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LESSONS LEARNED: NATURAL AND ENHANCED ATTENUATION OF EXPLOSIVES ON AN ACTIVE GRENADE RANGE
Borden, R.C., D. Knappe, J. Won, and B. Yuncu.
ESTCP Project ER-201123, 94 pp, 2018

Explosives residues can accumulate from low-order detonations. In this project, the transport and attenuation of TNT and RDX were evaluated in variably saturated soils at an active hand grenade range. The project encompassed a series of lab experiments and a 27-month field study conducted in adjoining grenade-throwing bays, with the focus on monitored natural attenuation in one and enhanced attenuation in the other. TNT was extensively degraded in all lab studies and never accumulated in the field. RDX did not biodegrade in well-mixed batch microcosm studies but did degrade in lab columns and in the field under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Soil redox conditions were sensitive to soil moisture and organic carbon. Addition of glycerin and lignosulfonate enhanced RDX biodegradation and reduced RDX leaching. https://www.serdp-estcp.org/content/download/49024/467426/file/ER-201123%20Lessons%20Learned.pdf



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