER-1613, 69 pp, 2017

This report focuses on assessing the level of site characterization needed to support quality decisions regarding remedial strategies and long-term stewardship of contaminated sites using a flux and mass balance-based approach. Site characterization efforts were aimed at understanding the link between DNAPL source zones mass discharge under natural hydrological conditions and under conditions modified by source zone treatment. The transition between forward- and back-diffusion was also explored. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/45449/424281/file/ER-1613%20Final%20Report.pdf


GAS PRODUCTION AND MASS TRANSFER DURING ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING OF CLAY LENSES
Martin, Eric J., Ph.D. dissertation, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada. 144 pp, 2017

A study was conducted to develop a mechanistic understanding of remediation in clay lenses in sand by electrical resistance heating. Clay lenses are areas of accumulation for DNAPL and are difficult to remediate. Experiments were performed in a 2-D saturated porous medium comprising an electrically conductive, low-permeability clay lens embedded within less electrically conductive, higher permeability silica sand. This study is based on an experimental program and mathematical modeling of experimentally measured data. https://qspace.library.queensu.ca/handle/1974/22044


MANAGING THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF GROUNDWATER FLOW ON ELECTROTHERMAL REMEDIATION
Hegele, P.R. and B.C.W. McGee.
Remediation Journal 27(3):29-38(2017)

Rapid groundwater fluxes often influence subsurface temperature distributions during in situ thermal remediation using electrothermal or conduction heating technologies. Researchers used a numerical approach to evaluate the impact of groundwater flow on electrothermal heating, as well as the effectiveness of several upgradient heat loss management strategies, in a hypothetical treatment volume. Evaluation of design alternatives using upgradient (i) hydraulic barriers, (ii) physical barriers, and (iii) increased energy input indicated that target temperatures can be achieved despite the presence of local groundwater flow velocities greater than 0.3 m/day through careful design and implementation of the alternatives. To be effective, however, physical barriers need to be designed to prevent groundwater flow through the heated volume. Field data from an electrothermal application are presented where boiling temperatures were achieved after steam injection and upgradient pumping wells were used.



General News
REMEDIATION MANAGEMENT OF COMPLEX SITES
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC), RMCS-1, 2017

This web-based ITRC guide explains how to implement adaptive site management as a holistic, comprehensive, flexible, and iterative process for managing complex sites. The process is applicable to sites where remedy performance predictions are significantly uncertain. Adaptive site management includes setting short-term interim objectives and long-term site objectives that reflect both technical and nontechnical challenges. The remedial approach might involve using multiple technologies at one time and changing technologies over time. Comprehensive planning and scheduled evaluations of remedy performance help decision-makers track remedy progress and adjust the remedy as needed to stay on track to achieving short-term interim objectives. Long-term planning can also improve the timeliness of remedy optimization, reevaluations, or transitions to other technologies or contingency actions. The case studies in this guide describe real-world applications of remediation and remediation management at complex sites. http://rmcs-1.itrcweb.org/


INVESTIGATIVE STRATEGIES FOR LEAD-SOURCE ATTRIBUTION AT SUPERFUND SITES ASSOCIATED WITH MINING ACTIVITIES
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
National Academies Press, Washington, DC. ISBN: 978-0-309-46556-4, 112 pp, 2017

Under the Superfund program, U.S. EPA attempts to identify parties that are responsible for site contamination and thus financially responsible for remediation. Identification of potentially responsible parties can be complicated at Superfund sites that have a long history of use and involve contaminants from different sources, as is often the case for mining sites that involve metal contamination; metals occur naturally in the environment, they can be contaminants in the wastes generated at or released from the sites, and they can be used in consumer products that degrade and release the metals back to the environment. This report examines the extent to which various sources contribute to environmental lead contamination at Superfund sites that are near lead-mining areas and focuses particularly on sources that contribute to lead contamination at sites near the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District. The authors recommend potential improvements in approaches used for assessing sources of lead contamination at or near Superfund sites. https://doi.org/10.17226/24898


FLUX-BASED GROUNDWATER ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, Australia.
CRC CARE Technical Report no. 37, 103 pp, 2016

Although the assessment and management of groundwater contamination traditionally has been driven by contaminant concentrations, concentration data alone sometimes are insufficient to fully understand plume behavior or impact over time. Mass flux and mass discharge concepts can help fill the gap in understanding and have been applied successfully. This guide was prepared to illustrate how flux concepts, tools, and measurements can be used to assess and manage groundwater contamination. The report includes suggestions for engaging with regulators and other stakeholders. See CRC CARE Technical Report 37 at http://www.crccare.com/publications/technical-reports.


A REVIEW OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SCIENCE TO ACHIEVE RESULTS RESEARCH PROGRAM
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
The National Academies Press, Washington, DC. ISBN: 978-0-309-45857-3, 114 pp, 2017

In 1995, U.S. EPA created a program known as Science to Achieve Results, or STAR. STAR is EPA's primary competitive extramural grants program. This report contains an assessment of the program's scientific merit, public benefits, and overall contributions in the context of other relevant research, and recommends ways to enhance those aspects of the program. https://doi.org/10.17226/24757


LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSITION: PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
The National Academies Press, Washington, DC. ISBN: 978-0-309-45678-4, 162 pp, 2017

DOE's Office of Environmental Management is responsible for the safe cleanup of sites used for nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is the most volumetrically significant waste stream generated by the DOE cleanup program. LLW is also generated through commercial activities such as nuclear power plant operations and medical treatments. U.S. laws and regulations related to LLW disposal have evolved over time and across agencies and states, resulting in a complex regulatory structure. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine organized a workshop to discuss approaches for LLW management and disposition. Participants explored the key LLW physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics that govern its safe and secure management and disposal in aggregate and in individual waste streams, and how key LLW characteristics are incorporated into standards, orders, and regulations that govern its management and disposal in the United States and in other major waste-producing countries. This publication summarizes presentations and discussions from the workshop. https://doi.org/10.17226/24715


SBIR/STTR AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
National Academies Press, Washington, DC. ISBN: 978-0-309-43792-9, 434 pp, 2016

The U.S. Congress tasked the National Research Council with undertaking a comprehensive study of how the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs have stimulated technological innovation and used small businesses to meet federal research and development needs. The Council was also charged with recommending further improvements to the programs. Although converting scientific discoveries into innovations for the market involves substantial challenges, the American capacity for innovation can be strengthened by addressing the challenges faced by its entrepreneurs. Appendix E in this report contains 12 case studies of product development by DOE SBIR/STTR recipients, including several companies that developed or promoted technologies with application in environmental monitoring and characterization. https://doi.org/10.17226/23406



The Technology Innovation News Survey welcomes your comments and suggestions, as well as information about errors for correction. Please contact Michael Adam of the U.S. EPA Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation at adam.michael@epa.gov or (703) 603-9915 with any comments, suggestions, or corrections.

Mention of non-EPA documents, presentations, or papers does not constitute a U.S. EPA endorsement of their contents, only an acknowledgment that they exist and may be relevant to the Technology Innovation News Survey audience.