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EMISSIONS, TRANSPORT, AND FATE OF EMERGING PER- AND POLYFLUOROALKYL SUBSTANCES FROM ONE OF THE MAJOR FLUOROPOLYMER MANUFACTURING FACILITIES IN CHINA
Song, X., R. Vestergren, Y. Shi, J. Huang, and Y. Cai.
Environmental Science & Technology 52(17):9694-9703(2018)

During a comprehensive spatial trend and inter-year comparison of surface water and sediment samples from the Xiaoqing River, which receives water discharge from one of the major fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities in China, screening identified 42 chemical formulas, including the tetramer acid of hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO-TeA) and numerous tentatively detected isomers of C9-C14 per- or polyfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs). As revealed by the spatial trends and peak area-based sediment-water distribution coefficients, emerging PFASs with 3-9 perfluorinated carbons were transported with the bulk water flow, exhibiting no measurable degradation. Emerging PFASs with >9 perfluorinated carbons displayed more rapidly decreasing spatial trends than shorter-chain homologues in surface water due to increasing sedimentation rates. The presence of HFPO oligomers, monoether PFECAs, monohydrogen-substituted perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and monochlorine-substituted PFCAs could be explained partly by the active use of polymerization aids or their impurities.



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