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REMEDIATION OF CLAY SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH POTENTIALLY TOXIC ELEMENTS: THE SANTO AMARO LEAD SMELTER, BRAZIL, CASE
de Andrade-Lima, L.R.P., L.A. Bernardez, M.G. dos Santos, and R.C. Souza.
Soil and Sediment Contamination 27(7):573-591(2018)

The clay soil from the region of the former Santo Amaro primary lead smelter has high concentrations of potentially toxic elements, especially Pb, Cd, Sb, and Zn. This study presents a preliminary evaluation of remediation by soil washing and thermal stabilization to support cleanup initiatives for this site. Treatment results indicate that soil washing using EDTA could be an effective method to clean up the soil, although the solid-liquid separation step by filtration is slow. Soil thermal treatment at temperatures higher than 800°C in an oxidant atmosphere resulted in the formation of ceramic structures because of the high smectite content, which stabilized the potentially toxic elements. The estimated cost for remediation by soil excavation, replacement, and stabilization of the highly contaminated site at the Santo Amaro region is estimated at $20-$30M US.



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