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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 469 pp, 2016

In situ carbon dioxide (CO2) sparging was designed and implemented to address a subsurface caustic brine pool (CBP) formed as a result of releases from historical chlor-alkali manufacturing operations at the LCP Chemicals Site. The remedial action objectives included reducing the pH of the CBP to between 10 and 10.5. Prior to the start of CO2 sparging, the total mercury concentration in the CBP ranged from 35.7 to 2,530 µg/L (mean: 270 µg/L; median: 128 µg/L). By the end of Phase 3, almost every monitoring point (28 out of 30) in the deep Satilla aquifer had lower total Hg compared to pre-sparge levels. Most of the monitoring points (23 out of 30) had total Hg concentrations <20 µg/L. About one-third of all monitoring points had Hg concentrations <2 µg/L. At the end of Phase 3, the average total Hg concentration fell from 270 to 36 µg/L, and the median concentration fell from 128 to 4 µg/L. CO2 sparging was extremely effective in lowering the mean pH in the deep Satilla aquifer from 11.32 (2011-2012) to 7.11. The median pH decreased from 11.44 to 6.57. https://www.epa.gov/foia/co2-sparging-phase-3-full-scale-implementation-and-monitoring-report-0

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