U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Technology Innovation News Survey

Entries for November 16-30, 2018

Market/Commercialization Information
UPPER SALMON BASIN HABITAT IMPROVEMENT PLANNING AND COORDINATION
Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Funding Opportunity BOR-PN-18-F033, 2018

The Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, and Upper Salmon rivers have been affected by legacy mining impacts, railroad construction, road construction, and agriculture. These anthropogenic influences, combined with out-of-subbasin sources of mortality, have resulted in high-risk findings for several varieties of salmon. The Bureau of Reclamation invites applicants to submit proposals that will build on the recently completed Integrated Rehabilitation Assessment (IRA) document. At a minimum, these proposals should address (1) completion of reach assessments and final reports for the Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, and Upper Salmon rivers; (2) identification, prioritization, and development of specific projects in these areas; (3) further development of analytical tools (e.g., reach level carrying capacity); (4) habitat monitoring coordination; (5) collection, analysis, management, and sharing of data; and (6) enhanced land owner coordination, outreach, and coordination of technical efforts. The awardee will coordinate and complete one or more reach assessments in each river as identified by the IRA while managing a team of disparate and sometimes competing interests. The award ceiling is $1.6M, and proposals are due by March 21, 2019. http://www.grants.gov/web/grants/view-opportunity.html?oppId=311903


USACE CHICAGO DISTRICT BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES OPEN HOUSE
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USACE District, Chicago.
Federal Business Opportunities, Solicitation W912P6-DistrictOpenHouse, 2019

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District is hosting a Business Opportunities Open House on February 20, 2019, from 9 AM until noon at the Chicago District Office, 231 South LaSalle Street, 16th Floor, Chicago, IL 60604. Large and small firms, nonprofit agencies, higher education institutions, and partners are invited to attend to meet district leadership, program managers, project engineers, contracting, small business, and other district personnel to discuss upcoming projects, solicitations, and business opportunities. Attendees may arrive and depart any time between 9 AM and noon. Registration by February 15 is mandatory for this free event at https://www.eventbrite.com/e/usace-chicago-district-business-opportunities-open-house-registration-54659557207. State or federal government-issued identification is needed. There will be no seating and no presentations. Attendees will navigate an open space, network, and visit with district leadership and staff. The USACE is interested in meeting technically competent, responsible entities within a wide range of NAICS codes, among them 541330 (Engineering Services) and 541620 (Environmental Consulting Services). https://www.fbo.gov/spg/USA/COE/DACA23/W912P6-DistrictOpenHouse/listing.html



Cleanup News
METAL MASS RETENTION IN PASSIVE TREATMENT SYSTEMS AT THE TAR CREEK SUPERFUND SITE
Nairn, R.
2018 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, June 3-7, St. Louis, MO: The Gateway to Land Reclamation. 59 slides, 2018

The Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) was a major producer of lead and zinc concentrates in the 19th and 20th centuries. Upon cessation of mining operations, mine voids filled with groundwater and several dozen artesian discharges of metal-contaminated waters began flowing in late 1979. U.S. EPA identified four TSMD-related CERCLA sites in Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri. Mine water discharges were especially pervasive in the Tar Creek Superfund Site. Since 2008, two full-scale mine water passive treatment systems (PTSs) have been installed to address waters showing elevated concentrations of Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Ni. The Mayer Ranch PTS and Southeast Commerce PTS produce effluents that are circumneutral pH and net alkaline and contain concentrations of ecotoxic metals that meet receiving water in-stream criteria. Based on their annual retention date, these systems, if they continue to function as designed throughout their 20-yr design lifetimes, collectively will retain ~1,700 metric tons of Fe, 110 metric tons of Zn, 8 metric tons of Ni, 600 kg of Pb, 540 kg of As, and 250 kg of Cd.
Longer abstract: https://www.asmr.us/Portals/0/Documents/Meetings/2018/Nairn-OK-Abstract-Mass.pdf
Slides: https://www.asmr.us/Portals/0/Documents/Meetings/2018/5A-200-Nairn.pdf

FORMER GALMOY MINES TAILINGS RESTORATION
Devoy, C., L. Wrong, and K. Collins.
11th ICARD IMWA 2018 Annual Conference, September 10-14, Pretoria, South Africa. IMWA Proceedings (Volume I):9-16(2018)

Galmoy Mines completed the restoration of a tailings management facility (TMF) by incorporating an integrated constructed wetland (ICW) and returning the site to a land use compatible with the surrounding countryside. The ICW also treated surface water runoff efficiently and created an enhanced environment for local and migratory bird species. The wetland system improved post-closure water quality. As the TMF remediation matures, ammonia is stabilizing in the revegetated caps of the TMF, and reductions in sulfate are noted. The successful restoration of the former mine site via the development of a fully functional ICW system within the TMF was the first project to complete mine closure activities under the EU Mining Waste Directive since its introduction in 2006. https://www.imwa.info/docs/imwa_2018/IMWA2018_Devoy_9.pdf

THE FARO MINE LEGACY: 70 MILLION TONNES OF TAILINGS AND 320 MILLION TONNES OF WASTE ROCK
Bowie, A.
2018 Federal Contaminated Sites National Workshop, June 13-15, Toronto, Ontario. 13 slides, 2018

The Faro Mine footprint, which spans ~2,500 ha, includes an estimated 70 million tonnes of tailings and 320 million tonnes of waste rock. A significant amount of the waste has an acid generating potential that exceeds its acid neutralization capability. Uncertainties related to geochemical weathering and reactive transport of weathering products present challenges for long-term site management. The proposed stabilize-in-place approach will rely on diverting clean water; collecting and treating contaminated water; reducing seepage through acid-generating material by stabilizing and covering waste rock and tailings; and adaptively managing unacceptable levels of contamination in the downstream environment. A seepage interception system will form a last line of defense for protecting the receiving environment. All aspects of the closure will consider complex cold regions phenomena, including seasonally and permanently frozen ground, ground freezing and ground ice formation, ground thawing and associated settlement, and freeze/thaw cycling. Implementation of the closure plan is expected to start in 2022 and take ~15 years to complete. Slides: http://rpic-ibic.ca/images/2018_FCSW_/Presentations/5_-_128_-_Bowie_ENG_FNL_ajb.pdf

FIRST FIVE-YEAR REVIEW REPORT HOLDEN MINE SITE OKANOGAN-WENATCHEE NATIONAL FOREST CHELAN COUNTY, WASHINGTON
USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, 74 pp, 2018

The Holden Mine produced about 200 million lbs of Cu, 40 million lbs of Zn, two million ounces of Ag, and 600,000 ounces of Au from ~10 million tons of ore. Excavation of 60 miles of underground tunnels produced 8.5 million tons of mill tailings placed on 90 acres of U.S. National Forest lands as well as 300,000 yd3 of waste rock piles. Direct release of hazardous materials from the mine, including acid mine drainage, heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn), and iron sulfide, affected about 125 acres of land. The remedy is being conducted in 2 phases. Phase 1, which began in 2013 with completion expected in 2018, includes regrading and capping the tailings and main waste rock piles, constructing a groundwater barrier wall and groundwater collection system around Tailings Pile 1 and the Lower West Area, constructing a new groundwater treatment facility, beginning in situ soil treatment (e.g., application of agricultural lime) in areas of interest, implementing institutional controls, and initiating performance verification monitoring. Phase 2 is expected to begin in 2023. In situ treatment is still under technical review and consideration for implementation due to environmental constraints, potential destruction of established forests and habitats, rough topography, and practicability of the remedy. https://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/fseprd597777.pdf

EVALUATING PERFORMANCE OF COVER DESIGN FOR REMEDIAL OPTIONS ANALYSIS OF MINE CLOSURE, CANTUNG MINE, NWT
Kingston, S. and A. Hudson.
2018 Northern Latitudes Mining Reclamation Workshop, September 10-13, Whitehorse and Carcross, Yukon. 32 slides, 2018

The Cantung Mine site is located near the headwaters of the Flat River, ~300 km north of Watson Lake, just east of the Yukon border in the Northwest Territories (NWT). Tailings at the Cantung mine site are consistently classified as potentially acid generating with elevated metals content and are located in close proximity to the Flat River channel. All of the containment dams for the five tailings ponds are constructed of local glacial till and alluvial materials consisting of a mixture of silts, sands, and gravels, with occasional cobbles and boulders. The 1-3 m of glacial till cover over tailings ponds 1 and 2 (TP1/2) has been in place for ~40 years. The cover appears to prevent acid generation onset effectively, but the mechanism by which the cover is working is not well understood. Predictive geochemical modeling, cover design investigation, infiltration and seepage modeling, and oxygen ingress modeling has been completed as part of a remedial options analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of the TP1/2 cover. The goal is to provide an analog for use in closing the currently uncovered TP3/4/5. Silicate minerals in the cover might be the controlling factor in reactions taking place in the cover.
Slides: https://www.yukonminers.org/index.php/presentations/54-kingston-scott-evaluating-performance-of-cover-design-cantung/file
Longer abstract: https://www.yukonminers.org/index.php/abstracts-and-biographies/30-kingston-scott/file


Demonstrations / Feasibility Studies
REMEDIATION OF HISTORIC WASTE ROCK BY INJECTION OF GREEN LIQUOR DREGS: RESULTS FROM A FIELD SCALE TRIAL, GLADHAMMAR, SOUTHERN SWEDEN
Sartz, L., S. Sadbom, and M. Backstrom.
11th ICARD IMWA 2018 Annual Conference, September 10-14, Pretoria, South Africa. IMWA Proceedings (Volume II):1124-1129(2018)

Mining in Gladhammar, southern Sweden, started in the 15th century, generating waste rock containing copper, cobalt, and arsenic. During remediation in 2011, some waste rock was preserved, due to its geoscientific value, and placed on a geomembrane surface. Eventually, it became apparent that it had a substantial environmental impact (pH 3.8, Cu 96 mg/L, Co 21 mg/L). In 2017, green liquor dregs were injected to increase pH and decrease trace element mobility. Ten months after injection, the pH was 8.3 and concentrations of Cu and Co 1.3 mg/L and 1.1 mg/L, respectively. Evaluation will continue for at least five years. http://imwa.info/docs/imwa_2018/IMWA2018_Sartz_1124.pdf


LIFE CYCLE IMPACT AND BENEFIT TRADEOFFS OF A PRODUCED WATER AND ABANDONED MINE DRAINAGE CO-TREATMENT PROCESS
Wang, Y., S. Tavakkoli, V. Khanna, R.D. Vidic, and L.M. Gilbertson.
Environmental Science & Technology 52(23):13995-14005(2018)

A process for combined treatment of two high-volume wastewater resources, produced water and mine drainage, has been developed and demonstrated at pilot scale to aid in management of wastewater resources in Pennsylvania. Co-treating mine drainage and produced water can be beneficial because, while the chemical composition of each fluid varies from site to site, the two by-products share opposite amounts of barium and sulfates that can be removed via precipitation when combined. The resulting fluid can be used to replace freshwater in future fracking operations, while the barite produced by the process can be used in drilling operations. Primary tradeoffs include co-treatment process environmental impacts, transportation impacts, and environmental benefits realized from preventing direct mine drainage release to the environment. Electricity use was found to be the dominant contributor to all impact categories. See a report on earlier work on AMD/process water co-treatment at https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1183700-sustainable-management-flowback-water-during-hydraulic-fracturing-marcellus-shale-natural-gas-production.


A PILOT OPTIMIZATION OF SULPHATE PRECIPITATION IN THE HIGH-DENSITY SLUDGE PROCESS
Aube, B., M. Lamares, and S.L. Sang.
11th ICARD IMWA 2018 Annual Conference, September 10-14, Pretoria, South Africa. IMWA Proceedings (Volume II):971-976(2018)

A large study looked at control of sulfate, and the study details the optimization of sulfate removal in the high-density sludge (HDS) process. The HDS process was operated at different pH setpoints, varying sludge recycle rates, and several different reactor retention times for three different water sources. An added step in the process was the addition of carbon dioxide to precipitate calcium carbonate and further minimize the gypsum saturation level. The tests defined optimal HDS conditions to provide improved feed conditions for nanofiltration or for non-scaling process water. https://www.imwa.info/docs/imwa_2018/IMWA2018_Aube_971.pdf


REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF MINING EFFLUENTS USING A MICROBIAL FUEL CELL (MFC) BASED SENSOR
Adekunle, A., V. Raghavan, and B. Tartakovsky.
Abstract Book: Canadian Ecotoxicity Workshop, Vancouver, BC, 30 Sep - 3 Oct, 2018.

The study describes an environmental biosensor that exploits the high sensitivity of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to variations in environmental conditions, such as the presence of electron donors and acceptors. The experiments established fast MFC voltage response to changes in mining water composition. MFC electrical performance could be inferred with the concentration of a target contaminant, thus enabling a low-cost and low-maintenance biosensor capable of detecting abrupt changes in environmental conditions. See more on this study in A. Adekunle's 2018 thesis at http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/webclient/DeliveryManager?pid=161008&custom_att_2=direct.


ON-SITE PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A LOW-COST BIOLOGICAL PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HIGH-SULPHATE MINE WATERS
Neale, J.W., M. Gericke, and R. Muhlbauer.
11th ICARD IMWA 2018 Annual Conference, September 10-14, Pretoria, South Africa. IMWA Proceedings (Volume I):164-170(2018)

The study describes the commissioning and operation of a pilot-scale passive biological sulfate reduction (BSR) process to treat mine-impacted water from a South African coal mine. The pilot plant comprises three 7 m reactors with a nominal feed rate of 245 L/d. The substrate comprises woodchips, wood shavings, hay, lucerne, and cow manure. Process performance is evaluated relative to influent pH level, hydraulic residence time, ambient temperature variations, and substrate replenishment rate. Early results demonstrate removal of sufficient sulfate to meet regulatory requirements for discharge or agricultural use. https://www.imwa.info/docs/imwa_2018/IMWA2018_Neale_164.pdf


OPERATIONAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF PROPAGATION PROTOCOLS AND COMPARATIVE DEMOGRAPHIC MONITORING FOR REINTRODUCING FIVE SOUTHEASTERN ENDANGERED AND AT-RISK PLANTS
Hohmann, M.G. and W.A. Wall.
ESTCP Project RC-201201, ERDC/CERL TR-18-1, 141 pp, 2018

The overall objective of this project was to increase the diversity and success of rare-plant conservation strategies available to managers. An operational-scale demonstration was executed of recently developed protocols for propagating and reintroducing one endangered and four at-risk plant species found on multiple southeastern installations. Over 3 consecutive yrs, 6,075 transplants of different age/size classes of each species were propagated and out-planted to four sites. Monitoring of survivorship, growth, and reproduction of these out-plants and more than 1,500 individuals in natural populations was conducted over four yrs. Demographic matrix modeling, life-table response experiments, and generalized linear models were used to compare the vital rates of the different classes and population growth rates between the natural and reintroduced populations. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/47452/452643/file/RC-201201%20Final%20Report.pdf



Research
HYDROLOGY-BASED DESIGN OF GEOMORPHIC EVAPOTRANSPIRATION COVERS FOR RECLAMATION OF MINE LAND
Zhang, Z.F., N. Bugosh, T. Tesfa, M. McDonald, and J. Kretzmann.
35th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, June 3-7, St. Louis, MO: Reclamation. 25 slides, 2018

GeoFluv™, a specific geomorphic grading design method, uses natural analogs for post-mining landscapes and design input values taken from stable natural landscapes to make a reclamation design that provides hydrological function, supports ecosystem integrity, and is cost-effective, sustainable, and more visually attractive. It can produce surface runoff water quality equal to or better than adjacent undisturbed lands and has been used for disturbed lands. To enhance storage capacity, a capillary break can be added beneath the storage layer. A conceptual design study was carried out based on an abandoned mine site near Raton, New Mexico, to demonstrate that superior covers can be designed by integrating geomorphic grading and an evapotranspiration (ET) cover as a geomorphic ET (GET) cover. The overall shape of the GET cover can mimic the natural topography of the surrounding area, while the thickness and layering of the cover can be optimized for best vegetation growth and infiltration control. Watershed groundwater flow is considered during GET cover design so that the post-reclamation groundwater flow is managed to meet the water quality standards.
Longer abstract: https://www.asmr.us/Portals/0/Documents/Meetings/2018/Zhang-WA-ASMR-Abstract.pdf
Slides: https://www.asmr.us/Portals/0/Documents/Meetings/2018/8C-1030-Zhang.pdf


EXPERIENCES WITH AUTONOMOUS SAMPLING OF PIT LAKES IN NORTH AMERICA USING DRONE AIRCRAFT AND DRONE BOATS
Castendyk, D., B. Hill, P. Filiatreault, B. Straight, A. Alangari, P. Cote, and W. Leishman.
11th ICARD IMWA 2018 Annual Conference, September 10-14, Pretoria, South Africa. IMWA Proceedings (Volume II):1036-1041(2018)

Autonomous drones have created opportunities for pit lake monitoring. This paper reviews two water sampling programs conducted on pit lakes in North America since 2017 using unmanned aircrafts and boats. One study connected an off-the-shelf unmanned aerial vehicle to a commercial sample bottle and collected samples as deep as 80 m from seven pit lakes. Another used a custom-built drone boat to measure physiochemical profiles and take samples from the Berkeley Pit. http://imwa.info/docs/imwa_2018/IMWA2018_Castendyk_1036.pdf


BACTERIAL COMMUNITY ANALYSIS OF STABILIZED SOILS IN PROXIMITY TO AN EXHAUSTED MINE
Park, J.E, B.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, and A. Son.
Environmental Engineering Research 23(4):420-429(2018)

A recently stabilized site in the proximity of an exhausted mine was analyzed for bacterial diversity, richness, relative abundance, and the effect of environmental factors. Results showed that the stabilized layer exhibited lower bacterial diversity than control soils. The prevalence of dominant bacterial populations was examined in a hierarchical manner. Relatively high abundances of Proteobacteria and Methylobacter tundripaludum were observed in the stabilized soil. In particular, there was substantial abundance of the Methylobacter genus, which is known for its association with heavy metal contamination. The study demonstrated the efficacy of (micro)biological assessment for aiding in the understanding and post-management of stabilized soils. http://eeer.org/journal/view.php?number=917


MINE DESIGN FOR IN SITU CONTROL OF SELENIUM AND NITRATE
Jensen, S., J. Foster, M.-C. Noel, and M. Bartlett.
11th ICARD IMWA 2018 Annual Conference, September 10-14, Pretoria, South Africa. IMWA Proceedings (Volume I):518-523(2018)

An approach is described for designing and developing a coal project for in situ control of selenium and nitrate in contact water from the mine as an alternative to engineered water treatment plants. The design integrates water management, pit design, and sequencing such that completed open pits can be backfilled and used as in situ bioreactors for attenuating selenium and nitrate. The attenuation process is well established and proven at different scales, but the hydraulic design of the backfilled pit and operational control of carbon dosing can be developed most effectively in phased field tests done concurrently with full-scale design. https://www.imwa.info/docs/imwa_2018/IMWA2018_Jensen_518.pdf


NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF THE LONG-TERM EVOLUTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE AT A WASTE ROCK PILE SITE REMEDIATED WITH AN HDPE-LINED COVER SYSTEM
Ramasamy, M., C. Power, and M. Mkandawire.
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 216:10-26(2018)

This study assessed the long-term effectiveness of an HDPE-lined cover system for reducing acid mine drainage (AMD) contamination at WRP sites via numerical investigation. 3D groundwater flow and contaminant transport model of the site was developed to predict the spatial and temporal evolution of AMD over 100 yrs. Field parameters observed at 46 monitoring wells over a 5-yr monitoring period were used as key input and calibration parameters. The HDPE cover significantly reduced both water recharge to the waste rock and AMD seepage to groundwater. Both the groundwater flow and contaminant transport components of the model were calibrated and verified to the observed field data, with strong correlations evident between observed and simulated hydraulic heads and sulfate concentrations, respectively. Long-term model predictions of AMD evolution indicated significant and continual reductions in sulfate concentrations over time at all well locations. Background concentration levels are expected to be reached within 40 years.


REVIEW OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT
Pat-Espadas, A.M., R.L. Portales, L.E. Amabilis-Sosa, G. Gomez, and G. Vidal.
Water 10:1685(2018)

The main review objective was to summarize the current advances, applications, and the prevalent difficulties and opportunities to apply the constructed wetland (CW) technology for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment. According to the cited literature, sub-surface CW systems are suggested for an efficient AMD treatment. The synergistic interactions between CW components determine heavy metal removal from water solution. The microorganism-plant interaction is considered the most important since it implies symbiosis mechanisms for heavy metal removal and tolerance. In addition, formation of litter and biofilm layers contributes to heavy metal removal by adsorption mechanisms. The addition of organic amendments to the substrate material and AMD bacterial consortium inoculation are some of the strategies to improve heavy metal removal. Adequate experimental design from lab to full-scale systems needs to be used to optimize equilibria between CW components selection and construction and operational costs. The principal limitations for CW treating AMD are the toxicity effect that heavy metals produce on CW plants and microorganisms. However, these aspects can be solved partially by choosing carefully constructed wetlands components suitable for the AMD characteristics. https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/10/11/1685/htm


SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR SUSTAINABLE ACID MINE BIOREMEDIATION
Ayangbenro, A.S., O.S. Olanrewaju, and O.O. Babalola.
Frontiers in Microbiology 9:1986(2018)

This review describes how microorganisms can be used to detoxify, extract, or sequester pollutants from mine waste. Sulfate-reducing microorganisms play a vital role in the control and treatment of mine waste, generating alkalinity and neutralizing the acidic waste. The design of engineered sulfate-reducing bacteria consortia will be an effective tool in optimizing degradation of acid mine tailings waste in industrial processes. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6113391/pdf/fmicb-09-01986.pdf


SHORT-TERM MICROBIAL EFFECTS OF A LARGE-SCALE MINE-TAILING STORAGE FACILITY COLLAPSE ON THE LOCAL NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
Garris, H.W., S.A. Baldwin, J. Taylor, D.B. Gurr, D.R. Denesiuk, J.D. Van Hamme, and L.H. Fraser.
PLoS ONE 13(4):article e0196032(2018)

To investigate the impacts of the Mount Polley tailings impoundment failure on chemical, physical, and microbial properties of substrates within the affected watershed, a biomonitoring network was established two months following the disturbance to evaluate riparian and wetland substrates for microbial community composition and function via 16S and full metagenome sequencing. A total of 234 samples were collected from substrates at 3 depths, and 1,650,752 sequences were recorded in a geodatabase framework. Substrates associated with the impact zone were distinct chemically as indicated by elevated pH, nitrate, and sulfate. The most impacted area (a 6-km stream connecting two lakes) exhibited 30% lower microbial diversity relative to the remaining sites. Field experimentation is underway to evaluate the potential for biostimulation and biomagnification to promote beneficial microbial activity in the deposited tailings.https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196032


HOW TO ASSESS POTENTIAL BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MINE TAILINGS: LITERATURE REVIEW AND RECOMMENDED TOOLS AND METHODOLOGIES
Campbell, P.G.C. and W.A. Price.
Mine Environment Neutral Drainage Program, MEND Report 2.19.1, 158 pp, 2018

Subaqueous disposal (SAD) or flooding of sulfide-rich tailings in constructed facilities is a method used at some mine sites to mitigate the formation of acid mine drainage. The primary SAD mitigation mechanism is limitation of oxygen ingress into water-filled pores, which greatly reduces sulfide oxidation, minimizes metal leaching, and prevents acidic drainage development. The overall biological performance of such facilities is not well understood. In particular, a major gap in understanding relates to the biological colonization of such facilities, the health of biological communities that are established, and the influence of those communities on water and sediment geochemistry. This report contains an introduction, an extensive literature review (Sections 2-7), and a set of recommendations on tools and methodologies that might be used to assess the biological effects of submerged tailings. http://mend-nedem.org/mend-report/how-to-assess-potential-biological-effects-of-subaqueous-disposal-of-mine-tailings-literature-review-and-recommended-tools-and-methodologies-2018/


PHYSICOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WASTES AND CO-LOCATED LANDSCAPE DESIGNATIONS AT LEGACY 1 MINE SITES IN SOUTH WEST ENGLAND AND WALES: IMPLICATIONS ON RESOURCE POTENTIAL
Crane, R., D.E. Sinnett, P.J. Cleall, and D.J. Sapsford.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 123:117-134(2017)

The potential for resource recovery and/or remediation of metalliferous mine wastes in southwest England and Wales was based on an assessment of the physicochemical composition of several key metalliferous legacy mine waste piles and an analysis of their co-location with cultural, geological, and ecological designations. The majority of the 14 sites studied contain relatively high concentrations of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Ag and Sn, many of which exceed ecological and human health risk guideline concentrations. The economic value of metals in the waste potentially could be used to offset rehabilitation costs. About 70% are co-located with at least one cultural, geological, and ecological designation. This co-location with designations related to their mining activities—due either to historical significance, rare species assemblages, or geological characteristics—demonstrates the need to consider the cultural and environmental impacts of rehabilitation and/or resource recovery on such sites. http://orca.cf.ac.uk/94469/


LANDSCAPE AS A NETWORKED ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM: THE ROLE OF DATA AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN RETHINKING SITE REMEDIATION
Ghandi, M.
Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture 2:174-189(2017)

This paper examines the use of data-driven and parametric processes in designing adaptive networked ecological systems as presented and illustrated in two case studies: one of brownfields in the San Francisco bay area and the other of mining sites in Latrobe, Australia. Both areas are derelict lands laid waste in the wake of earlier eras of industrialization. The two projects illuminate several areas in which landscape design can be successfully supplemented by contemporary data systems that provide rapid, simulation-based feedback and impact analyses. https://cloudfront.ualberta.ca/-/media/ales/departments/resource-economics-environmental-sociology/seminars-and-lectures/documents/beckett-caitlynn-lindsay-february-1.pdf


INTEGRATED HYDROLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISATION OF SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE WATER CONTAMINATION AT ABANDONED METAL MINES
Hudson, E., B. Kulessa, P. Edwards, T. Williams, and R. Walsh.
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 229:256(2018)

The mining and processing of metal ores at Esgair Mwyn, an abandoned mine in Ceredigion, Wales, UK, has left a legacy of environmental degradation. Flow gauging, water quality, and geophysics were combined in an integrated assessment of surface and subsurface hydrological contamination at the site. Heavy metals are affecting downstream watercourses, leading to widespread Environmental Quality Standards compliance failures. Through salt water dilution gauging and water quality sampling, a daily efflux of 876 g of heavy metals was calculated, with contaminant mobilization occurring mainly in two primary surface streams draining an exposed tailings heap. Electrical resistivity tomography subsurface imaging found a seepage plane within the tailings lagoon wall, while the main tailings heap became increasingly saturated with depth. A large adjacent field also had a high potential to convey pollutants in solution, yet its morphological characteristics have limited transmission, as the area acts as a type of passive treatment system. This site assessment approach provides a cost-effective way to identify the origins and pathways of contaminants and inform mitigation strategies focused on containment. This paper is Open Access at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11270-018-3880-4.


BIODIVERSITY VARIATION AND CHANGE ON A COMPLEX COASTAL PLAIN LANDSCAPE: CAUSES, CONNECTIONS, CONSEQUENCES, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION AND CONSERVATION
Cunningham, P. and N. Christensen.
SERDP Project RC-2245, 34 pp, 2018

The 10-yr Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) research and monitoring project was designed to support ecosystem-based management on Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune in North Carolina, with the overarching objective to maintain the area's natural resources. This report summarizes DCERP's terrestrial ecosystem research and monitoring efforts to provide a uniform, geographically explicit database for plant species composition and abundance that will serve as the basis for assessing regional and site-specific changes in plant communities. This report also provides natural resources managers with a focused set of species and site indicators to facilitate future monitoring to assess important changes in terrestrial ecosystem health. Monitoring of plant communities is key to understanding possible local and landscape-level changes in habitat for species, such as the federally listed red-cockaded woodpecker. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/47538/453329/file/RC-2245%20Technical%20Report%20-%20Forestry%20Management.pdf


FORECASTING LONG TERM WATER QUALITY AFTER CLOSURE: BOLIDEN AITIK CU MINE, SWEDEN
McKeown, M., D. Christensen, S. Mueller, P. Weber, and M. O'Kane.
2018 Northern Latitudes Mining Reclamation Workshop, September 10-13, Whitehorse and Carcross, Yukon. 27 slides, 2018

The Boliden Aitik Mine is located near Gallivare, northern Sweden. Evaluation of closure plan development for water quality emanating as basal and toe seepage from the waste rock storage facilities (WRSFs) was a key input for evaluating risk in terms of managing impacts on the aquatic receiving environment for the site as a whole. The evaluation used a holistic approach that included consideration of site-specific hydrogeology, WRSF geochemistry, and unsaturated zone hydrology, as well as cover system and landform design and implementation. Numerical modeling was used to estimate long-term oxygen ingress and net percolation rates for closure conditions based on inputs obtained from seven yrs of in situ cover system monitoring and field testing. The overarching findings of the study were that water quality from the WRSFs will improve over time as the closure cover system limits oxygen to the underlying waste rock, soluble stored load is flushed, and sparingly soluble load is neutralized by available alkalinity. As stored acidity is flushed, the model predicts that pH will increase and acidity loads will decrease, resulting in circumneutral basal and toe seepage with associated low dissolved metals concentration. This condition is characterized as occurring within ~50 yrs after implementation of closure measures.
Slides: https://www.yukonminers.org/index.php/presentations/58-mckeown-mike-forecasting-long-term-water-quality-swedish-mine/file
Longer abstract: https://www.yukonminers.org/index.php/abstracts-and-biographies/34-mckeown-matt/file



General News
GLOBAL COVER SYSTEM DESIGN: TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT
International Network for Acid Prevention (INAP), 216 pp, 2017

Designed primarily for those investigating the use of cover systems on mine sites, this document offers a "best practice" summary to assist mine operators, designers, and regulators to address the role cover systems play over the life of the mine, from early conceptualization to long-term performance monitoring. A conceptual model illuminates how cover system designs might affect contaminant and acidity loading. The model attempts to determine when the varying roles of cover system design (e.g., control of net percolation or oxygen ingress) might influence loadings. Acknowledgment of these unique relationships provides an opportunity to optimize cost-effective management of metal loading and acid rock drainage. The cover system design tool walks users through relevant climatic factors to optimize cover system design alternatives and meet desired performance design criteria. http://www.inap.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/global-cover-system-design.pdf


CANADA'S NATIONAL ORPHANED/ABANDONED MINES INITIATIVE: THE RETURN OF MINING LANDS PROJECT AND LOOKING TO THE FUTURE
Cunningham, K.
AUSIMM Bulletin June:38-40(2017)

Orphaned and abandoned mines are categorized as those mines for which the owner cannot be found or for which the owner is financially unable or unwilling to remediate the site. Canada's National Orphaned/Abandoned Mines Initiative (NOAMI) was created in 2002. NOAMI does not directly clean up orphaned and abandoned mine sites; instead, it examines the legislative, policy, and program framework in Canada for addressing issues associated with orphaned and abandoned mines and makes recommendations for improvement. A pan-Canadian effort, NOAMI has fulfilled its mandate for over 15 years and is an example of how a collaborative approach to the legacy of past mining practices can advance the objectives of sustainable development. This article highlights two of NOAMI's active projects. http://www.abandoned-mines.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/NOAMI_JUN17-AUSIMM_Bulletin-2.pdf


SPOIL TO SOIL: MINE SITE REHABILITATION AND REVEGETATION
Bolan, N.S., M.B. Kirkham, and Y.S. Ok.
CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. ISBN: 9781498767613, 371 pp, 2017

This text presents both fundamental and practical aspects of remediation and revegetation of mine sites. Arranged in three major themes, the chapters examine characterization of mine site spoils; remediation of chemical, physical, and biological constraints of mine site spoils, including post mine-site land-use practices; and revegetation of remediated mine site spoils. Case studies involving successful rehabilitation of mine sites around the world are featured in the final section. View the table of contents at https://www.crcpress.com/Spoil-to-Soil-Mine-Site-Rehabilitation-and-Revegetation/Bolan-Kirkham-Ok/p/book/9781498767613.


RETHINKING MINE REMEDIATION: COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN MINE CLOSURE
Beckett, C. and A. Keeling.
2018 Northern Latitudes Mining Reclamation Workshop, September 10-13, Whitehorse and Carcross, Yukon. 16 slides, 2018

Can the current approach to mine remediation be changed from a focus on site containment to a broader emphasis on community remediation, reclamation, repair and reconciliation? The Giant Mine and Cyprus Anvil Mine cases illustrate the potential for community activism to shift remediation to include social issues such as environmental justice, reconciliation, and intergenerational equity. This presentation aims to contribute to a broader understanding of the social dimensions of toxic contamination and mine remediation and to the development of best practices for community engagement during mine closure.
Slides: https://www.yukonminers.org/index.php/presentations/44-beckett-catilynn-rethinking-mine-remediation/file
Longer abstract: https://www.yukonminers.org/index.php/abstracts-and-biographies/20-beckett-caitlynn/file


METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF SPECIES RICHNESS AND OCCUPANCY ACROSS SPACE, TIME, TAXONOMIC GROUPS, AND ECOREGIONS: FIELD GUIDE AND NATURAL HISTORY OF BUTTERFLIES ON THE WESTERN EDGE OF THE GREAT BASIN
Fleishman, E. and F. Fogarty.
SERDP Project RC-2202, 90 pp, 2018

This field guide and natural history was written to share information on the ecology and identification of the species of butterflies that the data suggest regularly breed or occur on DoD lands and ecologically similar areas on the western edge of the Great Basin (California/Nevada border). https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/47398/452217/file/RC-2202%20Field%20Guide%2018.pdf


ENGAGING STAKEHOLDERS IN NATURAL RESOURCE DECISION-MAKING
Crawford, B.A., R.A. Katz, and S.K. McKay.
ERDC/TN EMRRP-SR-83, 15 pp, 2017

Participatory decision-making hinges on stakeholder engagement—a process that includes fostering a shared understanding of the issue, stakeholder buy-in, and co-creation of solutions as an effective means to address an issue. Although many resources have described methods and tools for executing participatory decision-making (e.g., decision analysis), few resources describe effective methods for initiating the process of stakeholder engagement, which often presents a key barrier to participatory decision-making. Steps for initiating the stakeholder engagement process, discussion of common challenges encountered, and best practices for overcoming them are presented. https://usace.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/api/collection/p266001coll1/id/4489/download


ABSTRACT BOOK: 45TH ANNUAL CANADIAN ECOTOXICITY WORKSHOP, VANCOUVER, BC, SEPT. 30 - OCT. 3, 2018
CEW Organizing Committee, 178 pp, 2018

The Canadian Ecotoxicity Workshop is Canada's major annual meeting in the field of environmental toxicology and related disciplines. The Science/Application/Action theme of the 2018 workshop reflects the work undertaken to maintain natural ecosystems in a world faced with growing human demands for food, water, land, energy and other products. Meeting sessions included latest advances in metal bioavailability and toxicity to aquatic organisms; watershed-based monitoring and assessment; environmental monitoring of biota and water in the Athabasca oil sands; remediation, reclamation, and risk assessment; and a variety of other topics. https://ecotoxcan.ca/media/CEW-2018-Abstract-Book_Revised_Sept-28.pdf



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