Fourth Literature Update
Posted: May 2, 2001

Accelerated Sampling and Analysis for Dioxins/Furans
Whitworth, Clarence; Dan Battleson; John Montgomery; Roland Rees; Ken Reick, MSE Technology Applications, Inc.
12th Annual Technical Information Exchange (TIE) Workshop, 14-16 November 2000, Augusta, Georgia

Existing methods for the determination of dioxins/furans in offgas, air, soil, and water matrices generally involve complex and time-consuming sampling, extraction, and analysis procedures, with a total analysis turnaround time of days to weeks. Under the direction of the DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area, MSE Technology Applications has been developing a thermal desorption-based approach to dioxin/furan sampling and analysis. The thermal desorption-based technique reduces the combined pre-concentration, extraction, and analysis time from days or weeks to a few hours. To date, MSE has focused on adapting the thermal desorption approach to offgas sampling and analysis, however, thermal desorption appears to lend itself to rapid analysis of soil and water samples. For soil samples the soil matrix is, in effect, the thermal desorption “adsorbent” material; for water samples a suitable adsorbent material, such as diatomaceous earth, could be used to preconcentrate the analyte during sampling. The authors present the results of thermal desorption-based sampling and analysis of incineration offgases and particulate, and describe approaches to adapting the method to sampling and analysis of waters and soils for dioxins/furans.

Accuracy Assessment of Hyperspectral Imagery: Utah AML Study Sites
Hauff, Phoebe L. (Spectral International Inc., Arvada, CO); W. Peppin; E.C. Prosh; D.C. Peters (Peters Geosciences, Golden, CO); E. Dillenbeck (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); G.A. Borstad (G.A. Borstad Assoc. Ltd., Sidney, BC, Canada).
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. 2000

Accuracy assessment can be defined as a quantitative evaluation of the success and reliability of a classification on a hyperspectral image. An accuracy assessment entails performing direct comparisons between the final classification and information derived from independent ground-truthing. Appropriate accuracy assessment is not routinely reported for hyperspectral image analysis. Rarely are processing statistics and image spectra provided for published images, which would allow evaluation of the degree of accuracy of the processing techniques. Different classifications in the same image usually will have different matching statistics. How this is reported can be misleading. The other important issue is adequate ground truth. For there to be a high degree of confidence in an image classification result, site-specific spectral databases should be used to provide more reliable matches to image data than is possible with generalized spectral libraries or no training reference spectra at all.

Examples from three Utah study areas are discussed from the NASA EOCAP program and the U.S. EPA Utah Abandoned Mine Land Project. The first example involves establishing the limits of detection for jarosite at the Dragon Pit, Main Tintic District, and shows the results of using different spectral regions and broad-band features in obtaining accurate results. The second example presents alunite distributions within 2.5 km of the Dragon Pit, and addresses matching statistics to show how broad processing windows can imply the presence of a classified mineral when the mineral is actually absent on the ground. A third example ties evidence of large gypsum anomalies, acid-derived clays, and iron minerals to smelter stack emissions at the International Smelter site, near Tooele, Utah.

Assessment of Nonpoint Source Pollution from Inactive Mines Using a Watershed-Based Approach
Caruso, Brian S.; Robert C. Ward.
Environmental Management, Vol 22 No 2, p 225-243, 1998

A watershed-based approach for screening-level assessment of nonpoint source pollution from inactive and abandoned metal mines has been designed to use limited stream discharge and chemical data from synoptic surveys to derive key information required for targeting impaired waterbodies and critical source areas for detailed investigation and remediation. The approach was formulated based on the required attributes of an assessment methodology, information goals for targeting, attributes of data that are typical of basins with inactive mines, and data analysis methods that were useful for the case study. The methodology is presented as steps in a framework that includes evaluation of existing data/information and identification of data gaps; definition of assessment information goals for targeting and monitoring design; data collection, management, and analysis; and information reporting and use for targeting. Data from the Cement Creek Basin in southwestern Colorado were used for preliminary targeting of locations for detailed investigation and remediation in an application of the methodology that was successful in terms of cost-effective generation of information and use for targeting.

Characterization of a New Low Cost CCD Simultaneous ICP-OES for Environmental Applications
Cree, M.E. (Varian, Inc., Florham Park, NJ); Tran Nham; Filippa Minelli; Peter Doidge; Glyn Russell; Michael Knowles (Varian Australia Pty. Ltd., Mulgrave, Victoria, Australia).
PITTCON 2000, Abstracts, p 369, 2000

This paper presents the performance and suitability of a new low cost, CCD-based, simultaneous axially viewed ICP-OES for environmental analysis. The spectrometer incorporates a new CCD detector that permits the rapid collection of the full analytical wavelength spectrum. Thus, the speed and productivity advantages of simultaneous ICP-OES are combined with the flexibility and freedom from spectral interference of sequential systems. Performance of this device for instrument and method detection limits, speed of analysis, and resolution are characterized. The linear dynamic range of this new system is shown and related to the abilities of the CCD detection system. This new ICP has been applied to the analysis of wastewaters, soils, and other typical environmental samples, with data quality established against standard reference materials for both accuracy and short and long term precision.

Classification over Dragon Mine, Utah from AVIRIS/SFSI versus Ground Observations
Peppin, W.A. (Spectral International, Denver, CO); P.L. Hauff; D.C. Peters (Peters Geoscience Denver, CO).
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. 2000

Airborne imagery (20-m AVIRIS; 4-m SFSI) taken over Dragon Mine, Utah, has been studied to perform classifications for ground targets. A methodology has been developed which allows the investigator to assess, directly from the imagery, whether the classifications being returned are correct and sensible. This methodology was supported by an extensive program of field investigation, in which several hundred samples were taken in and around the minesite. The targets detected include Alunite, Kaolinite, Halloysite, Illite, Dolomite, and Nontronite. The authors show, for this particular data set, that IARR correction to pseudoreflectance gives better results than standard ATREM processing in the SWIR (2.05 - 2.38 um). The basis of this statement is that the spectra found on the image from the IARR-corrected AVIRIS imagery match the known ground spectra more closely than do those obtained from ATREM-corrected AVIRIS. However, ATREM appears to give better results in the range 0.6 - 1.3 um. This study dramatizes the need to find independent ways to check the results of image classifications. Ground observations provided an essential component of this research.

The Design and Use of Novel Devices for Measuring Oxygen Flux Through Covers on Sulfidic Waste Rock
Timms, G.P.; J.W. Bennett, ANSTO, Menai, Australia.
Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD 2000), 21-24 May 2000, Denver, Colorado.
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME), Littleton, CO. Vol II, p 841-849, 2000

A field-based method for measuring the diffusive oxygen flux through covers placed on sulfidic waste rock dumps has been developed and applied at a number of mine sites. The technique provides a means of quantifying oxidation rates in dumps and can thus be used to assess the effectiveness of cover systems. Two instruments can be used. The first is portable and easy to set up, enabling a picture to be built up of the overall diffusive flux into a dump by making measurements at a sufficient number of locations. The second is installed beneath a cover and is preferred in situations where oxygen is consumed in the cover since it provides a direct measurement of the oxygen flux into the underlying waste rock.

Design Considerations in Field-Portable GC-Based Hyphenated Instrumentation
Arnold, N.S.; J.P. Dworzanski; S.A. Sheya; W.H. McClennen; H.L.C. Meuzelaar, Center for Micro Analysis and Reaction Chemistry, Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 4 No 5, p 219-238, 2000

The TLGC (transfer-line GC) approach to fixed pressure drop chromatography can be used to illustrate overall theoretical limitations of various approaches to high-speed GC for real-time monitoring applications. The three example instruments are a breadboard AVS-TLGC/IMS (ion mobility spectrometry) instrument, a “roving” automated vapor sampling (AVS) TLGC/MS instrument, and a breadboard AVS-TLGC/GC instrument. This paper addresses the application of TLGC theory to instrument design and uses examples that focus on the eventual application of this technology to the near real-time detection of highly toxic chemical vapors.

Detecting Leaks from Environmental Barriers Using Electrical Current Imaging
Binley, A.; W. Daily; A. Ramirez.
Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, Vol 2 No 1, p 11-19, Mar 1997

The authors propose an approach for evaluating environmental barrier integrity that is similar in data collection and processing to electrical resistivity imaging, but maps current density within the subsurface. The approach can, in some cases, be applied after a leak has been suspected and may be sensitive to small leaks. The technique was demonstrated with a number of field experiments of various scales that showed the method to be suitable for electrically insulating or conducting barriers.

Detecting Mine Pollution Using Hyperspectral Data in Temperate, Vegetated European Environments
Marsh, Stuart H.; C. Cotton; G. Ager; D.G. Tragheim, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, England.
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. 2000

Seven European geological surveys co-ordinated by EuroGeoSurveys have won European Commission funding to develop European mine pollution applications for Earth observation. The three-year MINEO project starts January 2000 and involves users from mining and environmental organizations. During summer 2000, Hymap data will be acquired over active and inactive European mining environments from arctic and boreal (Greenland and Finland), through temperate and alpine (Germany, the UK and Austria), to arid (Portugal). In subsequent years, novel processing and modeling methodologies will be developed that are tailored to these difficult environments. The goal is to turn hyperspectral data into products that non-specialists like planners can use within their environmental management systems. This paper describes MINEO and focus on the UK site, the former Cornwall tin-mining district in SW England. Tin production began in the Bronze Age, reaching a peak in the late 19th Century, but has now ceased. A legacy of pollution, derelict land and stunted vegetation makes this an ideal test site. Initial results from the HyMap survey and associated field campaign are presented.

Development and Application of Liquid and Gas-Chromatographic Speciation Techniques with Element Specific (ICP-MS) Detection to the Study of Anaerobic Arsenic Metabolism
Wickenheiser, E.B.; K. Michalke; C. Drescher; A.V. Hirner; R. Hensel.
Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol 362 No 5, p 498-501, 6 Nov 1998

The authors have developed a method for investigating the production of volatile hydride and methylated arsenic species by an anaerobic organism. They report the application of high performance ion chromatography, hydride generation gas chromatography, and purge and trap gas chromatography coupled with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry to study the formation of ionic and volatile arsenic compounds produced in a batch culture of the anaerobic methanogen Methanobacterium formicicum. Arsenite, mono- and dimethylated arsenic acid, arsine, mono-, di- and trimethylarsine, as well as a currently unknown volatile arsenic species were observed.

Development of Bioluminescent Bioindicators for Analysis of Environmental Pollution
Kudryasheva, N.; V. Kratasyuk; E. Esimbekova; E. Vetrova; E. Nemtseva; I. Kudinova
Institute of Biophysics, Krasnoyarsk, Russia.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 2 No 5, p 277-280, 1998

The sensitivity of bacterial bioluminescence to metallic salts, quinones, and phenols was evaluated in five test systems, and inhibition constants were measured. The data obtained were shown to correlate with the physical and chemical characteristics of the substances and the structure of the bioluminescent systems. Three bioluminescent tests (water-soluble enzyme systems, immobilized enzyme systems, and bioluminescent bacteria) showed higher sensitivity to pollutants and covered all types of widespread contamination.

Development of Simple Pocket Test Tools for Fast Determination of Dissolved Sulfate in Waters
Ostrovskaya, V.M.; Y.A. Zolotov; L.K. Shpigun; P.M. Kamilova; Y.L. Shishkin, Kurnakov Inst. of General & Inorganic Chemistry of the Russian Acad. of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology 4 No 2-3, p 147-153, 2000

The authors present a rapid field method for routine checks on dissolved sulfate in surface, running, and potable waters. The method uses reagent indicator paper strips and a thermometric unit. The RIS-Sulfate-Test was developed by immobilization of an Arsenazo III-barium complex together with buffer and masking reagents on cellulose paper. It was adapted to sulfate-ion determination with the use of visual, densitometric, and photometric techniques, the lower detection limit being 0.05- 0.1 g L-1 . The sensing principle is based on the reaction, which gives a colorless barium sulfate precipitate with a heat of formation of delta H = 4.6 kcal M-1 . After the strip is immersed into a sample solution for 1 second, the color changes from black-blue to pink-violet because of sulfate-induced complex decomposition. Color changes are monitored with the use of a standard color scale and a miniaturized reflectometer with 660-nm light diode. A miniaturized calorimeter was used for determining high concentrations of sulfate.

A Distributed Sensor for Pipe Line Leak Detection
Pal Saini, Devinder (FCI Environmental Inc., Las Vegas, NV); Peter Lagergren.
PITTCON 2000, Abstracts, p 926, 2000

A distributed sensor based on fiber optic technology is capable of detecting leaks over many kilometers. Leak detection using distributed sensors allow small and large leaks to be detected before major damage to the environment has occurred. The hydrocarbon sensor used is based on the fiber optic sensor already being used in the petroleum industry. These applications include storage tank leak detection, ground-water monitoring, oil-in-water monitoring of produced water on offshore platforms, and process water monitoring. The distributed sensor uses a proprietary coating at equidistant intervals and an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) in conjunction with Low Earth Orbit Satellite communications to provide continuous monitoring of pipelines.

Distribution of Acid-Generating and Acid-Buffering Minerals in the Animas River Watershed as Determined by AVIRIS Spectroscopy
Dalton, J.B.; T.V.V. King; D.J. Bove; R.F. Kokaly; R.N. Clark; J.S. Vance; G.A. Swayze, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.
Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD 2000), 21-24 May 2000, Denver, Colorado.
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME), Littleton, CO. Vol II, p 1541-1550, 2000

Visible-wavelength and near-infrared multispectral image cubes for the Animas River Watershed from Hermosa, Colorado, to the headwaters at Animas Forks, Colorado, were acquired on June 18, 1996, using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's AVIRIS (Airborne Visible and InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer) instrument. These image cubes have been analyzed using the USGS Tetracorder V3.4 implementation, an expert system that utilizes a database of more than 300 laboratory spectra of endmember minerals and mineral mixtures to generate maps of mineralogy, vegetation coverage, and other material distributions. Major iron-bearing, clay, carbonate, and other minerals were identified along with several minerals associated with acid-generating hydrothermal systems including pyrite, jarosite, alunite and goethite. Additionally, distributions of alkaline minerals such as calcite and chlorite indicate a relation between acid-buffering assemblages and stream geochemistry within the watershed.

Early Detection of Heavy Metal Accumulation in Plants: Using Reflectance Properties
Kelley, James, Jackson State Univ., Jackson, MS.
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. 2000

Leaf spectral reflectance were measured to determine whether absorption and reflectance patterns in specific wavelength ranges could be used to indicate heavy metal stress. Lead Nitrate was used as the heavy metal and Ipomea as the plant in the experiment. Stress was detected at the 550 - 850 nm ranges. However, these ranges are also indicators of other agent stress, such as dehydration. After further analysis, the 900 -1000nm ranges proved to be noticeably affected by the lead agent but not by dehydration.

Electrical Impedance Tomography of a Perchloroethelyne Release
Daily, W.: A. Ramirez; R. Johnson.
Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, Vol 2 No 3, p 189-201, Jan 1998

Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) was examined for its usefulness in mapping free product DNAPL contamination. EIT was used to image the plume resulting from a release of 50 gallons of perchloroethylene (PCE) into a saturated aquifer constructed of sand and two layers of bentonite. A detailed picture of the spatial and the temporal development of the plume was generated. The electrical impedance (both in phase and out of phase voltages) was used at several different frequencies to produce images. Some laboratory measurements of organic contamination in soil indicate a detectable systematic dispersion.

Elemental Analysis of Landfill Gas by ICP Emission Spectrometry—New Approach for Monitoring Organochlorine Compounds
Stoddart, J.; A.G. Cox; C.W. McLeod.
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, Vol 15 No 11, p 1498-1500, Nov 2000

Abstract not available.

EPA OSW Methods Update: Method 4656: Fiber Optic Biosensor Method for the Determination of TNT and RDX in Water
Environmental Testing & Analysis, Vol 8 No 5, p 8, 1999

Method 4645 is a procedure to screen ground water samples for the presence of RDX and TNT at concentrations above 5 ppb via a competitive fluorescent immunoassay on the surface of a fiber optic probe. The sensor can be adapted for use down a well or for continuous monitoring.

The EPA-Utah Imaging Spectroscopy Project: Overview of 5 Study Sites and Discussion of Park City Results
Clark, Roger N. [and others], U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. 2000

The EPA funded high and low altitude AVIRIS Imaging spectroscopy data collections over 5 areas in Utah: Park City and the Wasatch Mountains, Oquirrh Mountains, Tintic mountains, Tushar Mountains, and Leeds-Silver Reef region, at St. George. The goals of the project are to map minerals, environmental materials, and vegetation, and study surficial mineralogy and its relationship to ore deposits, including environmental impacts, abandoned mine lands research, ecosystem health, and vegetation distribution. This paper will provide an overview of the project, data and results and focus on results for the Park City region. The Park City mining district is situated near the intersection of the north-trending Wasatch Range and the west-trending Uinta arch. Intermediate-composition Tertiary stocks have intruded a 3,000 meter thick sequence of Precambrian, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. The sedimentary formations include limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone, and argillite, and were folded and thrust faulted. The mining district is centered on one of these folds, the north-trending Park City anticline. Mineral maps from AVIRIS data were produced for the Park City region. Minerals in both man-made mineral exposures and natural outcrops throughout the mineralized zone were mapped. Jarosite, a potential source mineral for acid rock drainage was mapped in mine tailings/waste rock piles, but the results show no evidence of down-stream movement of these minerals. Carbonates occur in the region and provide buffering capacity for acid rock drainage.

EPA's Utah Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Area Mining Watershed Hyperspectral Imaging and Analysis Project
Selle, Tony; Ken Wangerud, U.S. EPA Region 8, Denver, CO.
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. 2000

In 1995, U.S. EPA Region 8, in collaboration with NASA-JPL and the USGS Spectroscopy Lab, began utilizing the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS) system for mineral identification and geochemical mapping of sources and movement of heavy-metal contamination in mining-impacted watersheds. EPA's experience (Summitville CO-'93,'95; Leadville CO-'95; Animas Basin-'97) was that hyperspectral imaging is an important tool for use in the screening-evaluation of watersheds containing multiple mining sources-releases where traditional methods of multi-media sampling and analysis would be extensive, costly, and time consuming. The private sector responding by urging government agencies to consider utilizing their airborne and satellite-based detectors and analytical systems. EPA Region 8 invited participation from the commercial remote sensing and mining company sectors to demonstrate their capabilities for environmental and land management applications. In addition to the AVIRIS system, two other airborne hyperspectral detectors (CASI/SFSI and Probe1) were deployed for specific areas within the overall study. The commercial sector, either in teams or individually, carried out data analysis for geochemical and vegetation analysis over significant subsets of the study areas. Results of both efforts were presented and discussed at a Results Conference held in June 2000 in Park City, Utah.

Experimental Evaluation of Two Field Test Kits for the Detection of PAHs by Immunoassay
Waters, L.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN); M.A. Palausky; R.W. Counts; R.A. Jenkins.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 1 No 4, p 227-238, 1997

The project team evaluated two immunoassay-based field test kits for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). One was used in a quantitative format, the other in a semiquantitative format. Field samples, including soil and coal-derived liquids, or samples spiked with either a commercial PAH mixture or creosote were analyzed. The specificity of a third test kit for carcinogenic PAHs was verified with the coal-derived liquids. Overall, both kits gave accurate and reproducible results and were judged to be effective tests for the analysis of PAH contaminated samples.

Fast Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Analysis in Support of Risk-Based Decisions
Robbat, A., Jr. (Chemistry Dept., Center for Field Analytical Studies and Technology, Tufts Univ., Medford, MA); S. Smarason; Yuri Gankin (Ion Signature Technology, Cambridge, MA).
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 3 No 1, p 55-66, 1999

Ion Fingerprint Detection™, a new data analysis software system, has been developed to provide fast mass spectral data analysis. Methods have been developed that can provide screening to quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) data in as little as 30 seconds. The authors discuss the data produced for volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants under fast GC/MS conditions during dynamic site investigations carried out at Hanscom Air Force Base and Joliet Army Ammunition Plant. More than 800 samples were analyzed in each project, with regulators accepting the data to complete remedial investigation/feasibility studies.

Fast GC-PFPD System for Field Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents
Frishman, Gad; Aviv Amirav, School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv, Israel.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 4 No 4, p 170-194, 2000

A fast gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a pulsed-flame photometric detector (PFPD) was designed and built for field analysis of the full range of chemical warfare agents (CWA). This GC-PFPD system was tested with five organophosphorus and organosulfur CWA simulants. Fast repetitive analysis was demonstrated with a cycle time as short as 30 seconds, combined with very low detection limits of 20 ng/m3 for organophosphorus CWA simulants and 200 ng/m3 for organosulfur compounds. The GC-PFPD combination is characterized by a very low false-alarm rate, low average hydrogen consumption (about 4 ml/min), small size, and low weight, with CWA identification capability at the molecular level. The system can be switched to a continuous sampling “sniff” mode of operation with 2-second response time, as well as operated in a novel mode of thermally modulated inlet (TMI) that provides intermediate results between those of GC and “sniff” in terms of the trade-off of response time and performance.

Fenceline Monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants by Automatic GC
Driscoll, J.N.; T. Bishop, Process Analyzers, LLC, Walpole, MA.
PITTCON 2000, Abstracts, p 1252, 2000

For fenceline monitoring, ppb or even sub ppb levels have to be measured. This requires either a sensitive detector such as a photoionization detector (PID) or electron capture detector (ECD) and/or a concentrator (thermal desorber). The measurements can be done in a mobile van or in a number of fixed stations that surround the plant. The authors discuss some of the difficulties involved in calibrating and monitoring ppb levels in the field along with the type of accuracy and reproducibility achieved.

Field-Portable Solid-Phase Microextraction/Fast GC System for Trace Analysis
Tadeusz Górecki, T.; J. Pawliszyn, Dept. of Chemistry and Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Research, Univ. of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 1 No 5, p 277-284, 1997

A commercially available SRI gas chromatograph (Model 9300B) has been adapted to enable the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) as the sample preparation and introduction technique for fast GC separations in the field. A small-diameter fused silica fiber coated with a polymeric stationary phase is used to extract organic analytes from aqueous or gaseous matrices. Then the extracted analytes are thermally desorbed in the injector of a gas chromatograph. The instrument received a new injector and modifications to the PID detector, which enabled very fast fiber heating rates (~4000 ·C/s), producing narrow injection bands suitable for fast GC. Separation of BTEX (100 ppb each compound) within 15 s has been demonstrated with FID and PID detection with good precision. The instrument was tested in the field in the analysis of trichloroethylene in soil extracts. PID was used for detection because its dynamic range is better as compared to a dry electrolytic conductivity detector. Almost 500 samples were analyzed in 10 days without major problems.

Flow-Through Stripping Chronopotentiometry for the Monitoring of Mercury in Waste Waters
Beinrohr, E. (Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava, Slovakia); J. Dzurov; J. Annus; J.A.C. Broekaert.
Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol 362 No 2, p 201-204, 1998

A simple method for the determination of total mercury in waste waters makes use of a flow system incorporating a wall-jet cell equipped with a gold working electrode. The untreated sample is mixed on-line with the acidic carrier electrolyte which contains potassium permanganate and transforms the various species of mercury, especially elementary Hg, to Hg(II). The pre-treated solution enters the cell, where mercury is deposited on the gold electrode. Then the deposit is stripped at constant current, and the time corresponding to the dissolution of the deposit is obtained from the chronopotentiometric signal. The method enables it to determine and monitor Hg in the concentration range of 1 to 1000 mg/L in 5 minute intervals.

From the Editor: Companies must Cultivate New Markets for Their Sensing Technology
Adrian, Peter.
Sensor Business Digest, Vol 10 No 1, Jan-Feb 2001

Photonic Sensor (Atlanta, GA, 770-300-0593), a spin-off from the Georgia Institute of Technology founded in 1992, is cultivating market opportunities for its integrated optic chip technology in varied biological and chemical sensing applications. The company has exclusive commercial rights to an innovative integrated optic chip technology invented at Georgia Tech. The detection circuits in the chip allow direct, real-time measurement of chemicals and biomolecules in liquids and gases. Multiple sensing circuits can be defined on a single chip, permitting simultaneous measurement of many substances. Photonic Sensor has demonstrated a 13-channel chip; and up to 100 channels are possible without increasing the size of the chip. A complete sensing instrument--including the optical chip and the associated reader--can be packaged in a housing about the size and complexity of a PalmPilot®. Depending on the application, the optical chip can be reusable or part of a disposable, plug-and-play cartridge. Prototype integrated optic sensors have been developed for measuring BTEX in ground water and detecting ammonia in vapor and aqueous phases. Photonic Sensor has established a strategic alliance with Royce Instrument Corporation (New Orleans, LA), a supplier of water quality monitoring instruments. The two companies are developing a suite of wastewater sensors slated for introduction October 2001. The wastewater sensor is intended to replace drawing samples and performing analyses in a remote lab and should provide significant savings in terms of cost, time, and ease of use. Initially, the integrated optic chips for Royce's instruments will have 8 channels and will target an evolving array of analytes, such as PH, ammonia, dissolved oxygen, chlorine, and pesticides.

The optical chip has a very rapid response. Most chemical measurements are virtually instantaneous. The sensors can be configured for continuous monitoring, since the sensing circuits measure increases and decreases in the concentration of a target substance, and a wide range of sensing applications. In research applications, users are able to customize bare optical chips with their own selective coatings. In quantities of millions of units, optical chips are expected to be produced at costs of $5.00 or less per chip. The cost for a complete, reusable sensor system could be under $1,000.

Fundamental Considerations for the Application of Miniature Ion Mobility Spectrometry to Field Analytical Applications
Spangler, G.E., Technispan LLC, Pikesville, MD.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 4 No 5, p 255-267, 2000

Radio frequency ion mobility spectrometry (RF-IMS) separates ions by applying an asymmetric RF field across two parallel plates and passing the ions through the separator. The performance of the device depends on a nonlinear relationship between the drift velocity and an electric field, instead of a simple linear relationship. The authors have developed a detailed momentum-transfer theory to describe the nonlinear relationship.

Gas Chromatography Enhances Site Investigations, NEWMOA Says
Hazardous Waste Superfund Week, Vol 23 No 2, 8 Jan 2001

Consultants can better detect contaminants at Superfund and hazardous waste sites through field portable gas chromatography if the technology is used correctly with the appropriate detection equipment, according to the technology review committee of the Northeast Waste Management Officials Association (NEWMOA). In an advisory titled Innovative Technology: Gas Chromatography Field Analysis, the committee found that gas chromatography can provide useful data that improves site characterization and cleanup verifications. The committee recommended that users be thoroughly trained on gas chromatography technology. Workers also should collect and handle soil and water samples using standard procedures for the sake of consistency and to reduce the loss of volatile components. Gas chromatography users should note that certain compounds can interfere with detection equipment and take appropriate precautions. For copies of the advisory, contact William Cass, executive director, NEWMOA, (617) 367-8558.

Geochemical Studies to Characterize the Complex Sulfur Mineralogy at Red Dog Pb-Zn Mine
Day, S. (SPK Consulting, Vancouver, BC, Canada); G. Coulter (Cominco Alaska, Kotzebue, AK); M. Falutsu.
Proceedings from the Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD 2000), 21-24 May 2000, Denver, Colorado.
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME), Littleton, CO. Vol I, p 683-692, 2000

Open-pit mining began at Red Dog in 1989. Mining is expected to continue past 2030, but closure planning is an ongoing process. Geochemical studies of rock and tailings were begun in 1996 as part of development of closure plans to address leaching of metals and ARD. The deposit has many different primary and secondary sulfur minerals in amounts that preclude the use of conventional geochemical characterization methods. This paper describes development of a specific chemical method to estimate the speciation of sulfur and classify wastes according to reactivity.

Geoelectrical Methods for Investigating Mine Dumps
Campbell, D.L.; D.V. Fitterman, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.
Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD 2000), 21-24 May 2000, Denver, Colorado.
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME), Littleton, CO. Vol II, p 1513-1523, 2000

The USGS has used direct current resistivity (DC), electromagnetic (EM), induced polarization (IP), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) geoelectrical methods to study mine dumps. The results reflect lithology, pore water saturation, and dissolved solids in the pore water. If the pore water has a pH less than 5, conductivity maps can indicate acid generating potential. IP measurements can help distinguish mineralogy in mine dumps, especially concentrations of sulfide minerals. EM and DC can help locate acidic/high TDS groundwater associated with mine dumps. GPR methods failed at the western sites studied. These conclusions are augmented by surveys of the recent literature. For more information, please visit

GPR Modeling Study in a Contaminated Area of Krzywa Airbase
Carcione, Joséé M. (Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale, Trieste, Italy); Henryk Marcak (Inst. of Geophysics, Univ. of Mining and Metallurgy); Gééza Seriani; Giorgio Padoan.
Journal of Conference Abstracts. European Union of Geosciences: EUG 10 Meeting, 28 March - 1 April 1999, Strasbourg, France

Krzywa Airbase is a former soviet military base that is highly polluted due to soil contamination during the dismantling of fuel tanks. In some areas, the spilled fuel can be exploited in the system of drainage wells. In general, the contamination can be correlated with the geological structure. The geometrical features of the floating hydrocarbons on the water table can be identified and mapped with the ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique. Since aviation gasoline has a relative permittivity of 2 and water has a permittivity of 80, the detection is mainly based on the permittivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and ground-water saturated layers. Differences in conductivity constitutes an additional effect to aid in the interpretation of the radargrams. The researchers evaluated the degree of hydrocarbon saturation that can be detected with the GPR technique and, in addition, determined the antenna frequency required to resolve the contaminated layer. The radar simulation was based on a pseudospectral forward modeling technique, and the model for computing the effective permittivities and conductivities of sand/clay mixtures was based on a self-similar theory for the sandy component and a transversely isotropic constitutive equation for the shaly component.

Ground Geophysical Study of the Buckeye Mine Tailings, Boulder Watershed, Montana
McDougal, R.R.; B.D. Smith, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-371, 56 pp, 2000

During the summers of 1998 and 1999, ground geophysical surveys, including electromagnetic (EM),direct current (DC) resistivity, and total field magnetic methods, were used to examine the location and extent of high conductivities possibly related to metal contamination in the tailings and surrounding area. The geophysical data were also used to examine possible movement of metals associated with local ground-water flow. For more information, please visit

Hand-Portable Gas-Detector Array (GDA) for Rapid Field Detection and Identification of Chemical Threat
Matz, G. ; T. Hunte; W. Schroeder, Technical Univ. of Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg, Germany.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 4 No 4, p 195-203, 2000

In the event of a chemical emergency, single-compound detectors may not provide any information or may provide misleading information, and there is always the danger of failing to detect important toxic substances if only one sensing technology is used. The researchers have developed a portable gas detector array (GDA) for use by firefighters and other emergency response personnel. This paper outlines the GDA’s analytical capabilities, selected sensors, signal interpretation, and measuring strategy, as well as first experiences from the fire brigades using the prototype instruments.

High Conductivities Associated with an LNAPL Plume Imaged by Integrated Geophysical Techniques
Sauck, W.A.; E.A. Atekwana; M.S. Nash.
Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, Vol 2 No 3, p 203-212, Jan 1998

An integrated geophysical investigation was conducted at a former fire training facility using GPR, Electrical Resistivity, and Self Potential (SP) methods. The results show a region of attenuated GPR signals resulting in a ?shadow’ zone over areas with LNAPL contamination. Low resistivities and high SP anomalies were also observed over the contaminated zones and found to be coincident with areas of GPR ?shadow’. These results suggest the presence of more conductive ground water within plume areas. The ?shadow’ zones observed in the GPR records may be an indication of radio wave attenuation due to elevated ground-water conductivity, an explanation supported by geochemical studies that indicate the presence of highly conductive waters below some LNAPL plumes due to the release of ions from aquifer solids by reaction with organic acids or carbonic acids derived from the biodegradation of the hydrocarbon compounds. The authors hypothesize that hydrocarbon spills in the natural environment cause changes from electrically resistive to conductive behavior over time due to biodegradation.

Hydrostratigraphic Characterization of Unconsolidated Alluvial Deposits with Direct-Push Sensor Technology
Butler, J.J., Jr. (Kansas Geological Survey, Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence); J.M. Healey; L. Zheng; W. McCall (Geoprobe Systems, Salina, KS); M. K. Schulmeister (Kansas Dept. of Health and Environment, Bureau of Environmental Remediation, Topeka).
Kansas Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-40

In the last decade, direct-push (DP) technology has become a viable alternative to conventional drilling methods for sampling soils, sediments and ground water in unconsolidated formations. This technology has been particularly widely used for a range of activities in support of environmental site investigations. The DP technology utilized in this study employs high-frequency (~ 30 Hz) percussion hammers and hydraulic slide system, mounted on conventional pick-up trucks, vans, or specialized track machines to rapidly advance pipes into the subsurface. Advantages of DP technology over conventional drilling methods include include smaller less-expensive systems with greater mobility, simpler operation with less physical labor required, no generation of drill cuttings, and less disturbance of the subsurface. The authors show the level of hydrostratigraphic detail that can be obtained by coupling DP technology with a new generation of down-hole sensors. For more information

Identification of Mineral Extraction Waste Products Using the SFSI and CASI Hyperspectctral Imagers at the Bauer Mill Site, Stockton, Utah
Dillenbeck, Eric D. (Colorado School of Mines, Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering, Golden, CO); D.C. Peters; P.L. Hauff; G.A. Borstad; L.G. Closs.
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. p 574-581, 2000

Stockton, Utah, was a center of lead, silver, and zinc mining and processing activities from 1864 to 1976. Many small processing facilities were located in and near the town, with several homes in the town built on tailings. The Bauer Mill and tailings site is located 1 mile north of Stockton and was active between 1900 and 1973. Arsenic-rich unreclaimed tailings cover at least 160 acres at the site. The primary environmental concern identified by the EPA and Utah Dept. of Environmental Quality (UDEQ) at Bauer is the transportation of tailings from the site by prevailing southerly winds. Agricultural, residential, and light industrial development has been and is being considered for areas near and potentially downwind of the Bauer site. Hyperspectral airborne data were collected using the SWIR Full Spectrum Imager (SFSI) and the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI), with the goal of mapping the distribution of tailings and characterizing areas of mineral processing and extraction activity at the Bauer Mill site and near the town of Stockton. Classification and mineral mapping images of both SWIR-active and VNIR iron-mineral maps were produced in an attempt to define the limits of waste impacts. SWIR-active minerals, including smectite and gypsum, were found in samples collected at the Bauer Mill site and analyzed with the PIMATM II spectrometer.

HyMap Hyperspectral Remote Sensing to Detect Hydrocarbons
Hoerig, B.; F. Kuehn.
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. 2000

The ability of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing methods to detect hydrocarbons was investigated by the Federal Institute of Geosciences and Natural Resources. Reference areas of defined geometry and chemical properties were prepared, e.g., sandy soil, oil-contaminated soil, grass, plastic tarpaulins. The aim of the study was to collect airborne hyperspectral scanner data from these areas and simultaneously determine their spectra with the infrared intelligent spectroradiometer GER MARK V IRIS. The data corrections and further processing were based on data provided by the field spectrometer. This study showed that airborne hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to efficiently detect hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon-bearing substances are characterised by typical absorption features in the spectra. The availability of the high signal-to-noise-ratio HyMap hyperspectral airborne imaging system permits these features to be recognised in the pixel spectra even when they not very pronounced. Oil-contaminated soil and other materials containing hydrocarbons can be detected and located directly and unambiguously by image processing focused on the spectral characteristics of hydrocarbons. By this procedure, atmospheric correction of the HyMap data is not necessary.

Hyperspectral Characterization of Soils and Sensitive Habitats, Camp Shelby Training Site, Mississippi
Ford, J.M.; C.P. Cameron; D.M. Patrick; M. Harrison, Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg.
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. 2000

HyMap hyperspectral imagery, as well as ground hyperspectral data, are being used to supplement and enhance on-going studies at the Camp Shelby Training Site, MS. Specific project objectives include identification of wetland classes, and verification or refinement of a previously established hydrogeomorphic model; refinement of a previously developed, working geologic map; determination of the effectiveness of remote sensing imagery in identifying and predicting erosion susceptibility; detection of change at selected wetland and erosion locations; and incorporation of the data sets produced into the existing Geographic Information System (GIS). Analysis of the airborne imagery is aided by the use of a hyperspectral field-portable spectrometer that collects high-resolution ground data of soils and vegetation. False color imagery in the VNIR and SWIR highlights soils and vegetation spectral characteristics specific to wetlands, pitcher plant bogs, mid-slope clay-silts, and upland soils and sediments. These spectral signatures facilitate rapid and precise delineation of wetlands and bogs in a geo-referenced framework.

Hyperspectral Investigations of Mine Waste and Abandoned Mine Lands: the Dragon Mine, Utah, Calibration Site Case Study
Hauff, Phoebe L. (Spectral International, Aradad, CO); D.C. Peters; W. Peppin; G.E. Borstad; E.C. Prosh; F.B. Henderson, III; E. Dillenbeck; L.G. Closs.
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. p 566-573, 2000

The utilization of airborne hyperspectral data for the evaluation of mine waste and the classification of Abandoned Mine Lands (AMLs) is becoming an operational, commercial technology. Under the auspices of the NASA EOCAP Program and the U.S. EPA Utah AML-Watershed Project, several sites in Utah are under investigation using AVIRIS, SFSI, and CASI hyperspectral sensors. Among the Utah areas studied by a NASA-sponsored team is the Tintic silver-gold-lead-zinc district southwest of Salt Lake City. This paper presents an overview of the EPA-designated Dragon Pit calibration site within the Main Tintic District, and discusses the sensors and the investigative methodology developed using extensive ground-truthing to create and refine the hyperspectral images. This site provides a unique opportunity to compare imagery from high-altitude AVIRIS (20-m pixels), low-altitude AVIRIS (3-5-m pixels), and SFSI (4-m pixels), and to demonstrate the differences and applications of each spatial and spectral resolution type over one target. The Dragon Pit is a large halloysite-kaolinite clay deposit with iron oxides, alunite, and illite, and exotic minerals such as gibbsite and nontronite. This mine offers a variety of minerals found in many neutral drainage mine waste sites presently under environmental investigation. It also offers an opportunity to examine the role of iron minerals with low acid-production potential and the implications for the evaluation of abandoned mine lands.

Identification of Cleveland Mine Tailings in Hunters Creek Drainage, Stevens County, Washington
Huntamer, Dickey D., Washington State Dept. of Ecology, Manchester Environmental Lab., Port Orchard, WA.
The Microscope, Vol 48 No 2, p 93-105, 2000

This study examines the stream sediments to determine if the tailing pile material is still entering the creek. Size and density separation of the sediments followed by microscopic examination of the particulate matter showed the presence of tailing pile particulate matter in the stream sediments. The mine tailing grains are recognizable microscopically by the presence of an orange-yellow "goethite" coating on the mineral grains. Microchemical testing for solubility of the coating in warm hydrochloric acid and heating in a closed capillary help distinguish the coated grains from the naturally yellow colored grains in the sediments.

Imaging Spectroscopy: A New Screening Tool for Mapping Acidic Mine Waste
Swayze, G.A.; K.S. Smith; R.N. Clark; S.J. Sutley, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.
Proceedings from the Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD 2000), 21-24 May 2000, Denver, Colorado.
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME), Littleton, CO. Vol II, p 1531-1539, 2000

Imaging spectroscopy is a remote sensing tool that provides a rapid method to screen entire mining districts for potential sources of surface acid drainage. An imaging spectrometer, Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), measures light reflected from the surface in 224 spectral channels from 0.4 - 2.5 mm. Spectral data were used to evaluate mine waste at the California Gulch Superfund Site near Leadville, CO. At this site, the process of pyrite oxidation at the surface produces acidic water that is gradually neutralized as it drains away from mine waste, depositing a central jarosite zone surrounded by a jarosite + goethite zone, in turn surrounded by a goethite zone with a discontinuous hematite rim zone. Leaching tests show that pH is most acidic in the jarosite and jarosite+goethite zones and is near-neutral in the goethite zone. The U.S. EPA estimates that AVIRIS data have accelerated remediation efforts by two years and saved over $2 million in cleanup costs at Leadville.

Immunoassay for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Using Screen Printed Electrodes
Del Carlo, Michele; Marco Mascini, Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica, Univ. di Firenze, Firenze, Italia.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 3 No3, p 179-184, 1999

A disposable sensor for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil samples has been developed using polyclonal antibodies as the recognizing element and carbon-based screen-printed electrochemical electrodes as the sensing element. The analysis scheme has been based on the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol. This paper characterizes the screen-printed electrodes and describes the results of performance testing for PCBs in soil.

In Situ Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Chemical Analysis and Speciation
Buffle, Jacques (Univ. of Geneva, Switzerland); George Horvai (Technical Univ. of Budapest, Hungary).
Wiley, New York. ISBN: 0-471-48979-4. 642 pp, 2000

In situ monitoring relies on portable analytical instruments that can be taken to the stream rather than samples brought back to the laboratory for testing. This book helps to define which technique is most suitable for a particular application and what can be expected in terms of performance.

Innovations In Site Characterization: Geophysical Investigation at Hazardous Waste Sites
U.S. EPA, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC.
EPA 542-R-00-003. 192 pp, Aug 2000

This compendium describes geophysical technologies and methods that were used at 11 sites with significantly different geological settings and types of subsurface contamination, ranging from relatively homogeneous stratigraphy to the highly heterogeneous mix of sand and clay layers. The types of contamination fell primarily into three broad groups: chlorinated solvents, petroleum-related compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The types of geophysical technologies represented in the eleven case studies include ground penetrating radar (GPR), electromagnetometry (EM), electrical conductivity or resistivity, seismic reflection or refraction, magnetometry, and natural gamma logging. For more information, please visit

Instrumentation Design and Installation for Monitoring Air Injection Ground Water Remediation Technologies
Hall, B.L.; C.K. Baldwin; T.E. Lachmar; R.R. Dupont.
Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, Vol 20 No 2, p 46-54, 2000

An in situ instrumentation bundle was designed for inclusion in monitoring wells that were installed at the Wasatch Trailer Sales site in Layton, Utah, to evaluate in situ air sparging (IAS) and in-well aeration (IWA). Sensors for the bundle were selected based on laboratory evaluation of accuracy and precision, as well as consideration of size and cost. SenSym pressure transducers, Campbell Scientific Inc. (CSI) T-type thermocouples, and dissolved oxygen (DO) probes manufactured by Technalithics Inc. (Waco, Texas), were selected for each of the 27 saturated zone bundles. Each saturated zone bundle also included a stirring blade to mix water near the DO probe. A Figaro oxygen sensor was included in the vadose zone bundle. The monitoring wells were installed by direct push technique to minimize soil disruption and to ensure intimate contact between the 18 inch (46 cm) long screens and the soil. A data acquisition system, comprised of a CSI 21X data logger and four CSI AM416 multiplexers, was used to control the stirring blades and record signals from more than 70 in situ sensors. The instrumentation generally worked well in terms of sensor implementation, routine maintenance requirements, and reliability of the data acquisition system. However, the SenSym pressure transducers were not adequately temperature compensated and will need to be replaced.

An Investigation of the Partitioning of Metals in Mine Wastes Using Sequential Extractions
Leinz, R.W.; S.J. Sutley; G.A. Desborough; P.H. Briggs.
Proceedings from the Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD 2000), 21-24 May 2000, Denver, Colorado.
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME), Littleton, CO. Vol II, p 1489-1499, 2000

The mode of occurrence of metals in mine wastes was investigated using sequential extractions. Metals were extracted from some or all of seven operationally-defined phases: water-soluble, ion-exchangeable, carbonate, amorphous Fe-oxide, crystalline Fe-oxide, sulfide, and silicate. The quantity of metals extracted from each phase varied with particle size. The presence of jarosite influences the selection of the procedure for extracting the crystalline Fe-oxide phase. Anglesite and cerussite are extracted as several phases. Extraction results can be explained only in part by X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy because of lack of specificity of the extraction procedures, relatively high XRD detection limits, and the presence of 40% XRD-amorphous matter in each waste. The increasing chemical strength of the sequentially applied methods provides a basis for judging metal availability, water-soluble metals being most available and silicate-bound metals being least available. This paper updates the information provided at the 1999 conference under the title “The Use of Sequential Extractions for the Chemical Speciation of Mine Wastes.” For more information, please visit

Landfill Monitoring: What's New?
Magnuson, A.
MSW Management, Vol 9 No 4, p 40 & 42-46, 1999

The author reviews some new methods for monitoring landfill gases and leaks. These methods include the Electronic Leak Detection System (ELDS) to detect leaks in landfill covers and bottom liners, instruments to analyze ground water composition continuously, probes to search for leachate plumes, and methane monitoring and operations technology.

Location and Characterization of Subsurface Anomalies Using a Soil Conductivity Probe
Beck, F.P., Jr.; P.J. Clark; R.W. Puls, U.S. EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH.
Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, Vol 20 No 2, p 55-59, Spring 2000

A new conductivity probe, adapted for use with "direct push" technology, has been successfully used to locate buried drums and contaminant plumes, and to precisely locate and characterize a previously installed permeable reactive iron wall. The conductivity probe was designed to characterize various soil types as the probe was driven through the vadose zone, but it also can be used to locate and characterize subsurface anomalies. The probe uses an electrical field like that of an engineering tool called the Schlumberger Array. This field penetrates into the soil matrix surrounding the probe to a radius of about two inches to measure the conductivity of the soil matrix. The tool has permitted precise verification of the location of man-made or natural subsurface anomalies.

A Man-Portable, Photoionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer
Syage, J.A.; Mark A. Hanning-Lee; Karl A. Hanold, Syagen Technology, Inc., Tustin, CA.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 4 No 4, p 204-215, 2000

Syagen constructed and operated a prototype instrument with the use of a novel atmospheric sampling photoionization source coupled to a quadrupole-ion-trap, time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a notebook-computer data-acquisition system and a new low-power ion-trap RF source. The authors describe a feasibility demonstration for the 30-lb, field-portable chemical analysis system, which has a detection capability comparable to that of a benchtop system. The system achieved detection limits of 10-100 ppb and 5-50 pg for phosphonates and aromatic compounds. An air and liquid sampler was developed and shown to have a response time of 1 to 10 seconds, depending on mode of operation. The system’s analyzer and processor can record mass spectra at 200 Hz, enabling fast gas chromatography.

Mapping Mineral Zonation at the White Horse Alunite Deposit Near Marysvale, Utah Using AVIRIS Data and X-Ray Diffraction
Rockwell, B.W.; R.N. Clark; C.G. Cunningham; S.J. Sutley; C.A. Gent; R.R. Mc Dougal; K.E. Livo, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. 2000

As a part of the EPA/USGS Utah Abandoned Mine Lands Imaging Spectroscopy Project, the USGS is using AVIRIS data, X-ray diffraction, and field surveys to study five major mining districts in Utah. Surface mineralogy and vegetation will be mapped in an effort to more fully understand the relationships between ore deposit types and possible environmental effects caused by the mining and processing of ores from these deposits. The White Horse mine, located 7 kilometers northeast of Marysvale, Utah, is a replacement alunite deposit formed during and immediately after the intrusion of a series of quartz monzonite stocks at 23 Ma.

A Method for Designing Configurations of Nested Monitoring Wells near Landfills
Hudak, Paul F., Univ. of North Texas, Denton.
Hydrogeology Journal, Vol 6 No 3, p 341-348, 1998

A method was devised for designing configurations of monitoring wells, consisting of vertically nested intakes in boreholes. The network-design method involves analyzing a subset of potential contaminant plumes emerging from the downgradient margin of a landfill. Plume widths are evaluated along selected equipotential lines and compared to the lengths of those lines. The method was applied to a 32-ha solid-waste landfill in Tarrant County, Texas. Sixty-nine potential source nodes were considered. A 15-borehole network devised by the method registered 93 detections in total, detecting all 69 model-generated plumes by at least one borehole. Based on an enumeration procedure, a minimum of 10 boreholes was needed to detect all of the model-generated plumes. However, the less conservative 10-borehole network had little capability for backup detection. An existing monitoring network of seven downgradient wells detected only 38 model-generated plumes. Results of this study illustrate a practical need for structured approaches to designing detection-based groundwater-monitoring configurations.

Mine and Mill Waste Characterization Using CASI/SFSI Hyperspectral Data: Utah Abandoned Mine Lands Study Areas
Peters, Douglas C. (Peters Geosciences, Golden, CO); P.L. Hauff; G.A. Borstad; F.B. Henderson, III; W.A. Peppin; E.D. Dillenbeck; E.C. Prosh; L.G. Closs; J.L. Thiros; D.W. Coulter; K. Lee; D.A. Robbins; K.W. Wangerud.
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. p 54-61, 2000

The project team has been evaluating the application of CASI and SFSI data to mine and mill wastes in central Utah, specifically in the International Smelter area near Tooele and in the Tintic and Stockton mining districts. AVIRIS data have been used as a basis for identifying the relative importance of spatial and spectral resolution for identifying and characterizing wastes. An overview of investigations is given and selected results highlighted to show the advantages and limitations of hyperspectral data as used for mine and mill waste characterization. The Bauer Mill in the Stockton District represents a completely unreclaimed mill site, with associated exposed tailings and waste dumps. Near the other end of the reclamation spectrum is the International Smelter area, which was reclaimed in the late 1980s and converted to a Utah Wildlife Reservation. These two sites allow identification of mineralogy and chemical conditions (such as potential or actual acid production) in the raw state (Bauer Mill) and where they are impacting revegetation success (International Smelter). The Stockton District is the oldest mining district in Utah and allowed evaluation of abandoned underground mines and dumps of various sizes for acid-production potential and any apparent impacts on the Rush Lake watershed. In the Tintic District, various mine sites were evaluated, with emphasis on the Dragon Pit and surroundings which served as a common comparison site for the various airborne data collection and processing teams involved in the project.


The U.S. Geological Survey Mine Waste Characterization Project has taken a multidisciplinary approach to assemble, develop, and refine methods and tools for characterizing and screening weathered solid-mine wastes. Researchers from a variety of disciplines, including geophysics, geochemistry analytical chemistry, geology, mineralogy, remote sensing, and spatial modeling, have worked together at metal mining waste sites in Colorado and New Mexico to develop an integrated "toolkit" for the rapid screening and characterization of historical mine-waste piles. Detailed studies have been conducted at eight main mine-dump sites (six are located in Colorado), representing both igneous-hosted and carbonate-hosted polymetallic deposits, to examine the influence of carbonate materials. Two other sites are arid analog mine-waste piles in southwestern New Mexico chosen to examine the influence of climate. Tools developed from this work can be used in ranking and prioritizing historical mine-waste piles. For more information, please visit

MINEO Assessing and Monitoring the Environmental Impact of Mining Activities in Europe Using Advanced Earth Observation Techniques
Chevrel, S. (BRGM, Orleans, France); V. Kuosmannen (GTK, Espoo, Finland); S. Marsh (BGS, Keyworth, UK); T. Tukianen (GEUS, Copenhagen, Denmark).
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. 2000

On behalf of EuroGeoSurveys, the association of the geological surveys of the European Union, the MINEO project gathers seven European Geological Surveys, the Joint Research Centre of EU, two mining companies and one environmental research institute. Their objective is to develop cost-effective and standardized tools and methods to assess and monitor the impact of mining activities from Earth Observation (hyperspectral imagery) data, which could be further used to update environmental databases. To these ends, MINEO aims at developing methods for the extraction of information and knowledge on soil and water contamination related to mining activities from Earth Observation data, and developing the key components of the decision-making tools and methods to exploit these data and facilitate their use in sustainable information systems. To undertake the envisioned methodological developments, six mining areas, five within Europe (Portugal, United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, and Finland) and one in Greenland have been selected for investigation, to reflect European climatic, geographic and socio-economic environment diversity. Hyperspectral airborne data acquisition and related ground truth have been carried out last summer over the test sites using the HyMap imaging spectroradiometer operated by HyVista Corp.

Mineral Mapping in the Oquirrh Mountains Region Using AVIRIS Data for the Utah USGS-EPA Imaging Spectroscopy Project
Mc Dougal, R.R. (U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO); B.W. Rockwell; K.E. Livo; R.N. Clark; R.F. Kokaly; S.J. Sutley; C.A. Gent; J.S. Vance (U.S. EPA, Denver, CO); R. Pearson (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO).
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. 2000

This project is part of the Utah 1998 EPA-USGS AVIRIS study. The principal elements of this joint investigation include mapping and characterization of surficial minerals, research of abandoned mine lands, vegetation studies, and specific ecosystem research and evaluation. The study area (the Oquirrh Mountains and Rush Valley), located southwest of Salt Lake City, includes the Camp Floyd (Mercur), Bingham, Ophir-Rush Valley (Stockton) mining districts, and the southeastern portion of the Tooele Army Depot. Gold and copper are the chief mineral commodities, with lead, silver, arsenic, and tungsten also being mined. The Oquirrh Mountains are composed of a Paleozoic sedimentary suite that is more that 22,000 feet thick. The units are deformed into a series of northwest trending folds, including the Ophir Anticline in the vicinity of the Mercur mine. The folding is the result of Sevier style deformation, with regional principal compression from the southwest. The Ophir-Rush Valley district consists of sedimentary formations that range in age from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. The sedimentary layers are intruded by various igneous dikes, and are cut by numerous normal faults. The AVIRIS data, aquired in August, 1998 were calibrated to surface reflectance using the standard USGS Spectroscopy Lab methods. Calibrated data were analyzed, and mapping results were produced using the USGS. Tetracorder algorithm. Field verification and investigation, based on the preliminary AVIRIS mapping, began in the summer of 1999 and focused on alluvial fan deposits that resulted from mining activities in the southern part of the range (Mercur District). The project illustrates how imaging spectroscopy can be used to develop an integrated strategy for geologic and environmental investigations.

Modelling Vegetation Anomalies as Bio-Indicators of Near-Surface Hydrocarbon Leakage From Pipelines: An Experimental Approach
De Oliveira, Wilson Jose (Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (Petrobras), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Carlos Roberto De Souza Filho (Univ. of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil); Alvaro Penteado Crósta.
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. 2000

Long-term hydrocarbon gas seepage can cause significant combined soil-vegetation anomaly, and stress in vegetation overlaying such toxic substances can often be measured by remote sensing technologies. To investigate this phenomenon and to understand the effects of hydrocarbon derived from pipeline leaks in soils and vegetation, the researchers devised an environmentally-controlled experiment. Firstly, three independent ground cavities (60m long, 5m wide, and 1m deep) were made in an opened area, specially prepared for the investigation. These cavities were sealed with a synthetic sheet to avoid further soil and water table contamination. Perforated tubes linked to hydrocarbon reservoirs were placed at the base of these 'large vessels' and specific soil layers reconfigured. Agricultural crops and pasture seeds were planted and grown over these 'vessels'. Gasoline and diesel oil were injected slowly but continuously throughout the experiment (~4 weeks) into two rows of crops. The third row of crops had no hydrocarbon injection and it was used for comparison purposes. Physical, chemical, and radiometric characteristics of soils and vegetation were measured and evaluated for both, contaminated and non-contaminated crops. Radiometric measurements were made periodically using a FieldSpec FR spectroradiometer, operating in the 0,3-2,5mm range. Preliminary results indicate that the presence of hydrocarbons caused changes on the spectral and chemical patterns of the vegetation due to nutritional deficiencies. The experiment also suggests that high spatial and spectral resolution sensors can be used to discern between vegetation grown over pipeline oil leaks, probably even in areas where hydrocarbon in the soil is below detection limits.

Monitoring DNAPL Pumping Using Integrated Geophysical Techniques
Newmark, R.L.; W.D. Daily; K.R. Kyle; A.L. Ramirez.
Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, Vol 3 No 1, p 7-13, Mar 1998

The removal of DNAPL during pumping has been monitored using integrated in situ geophysical techniques. At Hill Air Force Base in Utah, a free-product DNAPL plume (predominantly TCE) is pooled in water-wet soil on a thick clay aquitard. From September 1994 through September 1995, changes in the basin during DNAPL pumping were monitored using fiber optic chemical sensors, neutron logs and electrical resistance tomography (ERT). Fiber optic sensors and neutron logs verify the presence of DNAPL in the vicinity of three boreholes which form a cross section from the perimeter of the basin to its center. Cross borehole ERT images the changes in formation electrical properties due to the removal of DNAPL, extending the understanding of DNAPL removal between the boreholes. During pumping, electrical resistivities decreased, possibly directly caused by the reduction in DNAPL. During ground-water pumping, water with relatively low resistivity replaces some of the DNAPL pockets as the highly insulating DNAPL is removed. The results suggest that, as DNAPL is pumped from a nearby well, product slowly drains along the top of an aquitard and into the pump well, where it collects.

Monitoring Soil Phytoremediation by a Portable Chlorophyll Fluorometer
Richter, P.I. (Dept. of Atomic Physics, Technical Univ. of Budapest, Budapest, Hungary); A. Barocsi; Z. Csintalan (Dept. of Botany and Plant Physiology, Agricultural Univ. of Gödöllo, Gödöllo, Hungary); M.J. Kuperberg (Center for Biomedical and Toxicological Research, Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL); J. Szdzuj (Inst. for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice, Poland).
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 2 No 4, p 241-249, 1998

During a phytoremediation technology field experiment, measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics was carried out to monitor heavy-metal uptake from contaminated soil. A portable chlorophyll fluorometer was used to identify the most applicable parameter (Rfd = fluorescence decay) to monitor the process. Good correlation was demonstrated between this parameter and accumulated heavy-metal concentration. The authors discuss applying the monitoring technique for remedial technology optimization.

Monitoring Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air Inside and Outside Buildings with the Use of a Radio-Frequency-Based Ion-Mobility Analyzer with a Micromachined Drift Tube
Eiceman, G.A. (Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces); E.G. Nazarov; B. Tadjikov; R.A. Miller (Charles Stark Draper Lab., Cambridge, MA).
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 4 No 6, p 297-308, 2000

A radio-frequency-based ion-mobility analyzer with a micromachined drift tube was operated continuously to monitor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air inside a building and in an open space near a high-traffic area. Without enrichment or pre-separation, air was drawn directly through the analyzer, which was regulated to 35·C. The ion source was a photo-discharge lamp at 10.6 eV, providing a preliminary level of selectivity in response to chemicals with low ionization potentials. The compensation voltage was scanned continuously from -40 to +20 V at rates of 60 V/s, providing profiles of ions obtained from VOCs in air. Solvents were detected at 1-ppm levels as fugitive emissions from other experiments under way in the laboratory from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.

Multidimensional Spatial Modeling of the May Day Mine Waste Pile, Silverton, CO
Yager, D.B.; M.R. Stanton, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.
Proceedings from the Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD 2000), 21-24 May 2000, Denver, Colorado.
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME), Littleton, CO. Vol I, p 297-301, 2000

Integration and synthesis of mine-site topography and geophysical and geochemical data yields both two-dimensional and three-dimensional perspective models for the May Day mine located in the Cement Creek drainage area near Silverton, Colorado. Via induced polarization, geophysical data are spatially registered with geochemical data acquired from drill hole cuttings that are contoured in three-dimensional space, thereby permitting determination of the most metalliferous and sulfur-rich zones of a waste pile. This spatial modeling application was developed to be a visually intuitive tool to aid in mine waste reclamation.

New Horizons: Explosive Detection in Soil Extracts with a Fiber-Optic Biosensor
Shriver-Lake, L.C. (Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC); Charles H. Patterson (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA); Saskia K. van Bergen.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 4 No 5, p 239-245, 2000

The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) fiber-optic biosensor, which has been demonstrated for the on-site detection of explosives in ground water, can also detect explosives in soil extracts. Explosives were removed from contaminated soil with a 3-minute acetone extraction. The extract was mixed with buffer containing a fluorescent explosive analog and exposed to the antibody-coated optical probes. A decrease in the fluorescence signal proportional to the explosive concentration was observed in the presence of either TNT or RDX. Analysis on four optical probes was completed in less than 20 minutes. The researchers obtained detection limits of 0.5 mg/kg (0.1 mg/l) of TNT and RDX in soil acetone extracts.

New Optical Detection Techniques for Chemical Sensors
Mendes, S.B. (Optical Sciences Ctr., Univ. of Arizona); S. Honkanen; M. Fallahi; N. Peyghambarian.
Methods for Ultrasensitive Detection.
Proceedings of SPIE-International Society for Optical Engineering, Vol 3270, p 42-49, 1998

Three novel optical approaches are applied to the development of biological and chemical sensors. An absorbance spectroscopic technique developed on a waveguide platform features a sensitivity enhancement of four orders of magnitude compared to the conventional transmission measurements of ultra-thin films. A waveguide Zeeman interferometric technique, based on the relative phase change between the TE and TM waveguide modes, is applied as a sensor platform. An external-cavity laser, a semiconductor laser combined with a single mode optical fiber and a Bragg grating reflector, has been built to work as an active sensor where the analyte species are incorporated inside the resonant cavity to increase sensitivity.

New Technology Solves Mystery of What Is Inside Cylinders Buried During the 1950s
INEEL Reporter, p 4-5, Oct/Nov 2000

Members of the team removing more than 50 gas cylinders buried near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center used INEEL’s innovative Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy system (PINS) to safely verify the contents of four steel cylinders buried at the site during the 1950s.

The beauty of the PINS device is that it enables people to determine what is inside a container from the outside. The cylinders contain extremely reactive and corrosive hydrogen flouride gas, and now workers will know the appropriate precautions to take when they dig up the cylinders before repackaging or neutralizing the gas. PINS had been used previously to identify materials within old munitions ranging from nerve gases to explosives without breaching shells or containers. It took 200 seconds for PINS to identify the hydrogen flouride. The technology works by shooting a beam of neutrons into the container. The neutrons bounce into the elements within, and this interaction produces gamma rays. The gamma rays passing back out are then detected by a high-purity germanium spectrometer. Each chemical element emits a characteristic gamma-ray energy/intensity pattern. Field analysts carry a “library” of patterns and use this library to identify chemicals within. The incident marked the first use of PINS for an environmental application at any DOE facility. For more information, please visit

On Suitability of Using ST1000 Spectrometer for Remote Sensing Purposes
Kutser, Tiit, Estonian Marine Inst., Tallinn, Estonia.
The Optics Ground Truth of the Finnish SALMON Experiment 1997-1998 (Herlevi, Antti, ed.).
University of Helsinki. Report Series in Geophysics, No 41, p 49-54, 1999

SALMON (SAtellite remote sensing for Lake MONitoring) is an EU/Environment program performed in 1997-1999. The partners are from Italy, Finland and Sweden. The main objective is to assess the potential of remote sensing methods and instrumentation in the monitoring of European lake waters. The project was designed on the grounds of co-operative interaction between limnologists and remote sensing scientists. The objective has been achieved by finding out the needs of end-users and evaluating instrument capability and measurement methods to fill those needs. An improvement is required on processing methods for optical remote sensing data as well as a definition of an optimal space-borne sensor for lake monitoring. SALMON field campaigns include underwater, surface, and airborne measurements with different instruments.

Open Cast Mining and Its Impact to the Environment--Case Study From Neyveli Lignite Mining Area, Tamilnadu, India, Using Remote Sensing Techniques and Ground Data
Ramanathan, A.; S. Chidhambaram; P. Anandan; K. Srenivasamoorthy; N. Ganesan, Dept. of Geology, Annamalai Univ., Annamalainagar, India.
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. 2000

Monitoring the quality of surface water in and around mining areas in space and time is used to assess the environmental status. Remote sensing data and GIS techniques along with ground truth verification were used to understand and monitor the environmental changes in the land and water bodies due to the impact of open cast lignite mining activity in Neyveli region, about 450 square km. Surface waters are contaminated by the mine waters and agricultural wastes and have been affected by dissolved Cl, SO4, Na, Mg, F, H4SiO4, PO4, and NO3. The water-soluble ions in the soils are also higher and in excessive concentrations, contaminating the surface waters and shallow ground waters. IRS IA and IC/ID( geocoded and digital) data for 1989 and 1998 were purchased from NRSA in Hyderabad were analyzed using ERDAS imagine 8.2 a raster based GIS package. Thematic maps were prepared and scanned using UMAX ASTRA 1220S scanner and digitized. The final maps were then digitized and integrated with the earlier generated thematic information using MAPINFO-GIS version 5. Geological, geomorphological, soil, and drainage pattern maps were generated and the arial extent was delineated and determined. Land use map/land cover maps and land cover change maps were prepared. A decrease in crop area was disclosed and attributed to a decrease in water supply and an expansion of mining activity. The Mine I area had expanded from 0.78% to 1.15% and Mine Ii from 0.22% to 0.75%. The mine dump sites increased from .29% to .4% (site I) and 0.36% to 0.51% (site II).

Optical Sensing Systems Based on Biomolecular Recognition of Recombinant Proteins
Salins, L.L.E. (Univ. of Kentucky); V. Schauer-Vukasinovic; S. Daunert.
Methods for Ultrasensitive Detection.
Proceedings of SPIE-International Society for Optical Engineering, Vol 3270, p 16-24, 1998

Site-directed mutagenesis and site-specific fluorescent labeling of proteins can be used to design reagentless fluorescent molecular senors. The phosphate binding protein (PBP) and calmodulin (CaM) bind to phosphate and calcium in a highly specific manner. These ions induce a hinge motion in the proteins, and the resultant conformational change constitutes the basis of the sensor development. By labeling each protein at a specific site with environment-sensitive fluorescent probes, these conformational changes can be monitored and related to the amount of analyte ion present. This paper describes how highly sensitive and selective sensing systems for phosphate and calcium were obtained using this approach.

Passive FTIR Remote Sensing of Smokestack Emissions
Chaffin, C.T., Jr.; T.L. Marshall; N.C. Chaffin, AeroSurvey, Inc., Manhattan, KS.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 3 No 2, p 111-115, 1999

Quantitative chemical analysis of heated plumes combined with passive FT-IR remote sensing techniques can be used to monitor stack emissions. The authors analyzed field spectra of a power plant plume in terms of sulfur dioxide concentration and compared the results to known concentration values obtained from continuous emission monitors within the stack.

Perchlorate Sensor Development: FY01 RARE Project
U.S. EPA Region 9 Regional Science Council, 2001

Perchlorate is a contaminant showing up at an increasing number of sites. Richard Russell (RPM) and Joe Eidelberg (QA) proposed a project to develop a field sensor for detecting perchlorate in ground water and soil in support of their cleanup work at Edwards Air Force Base. An ORD sponsor has been identified; Dr. Elizabeth Hedrick of the National Exposure Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, an analytical chemist, has worked on several EPA methods development projects, and is interested in perchlorate and the issues of perchlorate contamination. Bobbye Smith, the Regional Science Liaison, will coordinate with Dr. Hedrick and provide periodic status updates. Region 9's Regional Science Council selected the project to be funded by RARE (Regional Applied Research Effort) for FY01. The project period should be less than one year.

Performance Evaluation of the Quick Test®, a Colorimetric Field Method for the Determination of Pentachlorophenol in Soil
Chen, D. (Envirol, Inc., North Logan, UT); D. Shattuck; M. Hines (Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept. and Utah Water Research Lab., Utah State Univ., Logan); J. McLean.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 2 No 1, p 29-37, 1998

Quick Test®, a novel colorimetric-based field test kit for the quantitation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in soil, has been developed by Envirol Inc., of North Logan, Utah. The kit differs from commercially available immunoassay field tests for PCP in that it is based on a photochemically induced oxidation-reduction reaction between PCP and a reagent that produces coloration proportional to concentration. A method detection limit of 1.5 mg/kg was achieved with a dynamic range up to 100 mg/kg, making this procedure of practical use at many PCP-contaminated sites. Accuracy and precision for the analysis of PCP in soils were comparable to laboratory standard methods that involve Soxhlet extractions and chromatographic quantitation.

Performance of Commercially Available Immunoassay-Based Field Test Kits for Petroleum Fuel Hydrocarbons in Soil
Waters, L.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN); M.A. Palausky; R.W. Counts; R.A. Jenkins.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 1 No 4, p 135-144, 1997

The researchers studied the performance of two immunoassay-based test kits for the analysis of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons in soil. One kit was used in a semiquantitative format, the other in a quantitative format. The samples analyzed were either solvent or soil spiked with either gasoline or a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the three isomers of xylene (BTEX). Of the 50 assays made with the semiquantitative test, 5 were false positives and 1 was a false negative. A soil matrix effect was observed that could account for false-positive results.

Probabilistic Method For Estimating Monitoring Point Density For Containment System Leak Detection
Oss, R.R. (U.S. EPA); B.E. Vieux (Univ. of Oklahoma).
Ground Water, Vol 38 No 4, p 533-540, Jan 2000

This paper presents a probabilistic method for determining the minimum number of monitoring points needed to identify the hydraulic signature of leakage from a containment system. The method is based on the theory of geometric probability and is demonstrated using three-dimensional ground water flow modeling results derived from VISUAL MODFLOW, MODRISI, and IDRISI.

Quantitative Analysis of Benzene, Toluene, and M-Xylene with the Use of a UV-Ion Mobility Spectrometer
Sielemann, St. (Institut für Spektrochemie und Angewandte Spektroskopie (ISAS), Dortmund, Germany); J.I. Baumbach; H. Schmidt; P. Pilzecker (G.A.S. (Gesellschaft für Analytische Sensorsysteme mbH), Dortmund, Germany).
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 4 No 4, p 157-169, 2000

An ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) equipped with a 10.6 eV low-pressure gas-discharge lamp usually used in photoionization detectors for gas chromatographic applications was developed for the continuous detection of benzene, toluene, and m-xylene. A customized IMS with a doubled drift tube length was built to improve the resolution of the IMS for single substances. The responses of both IMS (drift tube lengths of 6 and 12 cm) to selected compounds were compared. Combining multi-capillary columns with IMS can significantly increase the scope of application of IMS for environmental monitoring.

A Quantitative Infrared Database for Remote Sensing
Chu, P.; G. Rhoderick; P. Johnson; F. Guenther, Analytical Chemistry Div., NIST, Gaithersburg, MD.
PITTCON 2000, Abstracts, p 2326, 2000

Recent advances of optical-based technologies such as open-path Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) have encouraged the use of these optical methods for a variety of field measurements. Compared to traditional point source monitoring techniques, optical methods are more easily adapted to in situ and real-time monitoring applications such as detecting and quantifying fugitive emissions from industrial processing plants, hazardous waste sites, municipal landfills, and chemical plants. Quantitative optical measurements are based on the molecular absorption coefficients, and NIST primary gas standards provide a critical component needed to verify that these emerging technologies can be used to make accurate quantitative measurements. NIST has an on-going program to develop a quality-assured quantitative database of infrared spectra, providing reference data to support open-path Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements, such as those described in EPA Method TO-16. For further information, see

Rapid Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Subsurface by Membrane Introduction into a Direct Sampling Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometer
Costanza, J. (Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA); W.M. Davis (Environmental Lab., Waterways Experiment Station, U.S. Army Engineers, Vicksburg, MI).
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 4 No 5, p 246-254, 2000

This paper describes the demonstration of a direct-push sensor that can quantify VOC contamination in the subsurface in real time. This device, which is part of the Triservice Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS), consists of a membrane interface probe (MIP) manufactured by Geoprobe Systems coupled to a direct sampling ion-trap mass spectrometer (ITMS). The sensor was shown to rapidly collect and analyze samples from the subsurface, regardless of matrix. Some of the demonstrations of the devise have indicated that the calibration method used in this work introduced a bias compared to EPA methods.

Rapid In Situ Collection and Analysis of Semivolatile Organics by Thermal Extraction Cone Penetrometry Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
Gorshteyn, Alexander; Albert Robbat Jr., Dept. of Chemistry, Center for Field Analytical Studies & Technology, Tufts Univ., Medford, MA.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 4 No 2-3, p 85-92, 2000

A thermal extraction cone penetrometer (TECP) has been developed to detect subsurface contaminants in situ without bringing soil to the surface or into a collection chamber. Sample collection and analysis can be accomplished in ~20 min for the full range of U.S. EPA target compounds when TECP is combined with thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The paper contains the results of 99 volatile and semivolatile organics analyzed from the same TECP extracted soil in 16 and 40 minutes. The total ion and reconstructed ion current chromatograms are shown for chlorinated solvents and gasoline constituents from a hazardous waste site. Data compared favorably against traditional purge and trap GC/MS.

Rapid-Response Continuous Emissions Monitor for Metals in Stack Gases
Coleman, Geoffrey N. (Thermo Elemental, Franklin MA); Michael D. Seltzer (Chemistry and Materials Branch, Naval Air Warfare Center - Weapons Division, China Lake CA).
PITTCON 2000, Abstracts, p 359, 2000

This essentially turnkey instrument system for continuous monitoring of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) metals in stack gases is based on an axially-viewed argon ICP, which provides for the determination of the 14 hazardous air pollutant elements, as well as many other elements of process monitoring interest. One development challenge is the introduction of air into an argon ICP at a rate consistent with sensitivity and torch longevity requirements. Another is sample collection and transport from both dry stacks, where pollution control consists essentially of only a bag house and temperatures may reach 400F, and wet stacks, where moisture content can be 30 to 40% at temperatures of 200 F. The instrument system has been tested and approved for emissions monitoring at two incinerator sites that represent the extremes in stack types. Limits of detection for the 14 HAP metals are in the 0.1 - 5 ~g/dscm range. QCs are automatically checked approximately every eight hours (in 24-hour operation), with demonstrated calibration stability of more than two weeks. Calibration and QC checks are fully automated and executed at user-selectable intervals in this turnkey instrument system.

A Real-Time Fiber-Optic LIBS Probe for the In Situ Delineation of Metals in Soils
Theriault, G.A.; S. Bodensteiner; S.H. Lieberman, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego, CA.
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 2 No 2, p 117-125, 1998

This paper presents the results of detection-limit determination and field deployment of the SCAPS fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) cone penetrometer probe, with attention to probe design and issues concerning sample presentation and in situ matrix effects. Measurements are made by a scanning optical system through a sapphire window in the probe, which produces detection limits that are at or below the EPA's site screening levels for Pb, Cd, and Cr in sand.

Real-Time Monitoring of BTEX in Air Via Ambient-Pressure MPI
Swenson, O.F. (North Dakota State Univ.); J.P. Carriere; H. Isensee; G.D. Gillispie (Dakota Technologies, Inc.); W.F. Cooper; M.A. Dvorak.
Methods for Ultrasensitive Detection.
Proceedings of SPIE-International Society for Optical Engineering, Vol 3270, p 216-225, 1998

The authors have begun to field test a very sensitive method for real-time measurements of single-ring aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air. Their study focuses on the efficient 1 + 1 resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of the BTEX species in the narrow region between 266 and 267 nm. An optical parametric oscillator system generating 266.7 nm, a REMPI cell, and digital oscilloscope detector are mounted on a breadboard attached to a small cart. After several field tests, the apparatus was used to compare the performance of the REMPI detector and a conventional photoionization detector as a BTEX mixture was eluted by gas chromatography. The monitoring method is expected to be applicable to onsite analysis of combustion and manufacturing processes, soil gas and water headspace monitoring, and fuel leak detection.

Remote Sensing for Site Characterization
Kuehn, Friedrich; Bernhard Hoerig; Trude King; Douglas Peters (eds.).
Springer, New York. ISBN: 3-540-63469-X. 256 pp, 2000

This volume of the Methods in Environmental Geology series describes the feasibility of aircraft- and satellite-based methods of revealing environmental-geological problems. The text maintains a balance between explanations of the methodological/technical side and presentations of case studies from North America and Germany. The studies show how the respective territorial conditions lead to distinct methodological approaches. The dissimilarities in population density alone and often considerable differences in distances between waste disposal areas, settlements, and areas of protected ground water necessitate a diversified approach.

Remotely-Sensed Multispectral Reflectance Variations in Acidic Versus Near-Neutral Contaminated Coal Mine Drainage in Pennsylvania
Robbins, E.I. (U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA); G.L. Nord, Jr.; J.E. Anderson (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA); C.A. Cravotta III (U.S. Geological Survey, Lemoyne, PA); E.T. Slonecker (U.S. EPA, Reston, VA).
Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD 2000), 21-24 May 2000, Denver, Colorado.
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME), Littleton, CO. Vol II, p 1551-559, 2000

Remote sensing is being tested for its ability to identify the severity of impact on streams that are subjected to contaminated mine drainage (CMD) in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield of Pennsylvania. Airborne digital multispectral video images of acidic and near-neutral CMD are being compared with field spectra, water chemistry, mineralogy, and microbiology. Spectral differences in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum are caused by the presence of schwertmannite in the acidic precipitates and ferrihydrite in the near-neutral precipitates. The acidic CMD averages 1,500 mg/L sulfate and has bacteria coated with schwertmannite; the near-neutral CMD averages 87 mg/L sulfate and has bacteria coated with ferrihydrite.

Sampling Strategy for the Rapid Screening of Mine-Waste Dumps on Abandoned Mine Lands
Smith, K.S. (U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO); C.A. Ramsey (EnviroStat, Inc., Ft. Collins, CO); P.L. Hageman (U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO).
Proceedings from the Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD 2000), 21-24 May 2000, Denver, Colorado.
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME), Littleton, CO. Vol II, p 1453-1461, 2000

A statistically based strategy for sampling the surficial material of mine-waste dumps for use in screening and prioritizing historic dumps on abandoned mine lands was developed. This sampling strategy entails the collection of a representative composite sample from individual dumps and allows for regional or watershed-based assessments. One 30-increment dump-composite sample collected using this sampling strategy contains as much information, relative to average value, as 30 individual grab samples at 1/30 of the analytical cost.

Refraction Tomography over a Buried Waste Disposal Site
Lanz, E; Maurer, H; Green, A.G.
Geophysics, Vol 63 No 4, p 1414-1433, 31 Jul 1998

The authors have developed a surface 2-D tomographic refraction scheme that is based on a fast finite-difference eikonal solver and an inversion method that incorporates appropriate damping and smoothing constraints. High-quality seismic data were collected along five profiles that crossed adjacent landfills in northern Switzerland and two that sampled undisturbed natural sediments. Seismic waves generated from multiple shots were recorded on large numbers of closely spaced receivers during quiet evening periods. Reliability of the resultant velocity tomograms was estimated on the basis of ray diagrams, plots of synthetic and observed travel times, travel time residual analyses, comparisons of coincident velocity-depth profiles computed from intersecting profiles, inversions with diverse input models, and quantitative error analyses using a bootstrap technique. Although results have demonstrated that the tomographic refraction scheme may be an efficient and cost-effective means of studying the very shallow subsurface (<20 m depth), complementary geological and other geophysical data were required to discriminate between velocity anomalies attributed to the landfills and those attributed to natural variations in the near-surface geology.

Robowell: An Automated Process for Monitoring Ground Water Quality Using Established Sampling Protocols
Granato, G.E.; K.P. Smith.
Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, Vol 19 No 4, p 81-89, Fall 1999

Robowell, a patented automated ground-water monitoring technology has been developed and tested by the USGS. Since December 1994, six prototype monitoring units have sampled water during all four seasons of the year under various hydrogeologic conditions, well designs, and geochemical environments. The automated process, the equipment used to implement the prototype systems, and results of a quality-assurance and quality-control (QA/QC) program are described from three study sites. Project publications and information about technology transfer opportunities are available on the internet. For more information, please visit

A Simple Field Leach Test for Rapid Screening and Qualitative Characterization of Mine Waste Dump Material on Abandoned Mine Lands
Hageman, P.L.; P.H. Briggs, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.
Proceedings from the Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD 2000), 21-24 May 2000, Denver, Colorado.
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME), Littleton, CO. Vol II, p 1463-1475, 2000

An important tool for use in the geochemical assessment of abandoned mine-waste piles is a leach procedure that can be done easily in the field and used for onsite screening of historic mine-waste material. A simple field leach test was developed that is an effective indicator of waste pile geochemistry and can be used to establish the relative geochemical fingerprint for a given pile. This simple procedure also provides indication of the potential chemical composition of run-off from the weathered surface of these piles. As part of developing this technique, a comparative study was carried out on eight mine-waste composite samples from different deposit types. Splits of all eight composites were leached using the field leach test procedure and a modified version of EPA Method 1312 (SPLP). It was found that the field leach test consistently provides relative indication of leachate geochemical trends comparable to leachate data derived from the more regulated, time consuming, and laborious EPA Method 1312 (SLPL). For more information, please visit

Simultaneous Inversion of Airborne Electromagnetic Data for Resistivity and Magnetic Permeability
Beard, L.P. ; Nyquist, J.E.
Geophysics, Vol 63 No 5, p 1556-1564, 30 Sep 1998

Layered-earth inversion algorithms that incorporate magnetic permeability as an additional inversion parameter may improve resistivity estimates. The authors demonstrate this improvement using data collected over hazardous waste sites near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Using resistivity inversion without magnetic permeability, the waste sites are almost invisible to the sensors. When magnetic permeability is included as an inversion parameter, the sites are detected, both by improved resistivity estimates and by estimated magnetic permeability.

A Slope-Ratio Method for Quantitative Open-Path FTIR
Ingling, L. (Chemistry Dept., Montgomery College, Rockville, MD); T.L. Isenhour (Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA).
Field Analytical Chemistry & Technology, Vol 4 No 2-3, p 127-133, 2000

A quantitative method, the slope-ratio method (SRM), has been developed for measuring ambient background sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The procedure has been successfully used for VOCs such as methanol, acetone, and t-butyl ethyl ether, and shows promise in measuring methane under laboratory conditions.

Some Geophysical Methods for Tailings/ Mine Waste Work
Campbell, D.L.; R.J. Horton; R.J. Bisdorf; D.L. Fey; M.H. Powers; D.V. Fitterman.
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Tailings and Mine Waste '99, 24-27 January 1999, Fort Collins, Colorado.
A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. p 35-43, 1999

Abstract not available.

Speciation of Natural Mercury Mine Wastes and Other Mercury-Bearing Materials Using X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) Spectroscopy [abstr.]
Kim, Christopher S. (Dept. of Geological & Environmental Sciences, Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA); G.E. Brown, Jr.; N.S. Bloom; J.J. Rytuba.
Geological Society of America, 2000 Annual Meeting, 9-18 November 2000, Reno, NV.
Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, Vol 32 No 7, 2000

Abstract not available.

Surface Analysis of Particles in Mine Tailings by Time-of-Flight Laser-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TOF-LIMS)
Martin, C.J. (AMTEL, London, Ontario); R.A. Al (Univ. of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario); L.J. Cabri (CANMET/MMSL, Ottawa, Ontario).
Environmental Geology, Vol 32 No 2, p 107-113, 1997

Time-of-flight laser-ionization mass spectrometry was applied to study the chemical composition of mineral particle surfaces in a sulphide-rich mine tailings impoundment. This surface-sensitive technique provides chemical information from surfaces of irregularly shaped mineral particles (both conductive and insulators) less than 100 mm in diameter, which are considered to be representative of particle surface coatings in the tailings pile (after drying). The speed of analysis (1 minute), small beam diameter (2-4 mm), surface sensitivity (2-10 nm), trace-element sensitivity, and capability to analyze rough surfaces make this method useful as a complement to studies of pore-water geochemistry and tailings mineralogy. The authors describe a study of the behavior of Pb and As in the Kidd Creek tailings dam near Timmins, Ontario, Canada, using a combination of surface analyses and pore-water geochemical data.

Surface Modified ATR FTIR Sensor Used to Detect, Identify, and Quantify Low Concentrations of Aqueous Anions
Hebert, G.N.; M.A. Odom; S.H. Strauss, Dept. of Chemistry, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO.
PITTCON 2000, Abstracts, p 2158, 2000

ATR FTIR sensors have been developed that can detect, identify, and quantify aqueous IR active anions at low concentrations. The ability to detect and quantify aqueous anions is important for ground- and surface-water testing. Commercially available silicon ATR crystals have been surface modified with highly selective thin films that enhance the sensitivity of the sensor 10,000 times. Modifications of the crystal surface with organometallic ion-exchange complexes were achieved through evaporative processes to form films of sub-micron thickness. The capability of the surface modified ATR FTIR sensor to identify the analyte by its unique IR spectrum enabled the elimination of false positive responses. Rapid quantification (Le. less than 10 minutes) has been achieved of target analytes such as cyanide, perchlorate, and fluorinated surfactants. Selectivity for the analyte was observed in the presence of at least 100 times excess of a competitor anion. Detection of 10 muM cyanide in a 1 M sodium chloride solution demonstrates both the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor.

Tests of Ground Penetrating Radar and Induced Polarization for Mapping Fluvial Mine Tailings on the Floor of Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho
Campbell, D.L.; J.C. Wynn; S.E. Box; A.A. Bookstrom; R.J. Horton.
Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, 23-27 March 1997, Reno, Nevada, p 81-88, 1997

Abstract not available.

Tissue-Level Biomarkers in Sentinel Slugs as Cost-Effective Tools to Assess Metal Pollution in Soils
Marigomez, I.; M. Kortabitarte; G.B.J. Dussart.
Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, Vol 34 No 2, p 167-176, 1998

Slugs, which are sensitive to metal pollution, might be invaluable instruments for biological assessment of soil pollution. Slugs were collected from an abandoned copper mine on a mountain top, from a site 7 km away from the mine at the bottom of the mountain, and from a clean site. Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations were measured in the slugs by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The digestive gland indicated significant differences in tissue metal levels between samples from different sites. The researchers conclude that exposure and effect biomarkers recorded in sentinel slugs could be sensitive, quick, and cheap indices of metal pollution in soils.

Tools for the Rapid Screening and Characterization of Historical Metal-Mining Waste Dumps
Smith, K.S.; P.H. Briggs; D.L. Campbell; C.J. Castle; G.A. Desborough; R.G. Eppinger III; D.V. Fitterman; P.L. Hageman; R.W. Leinz; G.P. Meeker; M.R. Stanton; S.J. Sutley; G.A. Swayze; D.B. Yager.
Proceedings of the 2000 Billings Land Reclamation Symposium, 20-24 March 2000, Billings, Montana.
Montana State University, Bozeman. Reclamation Research Unit Publication No. 00-01 (CD-ROM), p 435-442, 2000

The U.S. Geological Survey Mine Waste Characterization Project has taken a multidisciplinary approach to assemble, develop, and refine methods and tools for characterizing and screening weathered solid-mine wastes. Researchers from a variety of disciplines, including geophysics, geochemistry, analytical chemistry, geology, mineralogy, geomicrobiology, remote sensing, spatial modeling, and aquatic toxicology, have worked together at several metal mining waste sites to develop an integrated "tool kit" for the rapid screening and characterization of historical mine-waste sites. This paper provides a brief overview of some of these tools. For more information, please visit

The Use of Bioassays and Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) Procedures to Assess Recovery and Effectiveness of Remedial Activities in a Mine Drainage-Impacted Stream System
Deanovic, L.; V.M. Connor; A.W. Knight; K.J. Maier.
Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, Vol 36 No 1, p 21-27, 1999

Water samples were collected at several sites in Dolly and Little Grizzly Creeks to assess the effectiveness of remedial efforts to decrease concentrations of toxic metals. Untreated samples and samples passed through ion exchange columns, which remove cationic metals, were compared in side-by-side bioassays using Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Selenastrum capricornutum. Samples were analyzed for total and dissolved copper, cadmium, zinc, and iron. Copper was the element responsible for toxicity. Toxicity was detected in the mine discharge and immediately downstream from the tailings where dissolved copper concentrations were 250 mg/L and 415 mg/L, respectively. Toxicity decreased at downstream sites but extended at least 6.4 km downstream. Improvement in bioassay performance by the treated waters verified metal toxicity. The results indicate that the mine effluent and tailings pile currently have the heaviest impact on Dolly and Little Grizzly Creeks and should be given the highest priority in future remedial programs.

Use of LIF for Real-Time In-Situ Mixed NAPL Source Zone Detection
Kram, Mark L.; Stephen H. Lieberman; Jerry Fee; Arturo A. Keller.
Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, Vol 21 No 1, p 67-76, Winter 2001

In an area where plating shop was temporarily stored, the site characterization and analysis cone penetrometer system (SCAPS), equipped with real-time fluorophore detection capabilities, was used to delineate subsurface contaminant releases. The investigators advanced the SCAPS laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) sensor to depths beneath the water table of the principal water-bearing zone, approximately six feet below ground surface (bgs) across the site. Fluorescence, attributed to fuel compounds commingled with chlorinated solvents, was observed at depths ranging from four to 11.5 feet bgs. The presence of chlorinated solvents was confirmed, indicating that the SCAPS fluorophore detection system is capable of indirectly delineating vadose zone and subaqueous chlorinated solvents at contaminant release sites. This paper represents the first documented account of the successful application of LIF to identify a mixed DNAPL/LNAPL source zone.

The Use of an Automated Liquid Handling System with a Collision Cell ICP-MS for Interference Removal in Elemental Speciation
Keenan, Fergus, Thermo Elemental, Franklin, MA.
PITTCON 2000, Abstracts, p 364, 2000

The integrated liquid handling system for elemental speciation analysis consists of two switching valves and a pair of two-channel independently controlled variable speed peristaltic pumps combined with a dual 6-way pneumatic switching valve. ICP-MS software operating under a Windows NT/Windows 2000 environment controls the system. Applications include microdilution techniques (online dilution, on-line addition of internal standards, on-line standard additions) continuous and segmented flow hydride generation, low-pressure chelation chromatography, and rapid sample throughput applications. Initial investigations using automated SPC with ICP-MS for chromium speciation have recently been reported. Limiting factors of this ICP-MS method are the polyatomic species 52ARC and 53ARC, which can interfere with low-level detection of the two most abundant chromium isotopes. The researchers discuss the use of a collision cell equipped ICP-MS to remove the polyatomic argon carbide species for the analysis of chromium species.

Use of Remote Sensing to Track an Ecological Nightmare in Kazakhstan Between 1994 and 2000
Rauschkolb, J.W.; N. Amanova, San Diego State Univ., San Diego, CA.
Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, 6-8 November 2000, Las Vegas, NV.
Veridian ERIM International Conferences, Ann Arbor, MI. 2000

This project utilizes SIR-C radar and Landsat 5 and 7 Thematic Mapper (TM) remote sensing imagery to track the shoreline of an artificial lake in Kazakhstan that was created out of 45.88 million tons of toxic waste material. In 1994, the city of Aqtau halted the pumping of all liquid waste into the neighboring Koshkar-Ata Lake. Since 1994, the artificial lake has decreased in size due to evaporation. By 1999, more than 10 square km of solid toxic waste material was exposed to the air, polluting the city of Aqtau with toxic wind blown dust and silt particles.

Using Electromagnetic Induction Techniques to Characterize Groundwater Containing High Chloride
Bean, D.M.; W.V. Pipes.
Proceeding of the Eleventh National Outdoor Action Conference & Exposition, 1-3 April 1997. National Ground Water Assoc., Westerville, OH. p 443-457, 1997

Time-domain electromagnetic induction and borehole electromagnetic induction surveys were used to determine the vertical and lateral extent of high conductivity ground water resulting from the release of saline brines to the subsurface. The indirect geophysical techniques can be calibrated with a limited number of ground-water samples to provide an accurate measure of chloride distribution in ground water. The authors report the costs of conducting these surveys.

Using GIS and Uranium Mining History to Identify Trace Element 'Hotspots' within a South Texas Watershed [abstr.]
Parker, Ronald L.; Bruce E. Herbert, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX.
Geological Society of America, 2000 Annual Meeting, 9-18 November 2000, Reno, NV.
Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, Vol 32 No 7, 2000

Abstract not available.

Using Imaging Spectroscopy to Map Acidic Mine Waste
Swayze, G.A.; K.S. Smith; R.N. Clark; S.J. Sutley; R.M. Pearson; J.S. Vance; P.L. Hageman; P.H. Briggs; A.L. Meier; M.J. Singleton; S. Roth.
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol 34, p 47-54, 2000

The process of pyrite oxidation at the surface of mine waste may produce acidic water that is gradually neutralized as it drains away from the waste, depositing different Fe-bearing secondary minerals in roughly concentric zones that emanate from mine-waste piles. These Fe-bearing minerals are indicators of the geochemical conditions under which they form. Because each of these Fe-bearing secondary minerals is spectrally unique, airborne and orbital imaging spectrometers can be used to map these mineral zones. In this way, imaging spectroscopy can be used to rapidly screen entire mining districts for potential sources of surface acid drainage and to detect acid-producing minerals in mine waste or unmined rock outcrops. Spectral data from the AVIRIS instrument were used to evaluate mine waste at the California Gulch Superfund Site near Leadville, Colorado. Laboratory leach tests of surface samples show that leachate pH is most acidic and metals most mobile in samples from the inner jarosite zone and that leachate pH is near-neutral and metals least mobile in samples from the outer goethite zone. For more information, please visit

Utilization of Airborne Magnetic, Electromagnetic, and Radiometric Data in Abandoned Mine Land Investigations
Smith, B.D.; A.E. McCafferty; R.R. McDougal, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.
Proceedings from the Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD 2000), 21-24 May 2000, Denver, Colorado.
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME), Littleton, CO. Vol II, p 1525-1530, 2000

Magnetic, electromagnetic, and radiometric airborne survey data have been used in regional and local (drainage basin) scales. In a regional geoenvironmental assessment of the state of Montana, magnetic and radiometric data compiled from airborne surveys were used along with other digital geologic and geochemical data to prioritize mining districts for potential acid water generation. Probability ratio mapping was done to integrate the interpretation of many different digital data sets. On a more local scale, the Animas (CO) and Boulder Basin (MT) watersheds have been studied using helicopter geophysical surveys. The airborne geophysical surveys show many more structural features than the geologic maps. Combined interpretation of the geophysical data sets using the probability ratio method has resulted in identification of areas of alteration. Airborne radiometric data in the Boulder Basin area suggests that rocks with high potassium and thorium also have a high acid water buffering capacity.

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