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Student Papers

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Acid Mine Drainage: Innovative Treatment Technologies Published 2003
This document was prepared by Christine Costello, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies grantee under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This paper provides an overview of treatment technologies being used to remedy environmental problems at abandoned mine sites, with a focus on innovative treatment techniques.

Analysis of the Benefits of Green Remediation Best Management Practices for Local Air Quality Published 2012
This document was prepared by Charlene V. Lawson, a Student Diversity Internship Program intern working with staff of the U.S. EPA Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation. This report highlights the preliminary findings obtained from evaluating changes in local air quality following the application of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology using a gas-phase air quality model based on the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism, version 2 (RACM2). The report also includes a short description of the RACM2 model, assumptions, data sources, and the overall approach used for the analyses.

Assessing the Use and Application of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticle Technology for Remediation at Contaminated Sites Published 2009
This document was prepared by Sean M. Cook, a National Network for Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) grantee under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The main focus of this paper is discussing the use of zero-valent iron nanoparticles. Due to its unique properties, this manufactured nanoparticle is able to effectively eliminate or neutralize certain recalcitrant pollutants that can be found in aquatic environments (e.g., groundwater aquifers). Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles are typically 5-40 nm sized Fe0/Fe-oxide particles that rapidly transform many environmental contaminants to benign products and are a promising in situ remediation agent. Due to their small size and increased reactivity, these manufactured nanoparticles have the potential to be more effective than the microscale ZVI that is already in use for contaminant remediation in soil and groundwater aquifers. However, little is known about the environmental fate of these nanomaterials once they have undergone biological and non-biological processes within a contaminated aquifer. For this reason, it is important to find out what the possible impacts of these nanomaterials are once they enter the environment and how they could potentially affect human health or the environment. Despite these concerns, NZVI technology and its application are a very promising, efficient and cost-effective method for remediating contaminated soil and groundwater aquifer sites.

Bioremediation Of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Groundwater Published 1998
This report was prepared under grant for EPA's Technology Innovation Office by Megan Grindstaff, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) fellow. The publication provides information on recent field applications of enhanced in situ bioremediation for treating groundwater contaminated with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

The Bioremediation and Phytoremediation of Pesticide-contaminated Sites Published 2000
Bioremediation and phytoremediation are innovative technologies that have the potential to alleviate numerous pesticide contamination problems. EPA's Technology Innovation Office (TIO) provided a grant through the National Network for Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) to prepare a technology assessment report on the use of bioremediation and phytoremediation for the cleanup of pesticide-contaminated sites. This report was prepared by a first year graduate student from the University of Montana during the summer of 2000. It has been reproduced to help provide federal agencies, states, consulting engineering firms, private industries, and technology developers with information on the current status of this technology.

Bioremediation of Acid Mine Drainage Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Published 2006
This document was prepared by Sheela M. Doshi, a National Network of Environmental Management studies grantee, under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This innovative technology report provides an overview of innovative acid mine drainage treatment technologies that employ sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Through a synthesis of research and case studies of SRB treatment at coal and hardrock mine sites, it presents lessons for further application of this technology.

Bioremediation of Arsenic, Chromium, Lead, and Mercury Published 2004
This document was prepared by Adebowale Adeniji, a National Network of Environmental Management studies grantee, under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This paper addresses the status of the application of biological treatment to clean up hazardous metals from the earth's subsurface.

Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents in Fractured Bedrock: Characterization and Case Studies Published 2002
This document was prepared by Erica Borum, a NNEMS grantee under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The objective of this paper is to present in situ bioremediation in fractured bedrock as an innovative technology for the treatment of chlorinated solvents. The heterogeneity of fractured bedrock and the persistence of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) create a costly, remedial challenge in the subsurface. Due to the existence of microorganisms in the subsurface, bioremediation processes in fractured bedrock have proven to be a potentially successful remedial process. This paper summarizes ten on-going case studies that are utilizing bioremediation of chlorinated solvent and will discuss the parameters of the projects as well as current findings.

Constructed Wetlands: Passive Systems for Wastewater Treatment Published 2001
Constructed wetlands are an innovative and inexpensive treatment approach that have the potential to treat organic and inorganic compounds in wastewater from a range of sources. EPA's Technology Innovation Office (TIO) provided a grant through the National Network for Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) to prepare a technology assessment report on the use of constructed wetlands for applications other than municipal wastewater. This report was prepared by a first year graduate student from Washington State University during the summer of 2001. It has been reproduced to help provide federal agencies, states, consulting engineering firms, private industries, and technology developers with information on the current status of this technology.

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquid Cleanup: Accomplishments at Twelve NPL Sites Published 2010
This document was prepared by Serena Ryan, a National Network for Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) grantee under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The objective of this report is to provide an overview of remedial accomplishments at 12 current or former NPL sites affected by DNAPL and/or associated dissolved, vapor, or sorbed phase contamination. This report summarizes relevant information about these sites, including site sizes, contaminants, technologies, concentration level reductions, and current remedial status. A discussion of DNAPL characteristics, fate, and transport, as well as a summary of DNAPL remediation technologies, is also included. Case studies of individual sites are also provided.

A Discussion of Asbestos Detection Techniques for Air and Soil Published 2004
This document was prepared by Anthony Perry, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies fellow under a grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It describes asbestos detection techniques in air and soil at Superfund sites.

A Discussion of the Effects of Thermal Remediation Treatments on Microbial Degradation Processes Published August 2002
This document was prepared by Karen Dettmer, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies grantee, under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It discusses the potential effects -- beneficial and detrimental -- of thermal processes on contaminant degrading microorganisms in soil and groundwater.

Drycleaner Remediation Programs: An Overview and Case Studies Published 2001
EPA's Technology Innovation Office (TIO) provided a grant through the National Network for Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) to assess the status of state drycleaner remediation programs and cleanups. This report, prepared by a graduate student from the University of Michigan during the summer of 2001, is intended to provide an overview of the drycleaner remediation programs in Kansas, Oregon and Wisconsin, an analysis of the common program strengths and weaknesses, and case studies documenting drycleaner site cleanups within these states.

Emerging Contaminants: Potentially Hazardous Physical, Chemical, or Biological Agents Posing New Concern Published 2006
This presentation was prepared by Jessica Bawden during an internship with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, sponsored by the Environmental Careers Organization. Emerging contaminants (ECs) include a subset of chemical compounds not monitored closely by regulatory agencies in the past but now determined to pose potential threat to human health and the environment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal or state agencies recognize that a more complete understanding of EC threats is needed to potentially regulate ECs and address associated site cleanups.

Emerging Nanotechnologies for Site Remediation and Wastewater Treatment Published 2005
This document was prepared by Katherine Watlington, a National Network of Environmental Management studies grantee, under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This paper seeks to provide a holistic view of the state of the science of nanotechnology. Both the commercialized nanotechnology products and many of the technologies being researched in academia are discussed. Attention is given both to the research itself as well as the remedial capabilities. The toxicity and safety concerns of the individual technologies are also briefly outlined as are the overall toxicity concerns related more generally to the field of nanotechnology. Finally the current state of regulation is addressed.

Emerging Technologies for the In Situ Remediation of PCB-Contaminated Soils and Sediments: Bioremediation and Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Published 2004
This document was prepared by Alex Mikszewski, a National Network of Environmental Management studies grantee, under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report reviews emerging technologies for the in situ remediation of PCB-contaminated sediments and soils to assess their viability for future employment.

Enhanced Filtration and Contaminant Degradation Opportunities Offered by Natural Drainage Systems Published 2008
This document was prepared by Julia Kane Africa during an internship with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, sponsored by the Environmental Careers Organization. This paper focuses on the treatment of high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and the potential for bioswales and rain gardens to mitigate contamination in urban settings is discussed. This paper is designed to serve as a point of reference for planners, public officials, and ecologists interested in exploring what contribution biofiltration and phytoremediation can make to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mitigation of urban run-off.

Fate, Transport, and Toxicity of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) Used During Superfund Remediation Published 2009
This document was prepared by Emily Keane, a National Network for Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) grantee under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The goal of this document is to provide information about the fate, transport, and toxicity associated with the use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for Superfund remediation. Specific and unique site conditions are likely to determine the usefulness and influence the fate and transport of nZVI particles during remediation efforts. Factors to consider prior to application include: effects of geochemistry on the mobility of nanoparticles, use of metal catalysts and coatings on the movement of nZVI particles and other variables affecting the fate and transport of nZVI in the environment. Other considerations include potential environmental and human health effects as a result of the fate and transport of nZVI in the environment.

Futures Analysis of Chemicals Affecting Waste Management Programs: Summary of New Initiatives That May Affect Waste Management Programs Published 2003
This document was prepared by Tiffany Portoghese, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies grantee under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report is intended to provide a basic summary of new initiatives within the EPA. It contains information gathered from a range of currently available sources, including project documents, reports, periodicals, Internet searches, and personal communication with involved parties.

Green Remediation and the Use of Renewable Energy Sources for Remediation Projects Published 2007
Green remediation is the practice of considering environmental impacts of remediation activities at every stage of the remedial process in order to maximize the net environmental benefit of a cleanup. In that spirit, this study seeks to identify cleanup projects employing renewable, sustainable energy sources and/or alternative fuels for site remediation. The report describes 19 pilot-scale and full scale projects applying renewable energy to power various remedial system components, and provides a preliminary analysis of potential areas of expansion. Amanda Dellens' research and production of this paper was supported by a National Network of Environmental Management Studies fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

In Situ Bioremediation of DNAPL Source Zones Published 2005
This document was prepared by Lisa Moretti, a National Network of Environmental Management studies grantee, under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The objective of this report is to provide an overview of in situ bioremediation of DNAPL source areas. This report discusses the integral steps when implementing bioremediation, such as site characterization, design considerations, and post-treatment monitoring. In addition, this report also examines the use of bioremediation as a polishing treatment for the source zone. Case studies are included as examples of the use of bioremediation as a stand-alone and a polishing treatment for DNAPL source areas. This report was not subject to EPA peer review or technical review. EPA makes no warranties, expressed or implied, including without limitation, warranties for completeness, accuracy, usefulness of the information, merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose.

In Situ Flushing with Surfactants and Cosolvents Published 2000
This report was prepared under grant for EPA by Lauryn Strbak, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) fellow. It is intended to provide a basic summary and current status of in situ flushing technologies using surfactants and cosolvents. It contains information gathered from a range of currently available sources, including project documents, reports, periodicals, Internet searches, and personal communication with involved parties.

In Situ Treatment of Contaminated Sediments Published 1998
This report was prepared under grant for EPA by Jon Renholds, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) fellow. The document is intended to provide a basic summary and current status of in situ treatment technologies for the remediation of contaminated sediments. It is not intended to be an inclusive report; it merely provides an overview of the existing work in the field on in situ treatment techniques. The information was gathered from a range of available sources, including project documents, reports, periodicals, Internet searches, and personal communication with involved parties.

In-Situ Chemical Oxidation: A Study of the Current State of the Technology Published 2008
This document is no longer available. For more information on in-situ chemical oxidation, please see the 'In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Engineering Issue Paper' available from EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory.

The Incorporation of an Ecosystem Services Assessment into the Remediation of Contaminated Sites Published 2010
This document was prepared by Sarah Slack, a National Network for Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) grantee under a fellowship from the U.S. EPA. This report recommends an approach for assessing a site's ecosystem services (the benefits that humans derive from ecosystems) prior to site remediation as a means to qualitatively or quantitatively track ecosystem changes associated with cleanup activities and to identify opportunities for avoiding or mitigating a cleanup project's negative effect on the ecosystem. Based on literature research and personal communications, the report presents background information on the concept of ecosystem services, as well as steps interested parties can take to mitigate or avoid impacts to ecosystem services at a site level throughout the remediation process. The report outlines replicable practices that remedial project managers can utilize when attempting to mitigate adverse impacts on an ecosystem. This report also describes the current state of data collection methods and issues pertinent to the ecosystem service assessment process, with the ultimate aim of fostering production of a replicable methodology that can lead to greener cleanup.

Industry Residuals: How They Are Collected, Treated and Applied Published 2006
This document was prepared by Ashley Corker during an internship with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, sponsored by the Environmental Careers Organization. The report is intended to provide an overview of industry residuals that are normally considered a waste but may be extremely useful in the remediation of disturbed soils. Application on land of these residuals not only provides remedial advantages, but also decreases pollution and the need for landfill space. This document is not intended to act as regulatory guidance, but simply to give an overview of alternate solutions to the reclamation of contaminated lands

Inventory and Analysis of State Programs for the Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater Caused by Agricultural Waste Published 2003
This document was prepared by Deirdra Williams, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies grantee under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report explains state programs for the remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater caused by agricultural waste and implementation experiences. The target audience is federal and state regulators, planners, and managers of agricultural chemical contamination.

Leak Detection for Landfill Liners: Overview of Tools for Vadose Zone Monitoring Published 1998
Leak Detection for Landfill Liners: Overview of Tools for Vadose Zone Monitoring. This report was prepared under grant for EPA by Karen Hix, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) fellow. It is intended to provide a basic summary and current status on several innovative types of leak detection tools that can be installed, in addition to monitoring wells, for identifying leaks in landfill liners. The document is not intended to be an inclusive report; it merely provides an overview of the existing work on leak detection technologies. The information was gathered by the author from a range of available sources, including project documents, reports, periodicals, Internet searches, and personal communication with involved parties.

Mine Reclamation Using Biosolids Published 2001
The purpose of this report is to describe the current uses of biosolids in the United States, especially the progress being made at mine reclamation sites. The background section defines and describes the production and traditional uses of biosolids. It responds to common concerns over biosolid use, such as leaching, and explains the safeguards associated with every biosolids project. Finally, case studies are examined and analyzed to determine the best use of biosolids to date.

Mycoremediation of Household Hazardous Waste through Pleurotus ostreatus Published 2012
In an investigation of the potential of using oyster fungi (Pleurotus ostreatus) to biodegrade alkaline battery constituents, expired and leaking batteries were placed in sawdust along with fungal spawn. Biodegradation progress of the hazardous component, potassium hydroxide, in three treatment containers was compared against the control, i.e., three containers of batteries and sawdust without fungi. After five weeks of fungal growth, the pH of the sawdust mixture had decreased by a significant amount in all three samples of the fungal mixture (from ~10 to below 9), whereas a comparatively small pH decrease was observed in the control mixtures. Further research is needed to determine the long-term viability of using mycelia for biodegradation of alkaline batteries.

Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fate and Transport of Nanoparticles in Soil and Water Systems Published 2006
This document was prepared by Beshoy Latif during an internship with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, sponsored by the Environmental Careers Organization. This document focuses on the use of nanomaterials in site remediation. Nine current EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants aim at increasing our understanding of the fate and transport of nanomaterials as they are used for desirable processes in the environment. The immediate question of concern becomes: do we understand the physiochemical properties of nanoscale materials well enough to effectively apply them towards remediation? This document will attempt to answer this question by providing information on recent research.

New York/ New Jersey Harbor: Alternative Methods for Ex-Situ Sediment Decontamination and Environmental Manufacturing Published 2002
This report, prepared by Jessica L. Wargo from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is intended to provide a basic summary and current status on the New York/New Jersey Harbor Sediment Decontamination Project. The scope of the report was developed by EPA's Technology Innovation Office and sponsored by the MIT Washington Summer Internship Program. The paper summarizes five of the seven technologies for which pilot studies were performed under this project. Descriptions on each technology, along with the decontamination efficiency and beneficial use product are included in the report.

An Overview of the Phytoremediation of Lead and Mercury Published 2000
The potential use of plants to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater has recently received a great deal of interest. EPA's Technology Innovation Office (TIO) provided a grant through the National Network for Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) to assess the status of the use of phytoremediation to clean up lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) contaminated soil. This report was prepared by an undergraduate student from Salisbury State University during the summer of 2000.

Permeable Reactive Barriers for Inorganic and Radionuclide Contamination Published 2005
This document was prepared by Kate Bronstein, a National Network of Environmental Management studies grantee, under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This paper is meant to be an updated reference for project managers, engineers, students, and others interested in a review of case studies of the instances where permeable reactive barriers have been used to remediate sites contaminated with inorganics and radionuclides. This paper mainly focuses on case studies, but a brief overview is given on topics such as: treatment media types, reactive processes, site characterization, configuration, and the nature of contamination.

Permeable Reactive Barriers for Inorganics Published 2000
This report was prepared under grant for EPA by Nichole Ott, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) fellow. This report is intended to provide a basic summary and current status of permeable reactive barriers for inorganics. It contains information gathered from a range of currently available sources, including project documents, reports, periodicals, Internet searches, and personal communication with involved parties.

Phytoremediation Field Studies Database for Chlorinated Solvents, Pesticides, Explosives, and Metals Published 2004
This document was prepared by Ana Hoffnagle and Cynthia Green, two undergraduate students under internships with United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The paper briefly explains the concept of phytoremediation, details phytoremediation site considerations, and summarizes the successes and failures of field-scale sites where phytotechnologies have been applied or proposed.

Phytoremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Published 2006
This document was prepared by Amanda Van Epps during an internship with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, sponsored by the Environmental Careers Organization. The purpose of this report is to compile existing data to evaluate the appropriateness of phytoremediation for particular sites.

Phytoremediation of TCE in Groundwater Using Populus Published 1998
This report was prepared under grant for EPA by Jonathan Chappell, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) fellow. The publication provides a basic understanding and current status of phytoremediation for shallow groundwater.

Phytoremediation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater: Case Studies in Plume Control Published 2003
This report was prepared under grant for EPA by Amelie Van Den Bos, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) fellow. This report provides a basic orientation and current status of phytoremediation for shallow groundwater. It contains information gathered from a range of currently available sources, including project documents, reports; periodicals, Internet searches, and personal communication with involved parties.

Solar Power Installations on Closed Landfills: Technical and Regulatory Considerations Published 2009
This document was prepared by Gabriel Sampson, a National Network for Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) grantee under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This paper examines the current nature of solar energy developments on closed landfills using the following focal areas: (1) solar power system considerations with respect to landfill applications, (2) landfill technical and engineering considerations, and (3) regulatory considerations. Research results indicate that numerous engineering techniques and solar technologies are available to facilitate the placement of solar energy systems on closed landfills. Results also indicate that the permitting and regulatory process is complicated by disparate but specific state and local government requirements. Though this study focuses narrowly on the technical and regulatory affairs of constructing solar farms on closed landfills, it also has applications to the placement of solar energy systems in broader settings. The views detailed in this study are designed to inform decision makers and stakeholders and to facilitate the design, construction, and operation of future solar installations on closed landfills.

Status Report on Innovative In Situ Treatment Technologies Available to Treat Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater Published 2006
This document was prepared by Jennifer Raye Hoponick, a National Network of Environmental Management studies grantee, under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report is intended to provide information regarding the in situ remediation of perchlorate-contaminated groundwater. This report focuses on, but is not limited to, using in situ bioremediation as a low-cost treatment technology shown to be effective in treating perchlorate under multiple configurations and different site types. The case studies are designed to serve as examples of successful in situ bioremediation projects that were designed differently and located at separate sites.

Subsurface Containment and Monitoring Systems: Barriers and Beyond Published 1999
This report was prepared under grant for EPA by Leslie Pearlman, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) fellow. The document is intended to provide a basic summary and current status on subsurface barriers-vertical and horizontal-with an emphasis on the emerging and innovative vertical barrier technologies. It is not intended to be an inclusive report; it merely provides an overview of the existing work in the field on subsurface barrier technologies. The information was gathered from a range of available sources, including project documents, reports, periodicals, Internet searches, and personal communication with involved parties.

The Use and Effectiveness of Phytoremediation to Treat Persistent Organic Pollutants Published 2005
This document was prepared by Kristi Russell during an internship with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, sponsored by the Environmental Careers Organization. This report is intended to provide an overview of phytoremediation uses to treat media contaminated by persistent organic pollutants and demonstrate the potential for use of phytoremediation in developing and transitional economies.

Whole-Cell Bacterial Biosensors and the Detection of Bioavailable Arsenic Published 2003
This document was prepared by Heather Strosnider, a National Network of Environmental Management Studies grantee under a fellowship from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of whole-cell bacterial biosensors. It investigates the state and practice of using whole cell bacterial sensors for measuring the bioavailability of arsenic.

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