Landfill and Containment Leak Detection in the Vadose Zone Literature Search
Posted: March 23, 2001

This quarter we are featuring a literature search for methods of detecting and tracking leaks in the vadose zone beneath landfills and other containment structures. The search considered methods that could be deployed during landfill construction and methods that could be used for operating or closed structures.

Advanced Containment: Sandia Deploys Landfill Cover Leader
Waste Treatment Technology News, Vol 14 No 11, Jul 1999

Sandia National Laboratory has demonstrated an alternative landfill cover reported to be an effective and low-cost option for stemming the flow of water to lower soil layers--an important consideration since water infiltrating a landfill raises the risk that landfill contaminants will leach into surrounding soil and ground water. DOE is gaining regulatory approval for deploying alternative cover designs that perform well and are less costly to construct than baseline RCRA-approved covers. After the ET cover is installed, the project will focus on providing data that confirm that the cover is repelling water as it was designed to do. The Fiber Optic Fluid Infiltration Monitoring System will be installed between the ET cover's layers to monitor water conditions. As the amount of water in soil increases, thermal conductivity increases correspondingly, a measure of how quickly heat dissipates from its source into surrounding soil layers. The presence of water causes a reduction in the temperature of the soil immediately around a heating element as thermal energy is drawn from the immediate area into areas of the landfill more distant from the source of heat. An electrical wire generates a constant source of heat into the landfill. When water is present, the fiber optic system will measure a relative reduction in temperature of material at the heating element as thermal energy is conducted away from the heat source. Calibration should be strictly empirical, since thermal properties of materials and interfaces will be site-dependent. The optical fiber sensor and the heating wire are bundled together in stainless steel or Teflon. The bundled cables can be placed horizontally between landfill layers. The cost is less than $5/m for the stainless steel cable. The method, measuring the ratio of Stokes to anti-Stokes backscattering of light in a fiber, provides an absolute indication of the temperature of the surrounding medium regardless of light intensity, launch conditions, fiber geometry, or materials.

Airflow as Monitoring Technique for Landfill Liners
Stormont, J.C. ; Ankeny, M.D; Kelsey, J.A.
Journal of Environmental Engineering (New York), Vol 124 No 6, p 539-544, 30 Jun 1998

Long-term performance of a waste-containment facility liner system can be simply and inexpensively monitored in dry climates by relative humidity measurements. An increase in humidity as atmospheric air is circulated through a dry coarse layer within the liner system indicates imminent movement of water into the layer. Continued airflow will evaporate and remove water, thereby restoring the coarse layer to a dry condition. Thus, quantification of relative humidity and water removal rates can be directly used to assess liner system performance, particularly in dry climates, where the atmospheric air has a low initial relative humidity and leachate production is expected to be small. Simple calculations, numerical simulations, and medium-scale field tests indicate substantial airflow rates can be induced through a coarse layer within a liner system. Air can be circulated actively with blowers, or passively with wind-powered chimneys. System efficiency can be improved by incorporating a coarse layer that has significant primary storage.

Application of Geophysical Methods to Delineate Contamination in Fractured Rock at the University of Connecticut Landfill, Storrs, Connecticut
Johnson, Carole D.; John W. Lane, Jr.; John H. Williams; F.P. Haeni
Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), 4-7 March 2001, Denver, CO
Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), Wheat Ridge, CO

Abstract not available.

Application of Magnetic and Multi-Frequency EM Techniques for Landfill Investigations: Case Histories
Murray, C.; D. Keiswetter
Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP 1998)
Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), Wheat Ridge, CO. p 445, 1998
Keywords: FDEM; magnetics; case_history

Abstract not available.

Assessment of Two Automated Electrical Resistivity Data Acquisition Systems for Landfill Location Surveys: Two Case Studies
Bernstone, C.; T. Dahlin
Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), 14-18 March 1999, Oakland, CA
Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), Wheat Ridge, CO. 1999
Keywords: refraction; resistivity profiling; VLF; landfill; geology; field methodology; case history

Abstract not available.

Borehole Geophysics Applied to the Study of Landfill Sites in Fractured-Bedrock Terrains
Ferriz, H.; W. Pedler
Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), 14-18 March 1999, Oakland, CA
Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), Wheat Ridge, CO. p 831, 1999
Keywords: borehole radar; hydrogeology; case history; geology; well logs

Abstract not available.

Buried Landfill Delineation with Induced Polarization: Progress and Problems
Carlson, Norman R.; Jennifer L. Hare; Kenneth L. Zonge
Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), 4-7 March 2001, Denver, CO
Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), Wheat Ridge, CO

Abstract not available.

The Combination of the SASW Method and DC-Resistivity in Characterization of Old Landfills
Svensson, M.;C. Bernstone; T. Dahlin
Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), 14-18 March 1999, Oakland, CA
Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), Wheat Ridge, CO. p 123, 1999
Keywords: inversion; shear wave; surface waves; field methodology; case history

Abstract not available.

Comparison of Dye Testing and Electrical Leak Location Testing of a Solid Waste Liner System
Darilek, G.T.; L.V. Miller.
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Geosynthetics, 25-29 March 1998, Atlanta, Georgia.
Industrial Fabrics Association International, St. Paul, MN. ISBN: 0093583076. 1998

Abstract not available.

Composite Landfill Characterization: An Integrated Geophysical Study
Lanz, E.; H. Maurer; D.E. Boerner; H. Horstmeyer; A. Green
Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP 1998)
Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), Wheat Ridge, CO. p 437, 1998
Keywords: seismic refraction; GPR; FDEM; seismic reflection; tomography; landfill; case history

Abstract not available.

DC-Resistivity Mapping of Internal Landfill Structures: Two Pre-Excavation Surveys
Bernstone, C.; Dahlin, T.; Ohlsson, T.; Hogland, H.
Environmental Geology, Vol 39 No 3/4, p 360-371, 18 Jan 2000

Geophysical investigations using 2-D DC resistivity were carried out on old parts of two similar landfills of different ages. The data sets, which included high data density in both vertical and horizontal directions, were interpreted with 2-D smoothness constrained inversion. The landfills were excavated after the surveying. The objective was to test the capability of the resistivity method as a pre-characterization technique. The objectives were only partially fulfilled. The moisture content was the parameter that appeared to exert the dominant control over the resistivity distribution of the landfill, and the most important potential information that could be recovered was an indication of the waste piles hydraulics. It was possible neither to estimate the amount of recoverable soils, nor to correlate the type of waste with the resistivity models. However, discrete anomalies were identified, and if specific materials are searched for, the resistivity models indicate possible places to search.

The Design of Geonets in Landfill Leak-Detection Systems
Zhao A.; Richardson G.
Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol 16 No 7, p 20-23, 1998

Geonets provide the correct balance of low water-storage capacity and high-flow transmissivity for the design of LDS systems. The leak detection system goes well beyond monitoring the performance of the primary liner system. The system's ability to reduce the head that acts on the secondary liner system, thereby lowering the leakage rate, should be considered its more important role. Its capacity to do so even when subjected to significant leakage from the primary liner system must be recognized. The designer's emphasis should be on preventing future leaks and not simply on detecting them, and geonets are highly useful for accomplishing this goal.

Detecting Leaks from Environmental Barriers using Electrical Current Imaging
Binley, Andrew; William Daily; Abelardo Ramirez
Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, Vol 2 No 1, p 11-19, Mar 1997

We propose an approach for evaluating environmental barrier integrity which is similar in data collection and processing to electrical resistivity imaging but maps current density within the subsurface. Unlike resistivity imaging, the approach can, in certain cases, be applied after a leak has been suspected and may be sensitive to small leaks. We demonstrate the technique with a number of field experiments of various scales and show that the method is suitable for electrically insulating or conducting barriers.

Development of Perfluorocarbon Tracer Technology for Underground Leak Location
Hassoun, Suzanne; McBride, Terry; Russell, David A.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol 2 No 5, p 432-435, Oct 2000

Abstract not available.

Development of Sensors for Methane Gas (Topic 4)
Sumate, P. (for PhD), R.M.D. Brydson [Research Supported by the Thai Government]

Novel sensors for measuring methane from landfill sites and subsurface methane migration will be designed and tested in the laboratory. The research project involves synthesis of sensing materials, physical and electrical characterization and finally testing the sensor in a controlled atmosphere in the laboratory using AC Impedance Spectroscopy.

Development of the SEAtrace(TM) Barrier Verification and Validation Technology. Final report
Dunn, S. D. ; Lowry, W. ; Walsh, R. ; Rao, D. V. ; Williams, C.
Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM
Report No: SAND-98-1719. 129 pp, Aug 1998

In situ barrier emplacement techniques and materials for the containment of high-risk contaminants in soils are currently being developed by the DOE. Because of their relatively high cost, the barriers are intended to be used in cases where the risk is too great to remove the contaminants, the contaminants are too difficult to remove with current technologies, or the potential movement of the contaminants to the water table is so high that immediate action needs to be taken to reduce health risks. Assessing the integrity of the barrier once it is emplaced, and during its anticipated life, is a very difficult but necessary requirement. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., (SEA) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have developed a quantitative subsurface barrier assessment system using gaseous tracers in support of the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area barrier technology program. Called SEAtrace(TM), this system integrates an autonomous, multi-point soil vapor sampling and analysis system with a global optimization modeling methodology to locate and size barrier breaches in real time. The methodology for the global optimization code was completed and a prototype code written using simplifying assumptions. Preliminary modeling work to validate the code assumptions were performed using the T2VOC numerical code. A multi-point field sampling system was built to take soil gas samples and analyze for tracer gas concentration. The tracer concentration histories were used in the global optimization code to locate and size barrier breaches. SEAtrace(TM) was consistently able to detect and locate leaks, even under very adverse conditions. The system was able to locate the leak to within 0.75 m of the actual value, and was able to determine the size of the leak to within 0.15 m.

An Eastern European Perspective on Leak Detection
Barrie, S.
Wastes Management, p 36-37, Apr 1998

BHF Environmental was established to bring Slovak expertise in permanent monitoring systems for landfill liners to the UK marketplace. The firm has completed 80 surveys in seven countries with 500,000 square meters of liner monitored. Systems are in place at 14 sites. A system can be installed in the same time as is required to undertake a walkover survey, although the cost of equipment (sensors, cables, monitoring box) may be three times higher. Permanent monitoring systems are installed to eliminate the possibilities that perforating damage might have been missed during the initial survey or that the liner was damaged during compaction of the first layer of waste, as well as to detect hidden imperfections on seams that develop into leaks.

Electrical Detection of Leaks in Lined Waste Disposal Ponds
Frangos, W.
Geophysics, Vol 62 No 6, p 1737-1744, Nov/Dec 1997

A method for detecting and locating leaks in the plastic liner of a waste disposal pond has been implemented and tested at a site near Budmerice in Slovakia. The method is based on detecting electric current flowing through holes in the insulating lining membrane. This implementation allows monitoring for leaks that may develop during and after filling the pond with electrically heterogeneous solid waste. Sensing electrodes were placed below the membrane during construction. In operation, current was passed between an electrode inside the pond and another outside; the voltage caused by this current was observed on the buried sensing electrodes. The data were then processed to detect and locate any leaks in the membrane. An important practical concern is achieving acceptable detectability and location accuracy while using a sufficiently sparse grid of sensing electrodes. This problem was overcome by calculating electrical potentials from the observed voltages and performing a nonlinear inversion on subsets of the data. With this technique, observations made with a 10- x 8-m grid of electrodes, a relatively low-power current source, and a simple receiver can provide accurate location information, even for small leaks. In a blind test, the system accurately predicted the locations of six leaks that were subsequently verified visually. Five of the leaks were cuts in the plastic typically measuring less than 2 x 0.1 cm, whereas the sixth leak was a ground of many small holes. For the five, the typical location accuracy was about 30 cm, comparable to the basic survey location accuracy of the sensing electrodes.

Electrical Leak Detection System for Landfill Liners: A Case History
White, C.C. ; R.D. Barker, Aspinwall & Co. Ltd., Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation, Vol 17 No 3, p 153-159, 1997

This case history describes the development of a 2-million-cubic-meter-capacity landfill, located in a sandstone quarry and 1 km from a public water supply borehole, where the sensitivity of the site to ground-water contamination and the proximity to a public water supply borehole are particular issues. The landfill design incorporated a more sensitive environmental monitoring system consisting of a permanent grid of electrodes installed beneath the landfill, connected by multicore cable to a computer-controlled earth resistance meter and switching unit in the site weighbridge. It was designed to detect holes in the landfill liner prior to and after covering with waste and to monitor the migration of contaminants beneath the landfill before they reach the perimeter observation boreholes, should leakage occur. Such monitoring can enable the integrity of the landfill to be routinely reviewed. Holes can be repaired if they are readily accessible and, if not, monitoring provides an early warning to enable the implementation of any additional monitoring or corrective action, based on the environmental risk posed by the site. The system was first used as a quality assurance test once the landfill liner, which covered an area of three hectares, was installed. The system proved sensitive, detecting a hole consisting of two narrow knife cuts. Such sensitivity allows a high degree of confidence to be placed upon the integrity of the liner, resulting in a significant contribution to public reassurance. The landfill is now operational, and monitoring using the geophysical system will be undertaken on a monthly basis for the first year, with the frequency of monitoring reviewed thereafter.

Electrical Resistivity Tomography at the DOE Hanford Site
Narbutovskih, S.M.; T.D. Halter; M.D. Sweeney; W. Daily; A.L. Ramirez
Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA
Ninth Annual Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems , 28 April - 1 May 1996, Denver, Colorado
Report No: WHC-SA-3035-FP. 10 pp, Jan 1996

Work at the DOE Hanford site has established the potential of applying Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) for early leak detection under hazardous waste storage facilities. Several studies have been concluded to test the capabilities and limitations of ERT for two different applications. First, field experiments have been conducted to determine the utility of ERT to detect and map leaks from underground storage tanks during waste removal processes. Second, the use of ERT for long term vadose zone monitoring has been tested under different field conditions of depth, installation design, acquisition mode/equipment and infiltration chemistry. This work involves transferring the technology from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) program at the DOE Hanford Site. This paper covers field training studies relevant to the second application for long term vadose zone monitoring.

Electromagnetic Logging to Target Subsurface Contamination at Sites
Hazardous Waste News, Vol 20 No 40, 13 Oct 1998

Electromagnetic offset logging can help companies identify subsurface contamination needing treatment, which will reduce overall costs. The process uses a probe positioned down a monitoring well. The probe sends electromagnetic waves into the area, and the results appear on a computer screen. The probe and software, developed by WMI International Inc., Houston, can measure contamination at shallow depths (100 feet or fewer) or greater depths (300 feet). It also works in nontraditional areas, such as in pipelines, under buildings or below landfill. The results show a more accurate picture of the contamination. Contact: Joseph Jennings, WMI International Inc., (713) 956-4001.

EM and GPR Mapping of Bedrock Fractures as Conduits for Contaminated Groundwater Flow in a Landfill
Guy, G.; M. Best; G. Spence; S. Dosso; K. Telmer
Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), 20-24 February 2000, Arlington, Virginia
Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), Wheat Ridge, CO. p 1029, 2000
Keywords: GPR; apparent conductivity; landfill; case history

Abstract not available.

Evaluation of New Geophysical Tools for Investigation of a Landfill, Camp Roberts, California
Doll, W.E.; T.J. Gamey; J.E. Nyquist; W. Mandell; D. Groom; S. Rohdewald
Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), 4-7 March 2001, Denver, CO
Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), Wheat Ridge, CO

Abstract not available.

Field System for Continuous Measurement of Landfill Gas Pressures and Temperatures
Spokas, K.A.; J.E. Bogner, Argonne Natl Lab, Argonne, IL
Waste Management & Research, Vol 14 No 3, p 233-242, Jun 1996

A portable, inexpensive system using off-the-shelf components has been developed to sensitively monitor pressures, temperatures and meteorological variables on a continuous basis. This article describes the basic system components. The various choices for both temperature and pressure sensors are discussed with respect to their sensitivity, adaptability and resolution. Additionally, sample data output are presented to illustrate the dynamics of shallow subsurface pressure and temperature changes.

GEOLOGGER: a New Type of Monitoring System for the Total Area Monitoring of Seals on Landfill Sites
Rodel, A.
Geosynthetics: Applications, Design and Construction. Proceedings of the First European Geosynthetics Conference, Maastricht, 1996. p 625-626, 1996

The modern combination sealing system is the result of extensive scientific experiments to develop an intelligent and continuous monitoring of landfill seals.

Geomembrane Barriers Using Integral Fiber Optics to Monitor Barrier Integrity
Staller, G.E.; R.P. Wemple, Sandia Corp., Albuquerque, NM
Patent No.: US 5567932 A. 10 pp, 22 Oct 1996

This invention provides a geomembrane or geotextile with embedded optical sensors that are used to monitor the status of containment site barriers. Fiber optic strands are used to form the sensors that can detect and monitor conditions at the sites such as breaches, slope creep, subsidence, leachate levels, fires, and types of materials present or leaking from the site. The strands are integral to the membrane or textile materials. The geosynthetic membrane is deployed at the site in a fashion similar to carpet laying. Edges of the membrane or textile are joined to form a liner and the ends of the membrane or textile become the connection zones for obtaining signals from the sensors. A connection interface with a control system to generate Optical Time Delay Response or other light signals for transmission to the optic fiber strands or sensors and also to receive reflected signals from the sensors is included in the system. Software to interpret the sensor signals can be used in the geosynthetic monitoring system.

Geophysical Imaging of a Former Landfill and Its Associated Leachate Plume
Bailey, J.M.; J.M. Groncki; E.A. Atekwana; W.A. Sauck; D.D. Werkema
Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), 14-18 March 1999, Oakland, CA
Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), Wheat Ridge, CO. p 487, 1999
Keywords: FDEM; magnetics; contamination; hydrogeology; case history

Abstract not available.

Geophysical Investigation of an Abandoned Landfill
deWet, A.P.; R. Sternberg
Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), 14-18 March 1999, Oakland, CA
Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), Wheat Ridge, CO. p 143, 1999
Keywords: magnetics; apparent conductivity; case history

Abstract not available.

Geomembrane Liner Testing Using the GLLS: A High-Voltage Electrical Leak Location System
Colluci, P.; F. Crozier; D.L. Laine
Geosynthetics: Applications, Design and Construction, 30 September - 2 October, 1996, Maastricht, Netherlands

Abstract not available.

Groundwater Monitoring Strategies in a Complex Hydrogeologic System for a Closed Solid Waste Landfill
Rezabek, Dale H.; S.L. Streblow; A. Doepke, RMT Inc, Madison, WI
Proceedings of the 1998 TAPPI International Environmental Conference & Exhibit, 5-8 April 1998, Vancouver, Canada. Vol 1 (of 3)
TAPPI Press, Norcross, GA. p 385-390, 1998

Some important lessons were learned from a landfill closure in a complex hydrogeologic setting. The site was an unlined pulp and paper by-product solid waste and fly ash landfill. The landfill, which was located on thin glacial till over limestone bedrock, was adjacent to a large wetland, with groundwater discharging to surface water in the wetland. Historical data showed impacts to groundwater from the unlined facility. The objective was to close the site with a geomembrane cover and allow for natural processes to improve ground-water quality as it discharged into the wetland. The ground-water flow system was complicated by the interaction of groundwater in glacial till, bedrock, and the wetland. Originally, the areas of ground-water impact and migration were difficult to explain. Several phases of investigation helped to define the hydrogeologic system and develop a conceptual model for the flow system to explain the distribution of the groundwater geochemistry. In addition, the impact of leachate on groundwater was differentiated from the natural occurrence of the constituents of concern in the groundwater system. A closure groundwater monitoring system was then designed for the site and the groundwater/surface water interface in the wetland.

Hazardous Chemical Site Remediation Through Capping: Problems with Long-Term Protection
Lee, G. Fred; Anne G. Jones-Lee
Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA
Remediation, Vol 7 No 4, p 51-57, Autumn 1997

An alternative to conventional RCRA caps is described that utilizes leak-detectable caps. If operated properly, such caps will provide true protection of the underlying wastes from future exposure to moisture for as long as the wastes represent an environmental threat. In addition, a double-composite liner system can be used in which the lower composite liner is the leak-detection system for the upper composite liner.

How to Locate Liner Leaks Under Waste
Laine, D.L.; A.M. Binley; G.T. Darilek.
Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Aug 1997

Abstract not available.

Identification of Ground Water Contaminations by Landfills Using Precise Boron Isotope Ratio Measurements with Negative Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Eisenhut, S.; K.G. Heumann
Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol 359 No 4/5, p 375-377, 13 Oct 1997

Precise boron isotope ratio measurements with negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry were used for the identification of ground water contaminations by leakages of landfills. BO-2 thermal ions were produced to determine the 11B/10B isotope ratio, which was expressed as d 11B value in ‰ normalized to the standard reference material NIST SRM 951. In one investigated landfill, low d11B values correlate well with high boron concentrations in contaminated seepage water samples and vice versa for uncontaminated ground water samples. Possible boron contributions of rainwater were taken into account, determining a boron content of 2.3 mg/L and a d 11B value of 13.1% for a representative sample. Such low boron concentrations were determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry with a detection limit of 0.3 mg/L; higher contents were also analyzed by a spectrophotometric method. However, different sources of contamination could only be identified by the isotope ratio and not by the concentration of boron.

INEEL Develops Well for Simultaneous Monitoring of Soil Gas, Ground Water
Nuclear Waste News, Vol 18 No 15, 9 Apr 1998

Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has developed and patented a well design that can accommodate simultaneous gas and ground water sampling. Until now, simultaneous sampling required expensive, complex well-within-a-well designs. In the so-called "inside out well," the gas sampling tubing and ports are attached to the outside of the casing. This way, ground water and soil gas sampling activities do not interfere with each other, so the well can be used simultaneously for monitoring and remediation. The well can be assembled in the field, using a variety of materials. Design feasibility was demonstrated with seven wells at INEEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The wells were constructed at depths up to 178 meters with three to nine gasports per well to track chlorinated solvent vapors. Sandia National Laboratory has installed six 140-486-foot deep vapor extraction wells at a two-acre chemical waste landfill. Each of the wells was constructed with three to five subsurface soil gas monitoring ports to reduce monitoring system installation costs. Compared to a traditional system that would have required six separate boreholes for soil gas monitoring, the combination wells saved $60,000. Combination well technology is ready for commercialization. Companies interested in licensing the technology should contact: Tom Harrison, INEEL Technology Transfer Office, (208) 526-1710,

Integrated Geophysical Investigation Helps Improve a Landfill Closure Design
Smith, R.W.
Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), 14-18 March 1999, Oakland, CA
Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), Wheat Ridge, CO. p 189, 1999
Keywords: FDEM; GPR; magnetics; landfill; case history

Abstract not available.

Joint Application of RadioMagnetotellurics (RMT) and Induced Polarization (IP) to a Waste Site Exploration
Tezkan, Bulent; Stephan Recher; Mark Honig; Fritz M. Neubauer
Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), 4-7 March 2001, Denver, CO
Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), Wheat Ridge, CO

Abstract not available.

Landfill Delineation and Characterization Using Electrical, Electromagnetic and Magnetic Methods
Lanz, E.; D.E. Boerner; H. Maurer; A. Green
Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP 1998)
Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), Wheat Ridge, CO. p 185, 1998
Keywords: inversion; apparent conductivity; FDEM; magnetics; VES; landfill; case history; processing methodology

Abstract not available.

Leakage Detection in Lined Systems
Akgun, Haluk, (Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey); Robert P. Wallace (Dames & Moore, Boca Raton, FL)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology Management, Vol 23 No 2, p 67-71, May 1996

Sanitary landfills are lined to assure waste containment. Double lining systems offer a second layer to assure containment in the event of a leak in the top system. System design determines the ease with which a leakage problem can be detected and remedied. Although geomembranes are widely used in lining systems, clay liners are also common. A leak detection system between the two layers is a key component of a double lining system. The expected rates of leakage have been calculated for three types of liners using clay and geomembranes separately and in combination. These systems vary in their ability to detect leakage within the system, to predict the timing of leak detection, and to further contain leaks within the system.

Locating Geomembrane Liner Leaks Under Waste in a Landfill
Laine, D.L.; A.M. Binley; G.T. Darilek.
Geosynthetics '97 Conference Proceedings, Long Beach California, U.S.A., March 11 - 13, 1997.
Industrial Fabrics Association International, St. Paul, MN.

Abstract not available.

A Method for Designing Configurations of Nested Monitoring Wells near Landfills
Hudak, Paul F.
Hydrogeology Journal, Vol 6 No 3, p 341-348, 21 Oct 1998

A method was devised for designing configurations of monitoring wells, consisting of vertically nested intakes in boreholes. The network-design method involves analyzing a subset of potential contaminant plumes emerging from the downgradient margin of a landfill. Plume widths are evaluated along selected equipotential lines and compared to the lengths of those lines. The method was applied to a 32-ha solid-waste landfill in Tarrant County, Texas. Sixty-nine potential source nodes were considered. A 15-borehole network devised by the method registered 93 detections in total, detecting all 69 model-generated plumes by at least one borehole. Based on an enumeration procedure, a minimum of 10 boreholes was needed to detect all of the model-generated plumes. However, the less conservative 10-borehole network had little capability for backup detection. An existing monitoring network of seven downgradient wells detected only 38 model-generated plumes. Results of this study illustrate a practical need for structured approaches to designing detection-based ground-water monitoring configurations.

Methods for Detecting and Locating Leaks in Containment Facilities Using Electrical Potential Data and Electrical Resistance Tomographic Imaging Techniques
Daily, W.D.; D.L. Laine; E.F. Laine, Leak Location Services, Inc., San Antonio, TX
Sponsoring Organization: U.S. DOE, Washington, DC
Patent No.: US 5661406 A. 10 pp, 26 Aug 1997

Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

Monitoring Groundwater at Landfills Equipped with Leachate Collection Systems
Hudak, P. F.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol 66 No 2, p 156-161,
Feb 2001

Abstract not available.

Monitoring Networks in Fractured Rocks: a Decision Analysis Approach
Jardine, Karen; Leslie Smith; Tom Clemo, Univ. of British, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Ground Water, Vol 34 No 3, p 504-518, May-Jun 1996

Hydrogeological decision analysis is applied to the design of a performance monitoring network at a waste management facility overlying fractured bedrock. The monitoring system is aimed at detecting contaminants before they reach a regulatory compliance boundary in order to enable early and less costly on-site remediation, and avoid the potentially more costly consequences of failure. Features in the design include the number of monitoring wells to be installed and their locations, where in each borehole to position discrete monitoring zones, and how often to take water samples. A generic case study, developed from the perspective of the owner-operator of a new landfill facility, is used to demonstrate the decision process and to explore the factors influencing network design.

A New Perspective: Measuring and Modeling of Landfill Methane Emissions
Bogner, J.; M. Meadows; E. Repa
Waste Age, Vol 29 No 6, 30 Jun 1998

This article provides an updated perspective on landfill methane emissions by discussing recent field measurements and research results; proposing research still needed; and suggesting improved modeling strategies (including regulatory approaches) to assess landfill methane emissions more accurately.

Overview of Landfill Liner Leak Location Technologies
Swyka, M.; I.D. Peggs, et al.
WasteCon '99, February 1999, New Orleans, Louisiana

Abstract not available.

Passive Sampling for Long-Term Monitoring of Organic Pollutants in Water
Kot, A.; Zabiegala, B.; Namiesnik, J.
Dept. Anal. Chem., Chem. Fac., Tech. Univ. Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Vol 19 No 7, p 446-459, Jul 2000

Commonly used monitoring systems usually record only pollutant concentrations at a specific point in time. Passive dosimetry, widely used to monitor air pollutants, can also be applied to monitor organic contaminants in water. Contrary to dynamic techniques, passive sampling is less sensitive to accidental extreme variations of the organic pollutant concentration in natural waters. A passive sampler can cover a long sampling period, integrating the pollutant concentration over time. Since only a few analyses are necessary over the monitoring period, analytical costs (usually connected with expensive dynamic sample isolation and preconcentration techniques) can be reduced substantially. Moreover, decomposition of the sample during transport and storage and/or changes during sample enrichment are also minimized. In this review, the present state-of-the-art of passive water sampling for long-term monitoring of organic pollutants in water is discussed.

Performance-Based Specification of Electrical Leak Location Surveys for Geomembrane Liners
Darilek, G.T.; D.L. Laine
Geosynthetics '99 Conference Proceedings, 28-30 April 1999, Boston, Massachusetts.
Industrial Fabrics Association International, St. Paul, MN. Vol 2, p 645-650, 1999

Abstract not available.

Plants as Biomarkers for Monitoring Heavy Metal Contaminants on Landfill Sites Using Sequential Extraction and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometry (ICP-AES)
Murphy, A.P.; M. Coudert; J. Barker
Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol 2 No 6, p 621-627, Dec 2000

Abstract not available.

Puncture Detecting Barrier Materials
Hermes, R.E.; D.R. Ramsey; J.F. Stampfer; J.M. Macdonald, Univ. of California, Oakland, CA
Sponsored by U.S. DOE, Washington, DC
Patent No.: US 5734323 A. 10 pp, 31 Mar 1998

A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

Sensor System for Buried Waste Containment Sites
Smith, A.M.; B.M. Gardner; K.M. Kostelnik; J.K. Partin; G.D. Lancaster; M.C. Pfeifer, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID
Sponsoring Organization: U.S. DOE
Patent No.: US 6016714 A. 10 pp, 25 Jan 2000

A sensor system is disclosed for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard 2048 printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

Subsurface Landfill Gas Monitoring Strategies in California
Anderson, Robert L.; G.K. Young; T.W. Crist
California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento, CA
Proceedings of the 1997 13th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management. Part 1 (of 2) 16-19 November 1997, Philadelphia, PA
Widener Univ., School of Engineering, Chester, PA. E.I. Conference No.: 47586, Vol 1, 8 pp, 1997

Current California regulations regarding subsurface landfill gas monitoring allow some latitude in the design and operation of subsurface landfill gas monitoring systems at municipal solid waste landfills. Landfill gas monitoring systems are typically divided into three categories: monitoring of operating and inactive landfills, monitoring of closed landfills, and monitoring of landfills with structures either on or adjacent to the waste management units. Depending on the topography, geology, and presence of structures, the amount of subsurface landfill gas monitoring points may vary. The frequency and types of gases monitored are dependent on the results of confirmed landfill gas survey results, and the presence of receptors and structures. This paper will include a discussion on the application of various strategies for design and operation of subsurface landfill gas monitoring systems.

The U.S. Geological Survey
Solid Waste Report, v31 No 16, 20 Apr 2000

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Reston, Virginia, has tested a prototype automatic ground water monitoring system and sampled water during all four seasons under different hydrological conditions, well designs and geochemical environments. USGS expects that the Robowell technology will be useful as an early warning system to protect public supply wells and for site monitoring at known or potential sources of contamination, such as landfills or industrial sites. Contact: Julia Giller, Technology Enterprise Office, U.S. Geological Survey, (703) 648-4403; fax (703) 648-4408. The technology is described in greater detail online at the Robowell site.

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