Documents

Remediation

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Hazardous Waste Clean-Up Information (CLU-IN) On-line Characterization and Remediation Databases Fact Sheet Published 2011
This fact sheet provides an overview of the 10 on-line characterization and remediation databases available on the Hazardous Waste Clean-Up Information (CLU-IN) website sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI), Technology Innovation and Field Services Division (TIFSD). These databases provide information about pilot- and full-scale applications of innovative site characterization and treatment technologies for EPA remedial project managers, other federal and state personnel, consulting engineers, technology developers and vendors, remediation contractors, researchers, community groups, and individual citizens. They facilitate and encourage the hazardous waste remediation community to share knowledge about, and experiences with, innovative technologies.

Introduction to Green Remediation Published 2011
As part of its mission to protect human health and the environment, EPA develops and promotes innovative strategies that restore contaminated sites to productive use, reduce associated costs, and promote environmental stewardship. The process of cleaning up a hazardous waste site uses energy, water, and other natural or materials resources and consequently creates an environmental footprint of its own. The Agency encourages adoption of green remediation as the practice of considering all environmental effects of cleanup actions and incorporating options to minimize the environmental footprints of cleanup actions.

'New, emerging and/or less expensive solutions for the destruction of land contaminated with pesticides', contained within NATO/CCMS Pilot Study Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Remedial Action Technologies for the Treatment of Contaminated Land and Groundwater (Phase III) Published December 2002
This NATO/CCMS Fellowship Report, produced by John Vijgen, describes the current international development on pesticides seen in the framework of the POPs Convention (9 of the 12 POPs are pesticides), and a status of the 'emerging technologies' related to remedial actions towards pollution problems caused by pesticides.

2005 Third International Phytotechnologies Conference, April 20-22, 2005 Published 2005
This conference will present the state of science and engineering development in phytotechnologies worldwide. More specifically, the purpose of this conference is to understand which technologies using plants are currently effective, how best to integrate research science and field applications, and what questions need further research.

Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies Volume 5 Published 2001
This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 56 case studies of site remediation applications prepared primarily by federal agencies. The case studies, collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from technology applications.

Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies Volume 6 Published 2002
This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 39 case studies of site remediation applications prepared primarily by federal agencies. The case studies, collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from technology applications

Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 10, August 2006 Published 2006
This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing nine new FRTR cost and performance case studies documenting the results and lessons learned from site remediation technology applications. The abstracts are organized by technology, and cover a variety of in situ treatment technologies and some containment remedies. The abstracts and corresponding case study reports are available through the Roundtable Web site, which contains a total of 383 remediation technology case studies. The online version of this document also includes a table (Appendix A) identifying the specific sites, technologies, contaminants, media, and year published for the 383 case studies in the FRTR database.

Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 11, August 2007 Published 2007
This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 10 new FRTR cost and performance case studies documenting the results and lessons learned from site remediation technology applications. The abstracts are organized by technology, and include several different technologies for treating soil or groundwater contamination or acid rock drainage, with 3 reports addressing soil cleanup, 4 reports focusing on groundwater and 3 reports focusing on treating acid rock drainage. This document also includes a table (Appendix A) identifying the specific sites, technologies, contaminants, media, and year published for the 393 case studies in the FRTR database.

Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 2 Published 1997
This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 17 case studies of site remediation prepared by federal agencies. The case studies, collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from technology applications. They will help establish benchmark data on cost and performance which should lead to greater confidence in the selection and use of cleanup technologies.

Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 3 Published 1998
This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 86 case studies of site remediation prepared by federal agencies. The case studies, collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from technology applications. They will help establish benchmark data on cost and performance which should lead to greater confidence in the selection and use of cleanup technologies.

Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 4 Published 2000
This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 78 case studies of site remediation applications prepared by federal agencies. The case studies, collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from technology applications. They will help establish benchmark data on cost and performance which should lead to greater confidence in the selection and use of cleanup technologies.

Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 7 Published 2003
This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 29 case studies of site remediation applications prepared primarily by federal agencies. The case studies, collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from technology applications.

Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 8 Published 2004
This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 19 case studies of site remediation applications prepared primarily by federal agencies. The case studies, collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from technology applications. The report includes 7 projects addressing cleanup of soil and groundwater using in situ bioremediation technologies, 4 case studies focusing on soil vapor extraction for treatment of halogenated volatile compounds, and 3 reports covering in situ soil and groundwater treatment using chemical oxidation/reduction technologies.

Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9 Published 2005
This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites. The case studies include several different technologies for treating soil or groundwater contamination or both, with 7 reports addressing soil cleanup and 8 reports concerning groundwater

Acid Mine Drainage: Innovative Treatment Technologies Published 2003
This document was prepared by Christine Costello, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies grantee under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This paper provides an overview of treatment technologies being used to remedy environmental problems at abandoned mine sites, with a focus on innovative treatment techniques.

Alternative Cover Assessment Program - 2002 Annual Report Published 2002
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated the Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP) in 1998 to address a growing interest in innovative alternatives to conventional designs for final landfill closure. Interest in alternative cover designs has stemmed from the requirement for adequate long-term protection of human health and the environment, recognized limitations of current prescriptive designs, and cost.

Anaerobic Biodegradation of BTEX in Aquifer Material; Environmental Research Brief Published 1997
The study focuses on anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX isomers in aquifer material from two petroleum-contaminated aquifers. Two different techniques were used to evaluate the ability of indigenous microorganisms to anaerobically degrade BTEX and to estimate the rate of degradation.

Analysis of Information Contained in Completed North American Innovative Remediation Technology Demonstration Projects. Published 1995
This report prepared by the Groundwater Remediation Technologies Analysis Center (GWRTAC) provides an analysis of information pertaining to ground-water remediation projects contained in the title document. Please note that this analysis only addresses projects listed in the first edition of the title document. However, an updated second edition of this document is available online with search capabilities.

Analysis of Selected Enhancements for Soil Vapor Extraction Published 1997
This report provides an engineering analysis of, and status report on, selected enhancements for the following soil vapor extraction (SVE) treatment technologies: air sparging, dual-phase extraction, directional drilling, pneumatic and hydraulic fracturing, and thermal enhancement. It also offers an evaluation of each technology's applicability to various site conditions, cost and performance information, a list of vendors specializing in the technologies, a discussion of relative strengths and limitations of the technologies, recommendations to keep in mind when considering the enhancements, and extensive references.

Appendix A: Summary of Screening and Detailed Analysis for Wood Treater Sites With Contaminated Soils, Sediments, and Sludges Published 1997
Appendix A provides summary information on the number of cases in which each technology considered at wood treater sites was screened out in past FSs and RODs in both the initial and detailed analysis phases.

Arsenic Treatment Technologies for Soil, Waste, and Water Published 2002
This report contains current information on the treatment technologies for wastes and environmental media containing arsenic. It summarizes information on 13 technologies used to treat arsenic, identifies sites and facilities where arsenic treatment has been used, and provides references to more detailed arsenic treatment information. The information can be used to help identify and screen treatment technologies that can meet the lower arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL). The technologies included in the report to address soil and solids are: solidification/stabilization, vitrification, soil washing/acid extraction, pyrometallurgical treatment, and in situ soil flushing. Technologies for water include: precipitation-coprecipitation, membrane filtration, adsorption, ion exchange, permeable reactive barriers, and biological treatment. Two technologies discussed in the report address soils, other solids, and water: electrokinetics and phytoremediation

Assessing Contractor Capabilities for Streamlined Site Investigations Published 2000
The purpose of this document is to familiarize and encourage brownfields decision makers to investigate and employ innovative methods for characterizing their sites, to assist brownfields decision makers in assessing contractors' capabilities and familiarity with these methods, and to suggest additional items for contractors to consider in conducting their activities.

Assessing the Use and Application of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticle Technology for Remediation at Contaminated Sites Published 2009
This document was prepared by Sean M. Cook, a National Network for Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) grantee under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The main focus of this paper is discussing the use of zero-valent iron nanoparticles. Due to its unique properties, this manufactured nanoparticle is able to effectively eliminate or neutralize certain recalcitrant pollutants that can be found in aquatic environments (e.g., groundwater aquifers). Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles are typically 5-40 nm sized Fe0/Fe-oxide particles that rapidly transform many environmental contaminants to benign products and are a promising in situ remediation agent. Due to their small size and increased reactivity, these manufactured nanoparticles have the potential to be more effective than the microscale ZVI that is already in use for contaminant remediation in soil and groundwater aquifers. However, little is known about the environmental fate of these nanomaterials once they have undergone biological and non-biological processes within a contaminated aquifer. For this reason, it is important to find out what the possible impacts of these nanomaterials are once they enter the environment and how they could potentially affect human health or the environment. Despite these concerns, NZVI technology and its application are a very promising, efficient and cost-effective method for remediating contaminated soil and groundwater aquifer sites.

Assessment Guidance for Perchlorate Published 2006
This guidance replaces previous Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response guidance regarding perchlorate under the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan, 40 CFR Part 300. Following the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council review, EPA adopted a reference dose (RfD) for perchlorate of 0.0007 milligram/kilogram-day (mg/kg-day), and this guidance applies that to EPA's CERCLA program. This RfD leads to a Drinking Water Equivalent Level (DWEL) of 24.5 micrograms/liter (ug/L) or 24.5 parts per billion (ppb).

Assessment of Phytoremediation as an In-Situ Technique for Cleaning Oil-Contaminated Sites Published 1999
Based on a review of the relevant literature, this document discusses the key mechanisms as well as the special considerations involved in petrochemical phytoremediation in northern climates. The benefits, limitations, and costs of phytoremediation are compared to natural attenuation, engineering and bioremediation.

Basket Creek: Produced by U.S. EPA Environmental Response Team Published
During the late 1960s, a ravine in rural woodlands in Douglas County, GA, was used as an illegal dumping area for industrial solvents, paint removers, and other toxic wastes. Contamination at this site was so severe that excavation of the soil was not feasible because of the potential for dangerous levels of fugitive emissions. This video highlights the unique multiphase cleanup of the site, which involved erecting a prefab building over the contaminated area to control and treat toxic vapors released from the soil. Running time is 6 minutes.

Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Soil Treatment Technologies: Suggested Operational Guidelines to Prevent Cross-Media Transfer of Contaminants During Clean-Up Activities Published 1997
The document provides guidance for designing and conducting soil remediation activities at RCRA and other hazardous waste sites so that cross-contamination is minimal. The document is expected to assist in reducing exposure of workers to contaminants by identifying the potential for transfer from medium to medium and recommending control mechanisms that could be applied during implementation of treatment technologies for soil. The BMPs are provided for seven technology categories: containment technologies; soil washing; thermal treatment; vapor extraction; bioremediation; incineration; and other physical and chemical treatments. The document also provides case studies and information about field validation activities that EPA undertook at soil remediation sites in 1996 and 1997.

Best Management Practices: Use of Systematic Project Planning Under a Triad Approach for Site Assessment and Cleanup Published 2010
This technical publication is intended for environmental practitioners engaged in the investigation, design, remediation, and closure or reuse of contaminated sites. Systematic Project Planning is a rigorous project planning process that lays a scientifically defensible foundation for proposed project activities. The bulletin discusses important considerations and contingencies that need to be addressed, and key activities to be performed during SPP at hazardous-waste sites. It guides the reader to think about SPP from early assessment, to evolving to a mature conceptual site model, to looking ahead at site re-use; and emphasizes up-front effort. Included are references where the reader can find tools and more detailed technical guidance.

Bibliography for Innovative Site Clean-Up Technologies, August 1999 Update Published 1999
Provides information about EPA publications, programs, and resources dealing with innovative site clean-up technologies. August 1999 Update.

Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database Published 1995
This report is a collection of abstracts summarizing 37 case studies of site remediation projects prepared by Federal agencies. The case studies were undertaken to document the results and lessons learned from early technology applications. They will help establish benchmark data on cost and performance which should lead to greater confidence in the selection and use of cleanup technologies. The case studies were collected under the auspices of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable as part of a larger effort to improve future project documentation and information transfer.

Biochemical Reactors for Mining-Influenced Water Published 2014
This ITRC web-based guidance document describes how biochemical reactors work, the contaminants treated, various designs, monitoring and maintenance requirements and schedules, and troubleshooting. Biochemical reactors are land-based engineered treatment systems that use an organic substrate to drive microbial and chemical reactions that reduce concentrations of metals, acidity, and sulfate in mining-influenced water. Fifteen case studies present real-world examples and include details such as volumes of water treated, substrates used, pH and metals concentrations, and biochemical reactor size.

Bioremediation Field Initiative Site Profile: Escambia Wood Preserving Site Published 1995
The Escambia Wood Preserving Site located in Brookhaven, Mississippi, is a former wood preserving facility that used pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote to treat wooden poles. Located on the site are two pressure treatment cylinders, a wastewater treatment system, five bulk product storage tanks, seven condenser ponds (including a 3,000,000-gal., unlined primary surface impoundment), and excavated soil materials containing process chemicals from past spills. In April 1991, U.S. EPA Region 4 initiated a removal action to eliminate all sources of potential releases to the environment.

Bioremediation Field Initiative Site Profile: Hill Air Force Base Superfund Site Published 1995
In 1988, the U.S. Air Force initiated a study at Hill Air Force Base (AFB) to examine the potential of bioventing to remediate JP-4 jet fuel-contaminated soils. Bioventing is the process of supplying oxygen in situ to oxygen-deprived soil microbes by forcing air through contaminated soil at low airflow rates. Because bioventing equipment is relatively noninvasive, this technology is especially valuable for treating contaminated soils at military bases, industrial complexes, and gas stations, where structures and utilities cannot be disturbed. Promising results from the Air Force’s initial study prompted the U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and the Air Force to conduct a field evaluation of bioventing at Hill AFB and at Eielson AFB (see separate fact sheet, EPA/540/F-95/506B). The main objective of the Hill AFB evaluation was to determine the effect of air injection flow rate on the effectiveness of bioventing in stimulating biodegradation while minimizing volatilization. The evaluation also provided an opportunity to gain experience in bioventing large volumes of soil with plumes of fuel that extend deep beneath the surface as well as under roads, underground utilities, and buildings.

Bioremediation Field Initiative Site Profile: Reilly Tar and Chemical Corporation Superfund Site Published 1995
This Bioremediation Field Initiative project is under way in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, at the former site of Reilly Tar and Chemical Corporation’s coal tar distillation and wood preserving plant. From 1917 to 1972, wastewater discharges and dumping from this plant contaminated about 80 acres of soil and the underlying ground water with wood preserving wastes. In 1978, the Minnesota Department of Health discovered significant concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in six municipal drinking water wells neighboring the Reilly Tar plant. St. Louis Park currently is pumping and treating thecontaminated ground water plume, but without an effort to control the source of PAHs, pumping and treating might be necessary for several hundred years.

Bioremediation Of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Groundwater Published 1998
This report was prepared under grant for EPA's Technology Innovation Office by Megan Grindstaff, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) fellow. The publication provides information on recent field applications of enhanced in situ bioremediation for treating groundwater contaminated with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

Bioremediation Resource Guide Published 1993
Identifies information resources intended to aid users in remedial decisions. Includes abstracts of field reports and guidance documents.

The Bioremediation and Phytoremediation of Pesticide-contaminated Sites Published 2000
Bioremediation and phytoremediation are innovative technologies that have the potential to alleviate numerous pesticide contamination problems. EPA's Technology Innovation Office (TIO) provided a grant through the National Network for Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) to prepare a technology assessment report on the use of bioremediation and phytoremediation for the cleanup of pesticide-contaminated sites. This report was prepared by a first year graduate student from the University of Montana during the summer of 2000. It has been reproduced to help provide federal agencies, states, consulting engineering firms, private industries, and technology developers with information on the current status of this technology.

Bioremediation of Acid Mine Drainage Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Published 2006
This document was prepared by Sheela M. Doshi, a National Network of Environmental Management studies grantee, under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This innovative technology report provides an overview of innovative acid mine drainage treatment technologies that employ sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Through a synthesis of research and case studies of SRB treatment at coal and hardrock mine sites, it presents lessons for further application of this technology.

Bioremediation of Arsenic, Chromium, Lead, and Mercury Published 2004
This document was prepared by Adebowale Adeniji, a National Network of Environmental Management studies grantee, under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This paper addresses the status of the application of biological treatment to clean up hazardous metals from the earth's subsurface.

Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents in Fractured Bedrock: Characterization and Case Studies Published 2002
This document was prepared by Erica Borum, a NNEMS grantee under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The objective of this paper is to present in situ bioremediation in fractured bedrock as an innovative technology for the treatment of chlorinated solvents. The heterogeneity of fractured bedrock and the persistence of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) create a costly, remedial challenge in the subsurface. Due to the existence of microorganisms in the subsurface, bioremediation processes in fractured bedrock have proven to be a potentially successful remedial process. This paper summarizes ten on-going case studies that are utilizing bioremediation of chlorinated solvent and will discuss the parameters of the projects as well as current findings.

Biosolids Recycling: Restore, Reclaim, Remediate Published 2000
Sewage treatment results in wastewater being recycled to the environment, but the solids removed from wastewater can also be processed and turned into a nutrient rich fertilizer. Today's primary use of this fertilizer is to restore overworked agricultural soils, but research by the USDA and the USEPA/ERT has now opened the way for use of biosolids to reclaim lands destroyed by mining.

Brownfields Road Map to Understanding Options for Site Investigation and Cleanup, Sixth Edition Published 2018
The Brownfields Road Map 6th Edition breaks down Brownfields site investigation and cleanup into an easy to understand, step-by-step process that provides valuable and up-to-date information to a wide range of Brownfields stakeholders involved in or affected by the redevelopment of Brownfields sites. It introduces readers to a range of considerations and activities, and provides links to online technical resources and tools. The Road Map also highlights ten important issues, processes and initiatives commonly encountered by Brownfields stakeholders through "spotlights." These focus areas provide a quick look at topics currently relevant to Brownfields projects and provide links to additional information.

Brownfields Technology Primer: Selecting and Using Phytoremediation for Site Cleanup Published 2001
This primer explains the phytoremediation process, discusses the potential advantages and considerations in selecting phytoremediation to clean up brownfields sites, and provides information on additional resources about phytoremediation.

Chemical Grouting Published 1995
This manual provides information and guidance for the investigation and selection of materials, equipment, and methods to be used in chemical grouting in connection with construction projects. Elements discussed include types of chemical grout materials, grouting equipment and methods, planning of chemical grouting operations, and specifications. Emphasis is placed on the unique characteristics of chemical grouts that benefit hydraulic structures.

Citizen's Guide Series to Cleanup Technologies Published 2012
The Citizen's Guide series is a set of 22 fact sheets that summarizes cleanup methods used at Superfund and other sites. The series was originally released ten years ago and was updated in 2012 to include information about new technologies and techniques. Each fact sheet is two pages long and answers six questions about the cleanup method: 1) What is it? 2) How does it work? 3) How long will it take? 4) Is it safe? 5) How might it affect me? and 6) Why use it? Spanish translations of these guides will be available in 2013.

A Citizen's Guide to Activated Carbon Treatment Published 2012
The Citizen's Guide Series are 2-page fact sheets that provide a general description on approaches to clean up contaminated was sites. The fact sheets cover five questions about each clean up approach: What is it?, How does it work?, Is it safe?, How long will it take?, and Why use it?.

A Citizen's Guide to Air Stripping Published 2012
The Citizen's Guide series summarize cleanup methods used at Superfund and other sites. Each two-page fact sheet answers six questions about the cleanup method: 1) What is it? 2) How does it work? 3) How long will it take? 4) Is it safe? 5) How might it affect me? and 6) Why use it?

A Citizen's Guide to Bioremediation Published 2012
The Citizen's Guide series summarize cleanup methods used at Superfund and other sites. Each two-page fact sheet answers six questions about the cleanup method: 1) What is it? 2) How does it work? 3) How long will it take? 4) Is it safe? 5) How might it affect me? and 6) Why use it?

A Citizen's Guide to Capping Published 2012
The Citizen's Guide series summarize cleanup methods used at Superfund and other sites. Each two-page fact sheet answers six questions about the cleanup method: 1) What is it? 2) How does it work? 3) How long will it take? 4) Is it safe? 5) How might it affect me? and 6) Why use it?

A Citizen's Guide to Drycleaner Cleanup Published 2011
The State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners (SCRD) has prepared an easy-to-read guide explaining the drycleaner cleanup process and describing the technologies that are most commonly used to clean up contaminated drycleaner sites. This guide was designed specifically for citizens with little or no technical or scientific background.

Note: The CLU-IN Publications and Studio area only contains publications that are a sole or key source of information on a particular hazardous waste management problem. You may also visit the CLU-IN site-wide search engine to locate additional publications available through other areas of CLU-IN.