Documents

Characterization and Monitoring

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Hazardous Waste Clean-Up Information (CLU-IN) On-line Characterization and Remediation Databases Fact Sheet Published 2011
This fact sheet provides an overview of the 10 on-line characterization and remediation databases available on the Hazardous Waste Clean-Up Information (CLU-IN) website sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI), Technology Innovation and Field Services Division (TIFSD). These databases provide information about pilot- and full-scale applications of innovative site characterization and treatment technologies for EPA remedial project managers, other federal and state personnel, consulting engineers, technology developers and vendors, remediation contractors, researchers, community groups, and individual citizens. They facilitate and encourage the hazardous waste remediation community to share knowledge about, and experiences with, innovative technologies.

2nd International Workshop on Remote Sensing of Emissions: New Technologies and Recent Work Published 2008
This workshop has presentations on DIAL and SOF surveys done in the Houston, Texas area, monitoring for pipeline gas leaks with an aircraft mounted DIAL system, the results of an ongoing two-year continuous fenceline FTIR activity at a petrochemical plant, the use of VRPM to measure landfill fugitive gas emissions and mercury emissions from a chlor-alkali plant, a fully automated VRPM TDLAS system for continuous monitoring of lagoons at consolidated animal feeding operations, the use of FTIR fenceline monitoring MGP cleanups, and a research update on equipment being developed to detect in the mid to far IR spectrum that does not require cryogenic cooling. Also discussed were the implications for facility monitoring as these cutting edge tools become more common place and how to promote their use to reduce overall emissions. The workshop resulted in suggestions and recommendations for future actions to be taken by the various entities represented at the meeting.

Application of Field-Based Characterization Tools in the Waterfront Voluntary Setting Published 1999
Voluntary action to redevelop potentially contaminated property operates under vastly different market constraints than mandated corrective action programs. Pressures exist that impact the time scale, cost/benefit ratio, priorities, and resources that allow the action to transpire. Non-market pressures, usually in the form of regulation, also affect decisions over the course of redevelopment. Together, these forces also determine the technologies and methods used to characterize the property, as well as the media sampled. This report will investigate the reasons behind that and detail the current level of field-based characterization tool application at 115 waterfront brownfield and Voluntary Cleanup Program (VCP) sites.

Applying the Concept of Effective Data to Environmental Analyses for Contaminated Sites Published 2001
Analytical chemistry methods can be classified as 'definitive methods' or 'screening methods.' Environmental decision-makers frequently assume that definitive analytical methods generate 'definitive data,' while screening methods generate 'screening data.' This is misleading. Adopting the concept of 'effective data' could promote cost-savings while ensuring more reliable site decisions, because it recognizes that the information value of data depends on the interaction between sampling design, analytical design, and the intended use of the data.

An Approach for Evaluating the Progress of Natural Attenuation in Groundwater Published 2011
The purpose of this document is to present a simple, statistically based approach for evaluating the progress of natural attenuation from the data collected during site characterization and long term monitoring. The intended audience is technical professionals that actually perform the data analyses (i.e., hydrogeologists, engineers) as well as project managers who review those analyses and/or make decisions based on those analyses.

Assessing Contractor Capabilities for Streamlined Site Investigations Published 2000
The purpose of this document is to familiarize and encourage brownfields decision makers to investigate and employ innovative methods for characterizing their sites, to assist brownfields decision makers in assessing contractors' capabilities and familiarity with these methods, and to suggest additional items for contractors to consider in conducting their activities.

Assessment Guidance for Perchlorate Published 2006
This guidance replaces previous Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response guidance regarding perchlorate under the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan, 40 CFR Part 300. Following the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council review, EPA adopted a reference dose (RfD) for perchlorate of 0.0007 milligram/kilogram-day (mg/kg-day), and this guidance applies that to EPA's CERCLA program. This RfD leads to a Drinking Water Equivalent Level (DWEL) of 24.5 micrograms/liter (ug/L) or 24.5 parts per billion (ppb).

Best Management Practices: Use of Systematic Project Planning Under a Triad Approach for Site Assessment and Cleanup Published 2010
This technical publication is intended for environmental practitioners engaged in the investigation, design, remediation, and closure or reuse of contaminated sites. Systematic Project Planning is a rigorous project planning process that lays a scientifically defensible foundation for proposed project activities. The bulletin discusses important considerations and contingencies that need to be addressed, and key activities to be performed during SPP at hazardous-waste sites. It guides the reader to think about SPP from early assessment, to evolving to a mature conceptual site model, to looking ahead at site re-use; and emphasizes up-front effort. Included are references where the reader can find tools and more detailed technical guidance.

Best Practices for Data Management Technical Guide Published 2018
EPA has issued three technical guides to assist environmental professionals in scoping, data management and strategic sampling activities at hazardous waste sites. EPA intends for the guides to strengthen Superfund site characterization activities to facilitate stronger site remedy decisions and improved remedy performance, among other objectives. This technical guide provides best practices for efficiently managing the large amount of data generated throughout the data life cycle. Thorough, up-front remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) planning and scoping combined with decision support tools and visualization can help reduce RI/FS cost and provide a more complete conceptual site model (CSM) earlier in the process. Two additional companion technical guides should be used in conjunction with this data management technical guide: Smart Scoping for Environmental Investigations and Strategic Sampling Approaches.

Best Practices for Environmental Site Management: A Practical Guide for Applying Environmental Sequence Stratigraphy to Improve Conceptual Site Models Published 2017
The purpose of this issue paper is to provide a practical guide on the application of the geologic principles of sequence stratigraphy and facies models to the characterization of stratigraphic heterogeneity at hazardous waste sites. Application of the principles and methods presented in this issue paper will improve Conceptual Site Models (CSM) and provide a basis for understanding stratigraphic flux and associated contaminant transport. This is fundamental to designing monitoring programs as well as selecting and implementing remedies at contaminated groundwater sites. EPA recommends re-evaluating the CSM while completing the site characterization and whenever new data are collected. Updating the CSM can be a critical component of a 5 year review or a remedy optimization effort.

Best Practices for Environmental Site Management: Recommended Contents of a Groundwater Monitoring Report Published 2016
The purpose of this issue paper is to recommend information to include in groundwater monitoring reports that will lead to improved report consistency and a useful, readable format. Incorporation of the recommended information will standardize groundwater monitoring report deliverables, which may in turn inform site characterization strategies, analysis of remedial alternatives, monitoring network optimization, remedy performance evaluation, continual refinement of the conceptual site model (CSM), and technical evaluation of groundwater data in five-year reviews.

Brownfields Grant Recipients' Road Map to Understanding Quality Assurance Project Plans Published 2012
The U.S. EPA prepared this publication to help recipients of an EPA Brownfields Assessment Grant design and complete site assessment projects more efficiently and effectively by increasing their awareness and understanding of the importance of quality assurance (QA) in Brownfields site projects. The Road Map describes a general process for developing and using a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP), while highlighting the benefits of a well-prepared QAPP and helping those responsible for the process to better understand and communicate with all parties involved.

Brownfields Road Map to Understanding Options for Site Investigation and Cleanup, Sixth Edition Published 2018
The Brownfields Road Map 6th Edition breaks down Brownfields site investigation and cleanup into an easy to understand, step-by-step process that provides valuable and up-to-date information to a wide range of Brownfields stakeholders involved in or affected by the redevelopment of Brownfields sites. It introduces readers to a range of considerations and activities, and provides links to online technical resources and tools. The Road Map also highlights ten important issues, processes and initiatives commonly encountered by Brownfields stakeholders through "spotlights." These focus areas provide a quick look at topics currently relevant to Brownfields projects and provide links to additional information.

The Business of Making a Lab Field-Portable Published 2000
With the wide range of field-portable instrumentation now available, it is possible to perform rapid, information rich analyses on-site. People who use field-portable equipment quickly realize that there is a lot more to doing analyses in the field than just operating the equipment. This article, written by Craig Crume and published in the Nov/Dec 2000 issue of Environmental Testing & Analysis, discusses the challenges, strategies, and successes of field analysis.

Case Study of the Triad Approach: Expedited Characterization of Petroleum Constituents and PCBs Using Test Kits and a Mobile Chromatography Laboratory at the Former Cos Cob Power Plant Site Published 2004
This case study was prepared by the Brownfields Technology Support Center (BTSC), within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI). The case study was developed as part of EPA's ongoing initiative to promote the use of an integrated Triad approach to limit decision uncertainty at hazardous waste sites through the use of sound science. The Triad approach, which consists of systematic planning, dynamic work strategies, and real-time measurement technologies that include field-based analyses, is being promoted by OSRTI and its partners as a viable method for streamlining site investigations.

Characterization of Mine Leachates and the Development of a Ground-Water Monitoring Strategy for Mine Sites Published 2000
The objective of this research project was to develop a better understanding of the composition of mine waste leachates and to identify cost effective ground-water monitoring parameters that could be incorporated into a monitoring strategy to reliably detect the migration of contaminants from hard rock mining operations.

Clarifying DQO Terminology Usage to Support Modernization of Site Cleanup Practice Published 2001
Systematic planning is critical to the successful implementation of hazardous site characterization and cleanup projects. EPA's 'DQO process' has been around for many years, and 'DQO' terminology is used extensively. Unfortunately, over the years the terminology has been used in ambiguous or contradictory ways, and this has resulted in confusion about what terms mean and how they are to be understood. This paper seeks to clarify the relationship between DQO-related terms as descriptively and concretely as possible.

Climate Change Adaptation Technical Fact Sheet: Groundwater Remediation Systems Published 2013
In February 2013, the U.S. EPA released the draft "U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Climate Change Adaptation Plan." The plan examines how EPA programs may be vulnerable to a changing climate and how the Agency can accordingly adapt in order to continue meeting its mission of protecting human health and the environment. EPA's Superfund Program has undertaken associated efforts to identify potential impacts of climate change on site remediation projects and to identify adaptation strategies. A key component of the Superfund climate change adaptation action plan involves developing tools that can help project managers and other cleanup stakeholders to identify, prioritize and implement site-specific measures for increasing remedy resilience to climate change impacts. EPA's new "Climate Change Adaptation Technical Fact Sheet: Groundwater Remediation Systems" is the first in a series intended to serve as an adaptation planning tool by providing an overview of potential climate change vulnerabilities and presenting possible adaptation measures that may be considered to increase a remedy's resilience to climate change impacts. Concepts addressed in this tool can also apply to site cleanups conducted under other regulatory programs or through voluntary efforts.

Climate Change Adaptation Technical Fact Sheet: Landfills and Containment as an Element of Site Remediation Published 2014
In February 2013, the U.S. EPA released the draft "U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Climate Change Adaptation Plan." The plan examines how EPA programs may be vulnerable to a changing climate and how the Agency can accordingly adapt in order to continue meeting its mission of protecting human health and the environment. EPA's Superfund Program has undertaken associated efforts to identify potential impacts of climate change on site remediation projects and to identify adaptation strategies. A key component of the Superfund climate change adaptation action plan involves developing tools that can help project managers and other cleanup stakeholders to identify, prioritize and implement site-specific measures for increasing remedy resilience to climate change impacts. This fact sheet addresses contaminated site remedies involving source containment systems. It is intended to serve as an adaptation planning tool by (1) providing an overview of potential climate change vulnerabilities and (2) presenting possible adaptation measures that may be considered to increase a remedy's resilience to climate change impacts. This tool was developed in context of the Superfund Program but its concepts may apply to site cleanups conducted under other regulatory programs or through voluntary efforts.

Comparison of Diffusion- and Pumped-Sampling Methods to Monitor Volatile Organic Compounds in Ground Water, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, July 1999-December 2002 Published 2005
This report evaluates the applicability of diffusion sampling for monitoring VOC concentrations in ground water collected from monitoring wells on the Massachusetts Military Reservation. The applicability of the diffusion-sampling method is measured by the utility of the method to detect concentrations of VOCs similar to those obtained by the pumped-sampling method. VOC concentrations in samples collected by the diffusion- and pumped-sampling methods are compared with each other; and in cases where the concentrations did not match, bias in the diffusion-sampling method is assessed. Comparisons are made between well, diffusion-sampler, aquifer, and geochemical characteristics, and the degree of agreement of the sampling methods. These comparisons add to the current understanding of diffusion samplers by examining how the samplers work in wells with short screens (2-5 ft long). This study was done cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE). Ground-water samples from 89 monitoring wells were collected from July 1999 through December 2002.

A Compendium of Chemical, Physical and Biological Methods for Assessing and Monitoring the Remediation of Contaminated Sediment Sites Published 2004
This document, prepared by EPA's Office of Research and Development, summarizes chemical, physical, and biological (toxicity and bioassessment) testing methodologies for monitoring and assessing the remediation of contaminated sediment sites. Methods are presented as fact sheets with hypertext links to access reference documents that often include the complete method description. The document primarily focuses on methods from the published literature or other citable sources used at sites to determine the effects of chemical contaminants on aquatic life and human health.

Considerations for Applying the Triad Approach: Hartford Area Hydrocarbon Plume Site, Hartford, Illinois Published 2007
Intermittent fires related to vapor intrusion and odor complaints at the Hartford site have affected residences throughout the Village of Hartford. Subsequent investigations by a group of potentially responsible parties, known as the Hartford Working Group (HWG), have detected extensive hydrocarbon contamination beneath the site. The suggestions provided in this report are intended to provide input to the HWG so characterization and remedial design can be optimized. This report was based on review of on-going project documents and subsequent discussions with the Region 5 on-scene coordinators (OSC) and State of Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) representatives. The suggestions provided are intended as a starting point for refining the existing conceptual site model (CSM) for the Hartford site so that an effective remedy can be designed and implemented as quickly as possible.

Cost and Performance Report for LNAPL Characterization and Remediation: Partition Interwell Tracer Testing (PITT) and Rapid Optical Screening Tool (ROSTTM) Characterization and Evaluation of the Feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) at the Chevron Cincinnati Facility, Hooven, OH Published 2005

Cost and Performance Report: Expedited Characterization and Soil Remediation At the Test Plot Area Wenatchee Tree Fruit Research Center Wenatchee, Washington Published 2000
This report was published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The project demonstrated how time and cost savings could be achieved by use of dynamic decision-making tools during field activities. Field analyses using Immunoassay Analysis (IAA) kits were performed to determine the required extent of excavation. Use of IAA kits helped personnel in the field to make rapid decisions regarding additional excavation. Because of the speed with which results were received, it was not necessary to demobilize personnel and equipment while waiting for analytical results

DNAPL Characterization Methods and Approaches Published 2002
Contamination from the use of chlorinated solvents, often classified as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) when in an undissolved state, represents an environmental challenge with global implications. The identification of DNAPL source zones located beneath the water table is critical to ultimately achieve site remediation and aquifer restoration. These papers from Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation provide a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of many of the methods being used for detecting and delineating DNAPL contaminant source zones and compare the costs for implementing various characterization approaches using synthetic unit model scenarios. The objective is to determine which options are best to pursue based on site characteristics, method performance, and method costs. The findings can be used to assist with selection of appropriate site remediation management options.

DNAPL Site Evaluation Published 1993
This manual is designed to guide investigators involved in the planning and implementation of characterization studies at sites suspected of having subsurface contamination by Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). The primary goal of this manual is to help site managers minimize the risks and maximize the cost-effectiveness of site investigation/remediation by providing the best information available to describe and evaluate activities that can be used to determine the presence, fate, and transport of subsurface DNAPL contamination.

Demonstration of Two Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization Approaches Published 2004
This report summarize the results of a demonstration of optimization methods to improve the design of long-term groundwater monitoring programs. The report discusses the results of application of two different long-term groundwater monitoring optimization (LTMO) methods including:

The Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software tool; and
The Three-Tiered Monitoring Network Optimization (MNO) approach.

The two methods were applied at three different sites (the Fort Lewis Logistics Center, the Long Prairie Groundwater Contamination Superfund site, and Operable Unit D at McClellan Air Force Base). The primary goals of this demonstration project were to highlight current strategies for applying optimization techniques to existing long-term monitoring programs, and to assist site managers in understanding the potential benefits associated with monitoring program optimization.

Demonstrations of Method Applicability under a Triad Approach for Site Assessment and Cleanup - Technology Bulletin Published 2008
Demonstrations of Method Applicability (DMA) are a key component of using real-time measurement technologies and are presented in this bulletin through: answers to frequently asked questions on key aspects of DMAs, examples of DMAs performed at hazardous waste sites, and sources of additional information for communities and project teams that desire to implement DMAs and the Triad approach.

Detailed Hydraulic Assessment Using a High-Resolution Piezocone Coupled to the GeoVIS Published 2008
The objective of this effort was to conduct a full-scale demonstration of the use of the high-resolution piezocone and GeoVIS to determine direction and rate of ground water flow in three dimensions. While the GeoVIS did not provide effective porosity values within the anticipated range, the high-resolution piezocone and resulting models fall within the quantitative tolerances set forth in this demonstration. Therefore, the sensor probe approach to determining hydrogeologic characteristics is deemed appropriate for the demonstration site characteristics. When compared to conventional approaches comprised of clustered well installations, aquifer tests, sample analyses, and three-dimensional and cross-sectional interpolations, cost savings for flux distribution determination using the high-resolution piezocone coupled with a membrane interface probe system exceeds 60 percent.

Dexsil L2000 PCB/Chloride Analyzer for Drum Surfaces Published 1999
This case study is one of a series designed to provide cost and performance information for innovative tools that support less costly and more representative site characterization. These case studies will include reports on new technologies as well as novel applications of familiar tools or processes.

Directory of Technical Assistance for Land Revitalization Published 2003
This directory includes information about the different types of support available to help with site assessment and cleanup, including technical support and funding sources.

Directory of Technology Support Services to Brownfields Localities Published 1999
This directory provides information about EPA offices, nongovernment organizations funded by EPA, and other federal agencies, that may be able to provide expertise to assist in the selection of technologies to characterize and clean up brownfields properties.

A Discussion of Asbestos Detection Techniques for Air and Soil Published 2004
This document was prepared by Anthony Perry, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies fellow under a grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It describes asbestos detection techniques in air and soil at Superfund sites.

DoD Vapor Intrusion Handbook Published 2009
This handbook was developed by the Tri-Service Environmental Risk Assessment Work Group (TSERAWG) to serve as a resource for remedial project managers (RPMs) who may need to investigate the vapor intrusion pathway at Department of Defense (DoD) sites. The Tri-Services of the DoD include the Departments of the Air Force, Army, and Navy, with the Department of the Navy (DON) including both the Navy and the Marine Corps. This handbook was developed to support RPMs working on both active and closed Air Force, Army, Navy, and Marine Corps bases, as well as Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS). The handbook is intended to provide a general framework for conducting vapor intrusion investigations under the Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP). Both residential and occupational exposure scenarios are discussed since both groups can be affected by vapor intrusion.

A Dynamic Site Investigation: Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Program for Operable Unit 1 at Hanscom Air Force Base, Bedford, Massachusetts Published
In this report, results of the dynamic site investigation and field method performance are presented. In this study, field analytical instrumentation and methods were used to support a risk assessment study at the airfield at Hanscom Air Force Base (HAFB, Bedford, Massachusetts).

ECO Update/Ground Water Forum Issue Paper: Evaluating Ground-Water/Surface-Water Transition Zones in Ecological Risk Assessments Published 2008
This document highlights the need to treat the discharge of groundwater to surface-water not as a two-dimensional area with static boundary conditions, but as three-dimensional volumes with dynamic transition zones. This ECO Update applies equally to recharge zones and can be used to evaluate advancing plumes that have not yet reached the transition zone. This document encourages project managers, ecological risk assessors, and hydrogeologists to expand their focus beyond shoreline wells and surface sediments and define and characterize the actual fate of contaminants as they move from a strictly ground-water environment (i.e., the commonly used 'upland monitoring well nearest the shoreline') through the transition zone and into a wholly surface-water environment. The approach is presented to help users identify and evaluate potential exposures and effects to relevant ecological receptors within the zone where ground-water and surface-water mix. The transition zone data collected for the ERA may also supplement data collected for the evaluation of potential human health risks associated with the discharge of contaminated ground-water. Should ground-water remediation be warranted (as a result of the risk assessment), the locational, geochemical, and biological aspects of the transition zone can be considered when identifying and evaluating remedial options.

ETV Site Characterization and Monitoring Technology Pilot: Technology Verification Statements Published
The ETV Site Characterization and Monitoring Technology Pilot releases signed verification statements and verification reports summarizing the performance of technologies.

Electronic Data Deliverables: The Importance of Receiving Your Site and Project Data Electronically Published 2011
The purpose of this fact sheet is to encourage even wider use of Electronic Data Deliverables (EDDs) by explaining their importance and how to ensure that your site data are submitted electronically. The EDD Fact Sheet Appendix provides supplemental information on what to request in EDDs, how electronic data are shared, examples of data to submit electronically, and links to EDD guidance.

Emerging Contaminants - 1,4 Dioxane Published 2013
This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. EPA Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the emerging contaminant 1,4-Dioxane, including physical and chemical properties; environmental and health impacts; existing federal and state guidelines; detection and treatment methods; and additional sources of information. 1,4-Dioxane is a probable carcinogen and has been found in ground water at sites throughout the United States. The physical and chemical properties and behavior of 1,4-Dioxane create challenges for its characterization and treatment. It is highly mobile and has not been shown to readily biodegrade in the environment. This fact sheet is intended for use by site managers faced with addressing 1,4-Dioxane at cleanup sites or in drinking water supplies and for those in a position to consider whether 1,4-Dioxane should be added to the analytical suite for site investigations.

Emerging Contaminants - Nanomaterials Published 2010
This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. EPA Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of nanomaterials (NMs) as emerging contaminants, including their physical and chemical properties; potential environmental and health impacts; existing federal and state guidelines; detection and treatment methods; and additional sources of information. Because of their unique properties, NMs are increasingly being used in a wide range of scientific, environmental, industrial, and medicinal applications. However, there is a growing concern about the lack of environmental health and safety data. This fact sheet is intended for use by site managers and other field personnel who may need to address or use NMs at cleanup sites or in drinking water supplies.

Emerging Contaminants - Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDE) and Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBB) Published 2010
This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. EPA Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the emerging contaminants polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), including physical and chemical properties; environmental and health impacts; existing federal and state guidelines; detection and treatment methods; and additional sources of information. PBB has been banned in the United States since 1973, when PBB accidentally mixed into animal feed exposed 9 million people to contaminated dairy products, eggs, and meat. In contrast, PBDEs have been in widespread use in the U.S. since the 1970s; however, there is growing concern about their persistence in the environment and their tendency to bioaccumulate in the food chain. Since PBDEs and PBBs belong to the same class of brominated hydrocarbons and their chemical structures are similar, they are both discussed in this fact sheet. This fact sheet provides basic information on PBDEs and PBBs to site managers and other field personnel who may encounter these contaminants at cleanup sites.

Emerging Contaminants – Dinitrotoluene (DNT) Published 2017
This fact sheet provides a brief summary of dinitrotoluene (DNT), including physical and chemical properties; environmental and health impacts; existing federal and state guidelines; and detection and treatment methods. DNT is a nitroaromatic explosive that exists as six isomers: 2,4- and 2,6-DNT are the two major forms of the chemical. It does not naturally occur in the environment but is commonly found deposited at military ranges or found in the waste streams of DNT manufacturing or processing facilities due to its widespread use in the production of munitions, polyurethane foams, and other chemical products. Because of its moderate solubility and relatively low volatility, DNT is expected to remain in water for long periods of time unless degraded by light, oxygen, or biota. As a result, releases to water are important sources of human exposure. DNT is considered toxic to most organisms, with identified adverse effects in the blood, nervous system, liver, and kidney in animals after exposure. EPA has classified the mixture of 2,4- and 2,6-DNT as a Class B2 (probable human) carcinogen. To address these potential health effects, health-based goals, exposure limits, and state drinking water guidelines have been developed.

Emerging Contaminants: Potentially Hazardous Physical, Chemical, or Biological Agents Posing New Concern Published 2006
This presentation was prepared by Jessica Bawden during an internship with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, sponsored by the Environmental Careers Organization. Emerging contaminants (ECs) include a subset of chemical compounds not monitored closely by regulatory agencies in the past but now determined to pose potential threat to human health and the environment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal or state agencies recognize that a more complete understanding of EC threats is needed to potentially regulate ECs and address associated site cleanups.

Engineering Issue: Indoor Air Vapor Intrusion Mitigation Approaches Published 2008
The purpose of this document is to present the 'state of the science' regarding management and treatment of vapor intrusion into building structures. Wherever feasible, this information relies on independently reviewed mitigation performance information. In an effort to keep this Engineering Issue paper concise, important information is summarized, while references and Web links are provided for readers interested in additional information; these Web links, verified as accurate at the time of publication, are subject to change. Although we have endeavored to make these links fully functional with a mouse click, if they do not function on your system, you may need to copy them into your browser or reenter them. As science and technology associated with this route of exposure continues to develop, other mitigation measures may become available.

Engineering Paper: In Situ Thermal Treatment Technologies: Lessons Learned Published 2014
The purpose of this paper is to convey useful information gained from approximately 10 years of development and deployment of in situ thermal treatment (ISTT) technologies. This paper is the result of a series of in-depth interviews with U.S. EPA Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) and On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) and with ISTT vendors whose experience extends beyond federal response action sites to include state-regulated cleanups and Brownfields/voluntary cleanups, as well as international projects. While the focus is on federally funded cleanup sites, many of the lessons learned will be of interest to RPMs and OSCs who are overseeing potentially responsible party (PRP)-lead cleanups.

Environmental Cleanup Best Management Practices: Effective Use of the Project Life Cycle Conceptual Site Model Published 2011
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supports the use of best management practices (BMPs) as a mechanism for maximizing technical effectiveness and resource efficiency in the execution of site assessment and cleanup projects. This fact sheet is the first in a series of documents that address conceptual site models (CSMs). This fact sheet summarizes how environmental practitioners can use CSMs to achieve, communicate, and maintain stakeholder consensus on site understanding, while satisfying the technical and quality objectives required for each stage of a cleanup project's life cycle. The focus is on defining stages and products of CSMs along with potential applications of CSMs at various stages of a project life cycle. Content herein is presented in a Superfund Program context; however, to the extent practical, text has been written to maximize applicability in other programs and regulatory frameworks. Other agencies and programs may find these concepts useful and environmental cleanup practitioners are encouraged to explore the utility and integration of a project life cycle CSM within their own program requirements and deliverable schedules.

Environmental Footprint Analysis of Steam Enhanced Extraction Remedy: Former Williams Air Force Base, Site ST012 Mesa, AZ Published 2014
EPA studied the environmental footprint of in situ thermal treatment involving steam enhanced extraction as designed for Site ST012 at the Former Williams Air Force Base in Mesa, Arizona. The study report quantifies contributions to the footprint and identifies and prioritized best management practices (BMPs) to address the significant contributors during future construction and operation of the thermal system.

Environmental Quality - Environmental Statistics Published 2008
This Manual's primary objective is to improve a decision-maker's under-standing of common environmental statistical evaluations. The applicability of statistical tests and considerations is presented in the context of a typical environmental project life cycle. This document should serve as a first step in explaining statistical concepts and their application at HTRW sites. It is not intended to replace more robust statistical texts or electronic statistical software.

Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program: Site Characterization and Monitoring Technologies Pilot Published 1999
This fact sheet describes the Site Characterization and Monitoring Technologies (SCMT) Pilot, one of twelve pilots operating under the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The SCMT Pilot conducts verification testing of environmental characterization and monitoring technologies. Commercial-ready technologies are evaluated to provide potential technology users and permitters with an independent and credible assessment of technology performance. One of the end products of the verification process is an Environmental Technology Verification Report (ETVR). The ETVR contains a Verification Statement that is signed by EPA and the Verification Organization.

Evaluation of a Former Landfill Site in Fort Collins, Colorado Using Ground-Based Optical Remote Sensing Technology Published 2005
With support from the 21M2 Initiative, the Office of Research and Development used scanning open path Fourier transform infrared, tunable diode laser absorption, and ultra-violet differential optical absorption spectroscopy to determine if hazardous gases were passing through the cover of a closed landfill. The investigation, which was a first step in evaluating redevelopment options, did not find significant gas movement through the cover, but did detect a gasoline hotspot by a nearby building.

Note: The CLU-IN Publications and Studio area only contains publications that are a sole or key source of information on a particular hazardous waste management problem. You may also visit the CLU-IN site-wide search engine to locate additional publications available through other areas of CLU-IN.