U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Detection and Site Characterization

Halogenated Alkanes

Chloroform

Chloroform is a volatile halogenated organic and as such is subject to most standard characterization and analytical techniques used on this class of chemicals. Methods such as vertical profiling, dyes, and standard GC/MS are discussed in the main section for DNAPLs detection and site characterization.

Diffusion Samplers

While Diffusion Samplers have been used mostly for chlorinated ethenes and BTEX, they have been found to work for chloroform (McClellan AFB 2000 and ITRC 2004).

Laboratory Methods

Analysis of chloroform can be performed using standard analyses such as SW-846 methods 8021bAdobe PDF Logo, 8260bAdobe PDF Logo, and 8260cAdobe PDF Logo.

Field Screening Methods

There is a Draeger tube for chloroform, but it is not chloroform specific. The detection range is 2 to 10 ppm.

Chloroform should be detectable using headspace analysis with a field GC. Standards should be run to verify detection limit requirements. If using a PID detector, the photoionization value for chloroform is 11.47 eV (EPA 1994), and the detector will require an 11.7 eV lamp.

References

Standard Operating Procedure# 2114: Photoionization Detector HNU
U.S. EPA, Emergency Response Team, 16 pp, 1994

This document contains an extensive list of chemicals with their photoionization potentials.

Technology Application Analysis Report: Passive Diffusion Membrane SamplersAdobe PDF Logo
McClellan AFB Environmental Management Directorate, 84 pp, 2000

Technical and Regulatory Guidance for Using Polyethylene Diffusion Bag Samplers to Monitor Volatile Organic Compounds in GroundwaterAdobe PDF Logo
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC). DSP-3, 78 pp, 2004

Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods
U.S. EPA, SW-846 on line.