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FIELD-SCALE HETEROGENEITY AND GEOCHEMICAL REGULATION OF ARSENIC, IRON, LEAD, AND SULFUR BIOAVAILABILITY IN PADDY SOIL
Fang, W., P.N. Williams, X. Fang, C. Amoah-Antwi, D. Yin, G. Li, L.Q. Ma, and J. Luo.
Environmental Science and Technology 52(21):12098-12107(2018)

A method designated PADDI uses a miniaturized arrayed diffusive gradients-in-thin-films (DGT) probe for high-frequency in situ sampling with LA-ICPMS and CID analysis to measure the field-scale heterogeneity of trace-element bioavailability. Bioavailability was shown to vary significantly as determined from 864 microgel measurements housed within 72 PADDI arrays. Porewater As measurements were unable to differentiate the top/rhizosphere and bulk/deeper-soil layers, whereas dynamic sampling with DGT revealed significant differences. Arsenic bioavailability was stable laterally across the field but varied with depth, in contrast to the trends for Pb. Due to the high frequency of hotspot maxima discretely dispersed across the paddy, heterogeneity in Pb bioavailability proved the most difficult to simulate, requiring the greatest number of probe deployments to determine a reliable field average.



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