U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division


Characterization and Monitoring

About Characterization and Monitoring Technologies

Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors | Gas Chromatography | High-Resolution Site Characterization (HRSC) | Immunoassay | Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging | Laser-induced Fluorescence | Mass Flux | Mass Spectrometry | Test Kits | X-Ray Fluorescence | Direct-Push Platforms | Direct-Push Geotechnical Sensors | Direct-Push Groundwater Samplers | Direct-Push Membrane Interface Probes | Direct-Push Soil and Soil-Gas Samplers | Explosives | Ground Penetrating Radar | Magnetics for Environmental Applications | Open Path Technologies: UV-DOAS | Open Path Technologies: OP-FTIR | Open Path Technologies: LIDAR | Open Path Technologies: Raman Spectroscopy | Open Path Technologies: Tunable Diode Lasers (TDLs) | Passive (no purge) Samplers |

Technologies by Media: Gas/Air | Soil/Sediment | Water |

Field Sampling and Analysis Technologies Matrix and Reference Guide

This document was prepared for the U.S. Navy and the U.S. EPA. It is intended to provide comparative screening information on analytical and sampling technologies. The goal of the matrix is to ensure that project managers and site stakeholders are aware of the full-range of technology options available to them to assess and characterize contamination at their sites.

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Selecting an Innovative Characterization or Monitoring Technology

Implementing Advanced Site Characterization Tools

This Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council document describes site characterization tools that can quickly deliver semi-quantitative or qualitative data to identify locations and depths where quantitative data should be collected and aid in visualizing and understanding the physical and environmental characteristics of a site. ASCTs in this document are divided into four general categories: direct sensing tools, downhole geophysical tools, surface geophysical tools, and remote sensing tools. An interactive ASCTs Selection Tool helps identify appropriate tools and information for collecting geologic, hydrologic, and chemical data. Once one or more prospective tools have been identified, more detailed information about a tool can be obtained by reviewing the description of the tool in the web-based document and the Tool Summary Tables, Case Studies, and Checklists.

High-Resolution Site Characterization (HRSC) Focus Area

The High-Resolution Site Characterization (HRSC) Focus Area reflects the state-of-the-science for environmental site characterization. HRSC strategies and technologies use scale-appropriate measurement and data density to delineate contaminant distributions in environmental media with greater certainty, supporting faster and more effective remedy selection, design and implementation. This website provides a description of the general concepts and benefits of HRSC and offers resources including case studies for sites where HRSC has been applied, information on practitioner forums, information on available training, and instructions on accessing available support for understanding and applying HRSC.

Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) and Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) Site Characterization, Monitoring, and Process Optimization

The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is the Department of Defense's (DoD) environmental science and technology development program, planned and executed in full partnership with the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency, with participation by numerous other federal and non-federal organizations. Many of SERDP's projects support improvements in investigating and cleaning up contaminated sites. The Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) is SERDP's sister program, which supports demonstration and validation of innovative, cost-effective environmental technologies.

Comparison of Pumped and Diffusion Sampling Methods to Monitor Concentrations of Perchlorate and Explosive Compounds in Ground Water, Camp Edwards, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2004-05

Comparison of the concentrations of perchlorate, RDX, and HMX in diffusion samplers placed in wells against concentrations in samples collected by low-flow pumped sampling indicates generally good agreement between the pumped and diffusion samples for concentrations of the subject contaminants. The concentration differences indicate no systematic bias related to contaminant type or concentration level.

Cal/EPA Certification of the HAPSITE Portable GC-MS

California EPA’s Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) has certified the analytical capabilities of the HAPSITE® portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) system as a field-based analytical method as well as a laboratory instrument for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water, soil and soil gas. This 2004 certification report evaluates the performance of the HAPSITE® instrument based on a detailed review of data packages submitted by the technology proponent, of field data generated by independent parties, and of new data collected under the oversight of the DTSC.

Direct-Push Monitoring Wells

Direct-push installed monitoring wells of small diameter consist of steel pipe with a vertically slotted screened section and a drive point that is vibrated into unconsolidated soils using a small, portable rig. Rapid installation is possible to depths of more than 100 feet, with no soil cuttings that require disposal. Groundwater samples can be obtained immediately after well installation using inertial bailers and small-diameter tubing. Little purge water is generated because of the small well diameter. Analysis of samples with field instruments yields data that are immediately available to guide further field installations. These documents compare monitoring data obtained from ground water samples taken from both direct-push and conventional auger-drilled wells.

Report Evaluating an Enhanced Direct Push (EAPS) System

The Dept. of Energy has funded the development of a direct push (DP) system able to drill through refusal points. This 2004 report describes an evaluation study of the Enhanced Access Penetration System (EAPS) which extends cone penetrometer penetration depth. EAPS consists of four major components: (1) a Wireline CPT/Gas sampling probe and wireline soil and groundwater sampling system, (2) a small diameter air rotary drilling system, (3) environmental sensors that are used to detect and characterize contamination in both real and near-real time, and (4) an integral drill spoils collection and filtration system.

A Review of Emerging Sensor Technologies for Facilitating Long-Term Ground Water Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds

This U.S. EPA report summarizes the status of emerging sensor technologies for facilitating long-term ground water monitoring for a class of contaminants called volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It also describes a number of factors, including regulatory acceptance and cost-effectiveness, that influence the applicability of these technologies. The focus is on long-term ground water monitoring that is generally associated with a selected remedy, such as monitored natural attenuation or pump and treat.

EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, Site Characterization and Monitoring Technologies (SCMT) within the Advanced Monitoring Systems Center

The EPA ETV program seeks to provide credible information about the performance of environmental technologies from disinterested third parties under the auspices of EPA. The Site Characterization and Monitoring Technologies Pilot functions within the Advanced Monitoring Systems Center of ETV to evaluate technologies that can be used to characterize the environment. Third-party verification organizations design and perform simulated field demonstrations and prepare reports on each technology accompanied by verification statements.

Passive Diffusion Bag Samplers (PDB) for Monitoring VOCs in Wells

Diffusion sampler methods can save from $275-$600 per sample in labor costs. The USGS, the Air Force, and the ITRC (an interstate cooperation work group) partnered to prepare a report summarizing the proper use of diffusion samplers in wells. A second report presents six case studies where the PDB samplers were tested under field conditions. Both reports can be obtained electronically. Hard copies can also be purchased from the USGS by calling 888-ASK-USGS.

Guidance on the Use of Passive-Vapor-Diffusion Samplers to Detect Volatile Organic Compounds in Ground-Water-Discharge Areas, and Example Applications in New England

Polyethylene-membrane passive-vapor-diffusion samplers, or PVD samplers, have been shown to be an effective and economical reconnaissance tool for detecting and identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in bottom sediments of surface-water bodies in areas of ground-water discharge. Examples of applications at nine hazardous-waste sites in New England demonstrate the utility of PVD samplers in a variety of hydrologic settings, including rivers, streams, ponds, wetlands, and coastal shorelines. Results of PVD sampling at these sites have confirmed the presence and refined the extent of VOC-contaminated ground-water-discharge areas where contaminated ground water is known, and identified areas of VOC-contaminated ground-water discharge where ground-water contamination was previously unknown. The principal VOCs detected were chlorinated and petroleum hydrocarbons. Vapor concentrations in samplers range from not detected to more than 1,000,000 parts per billion by volume. These results provided insights about contaminant distributions and ground-water-flow patterns in discharge areas, and have guided the design of focused characterization activities.

Field Analytical and Site Characterization Technologies

This report provides information about experiences in the use of field analytical and site characterization technologies at contaminated sites drawn from 204 technology applications. For each technology, information is presented on the reported uses of the technology; including the types of pollutants and media for which the technology was used; reported advantages and limitations of the technology; and cost data for the technology, when available. Information was obtained from federal and state site managers and from the Vendor Field Analytical and Characterization Technologies System (Vendor FACTS) database.

SITE Program: Innovative Technology Evaluation Reports

The EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program was established to provide for the demonstration and evaluation of technologies for use in clean-up of Superfund sites. Through 2007, SITE worked to evaluate emerging clean-up technologies and to demonstrate and evaluate full-scale, field-ready clean-up and monitoring and measurement technologies. Through the SITE Monitoring and Measurement Technologies program, the EPA National Environmental Research Laboratory-Las Vegas has produced a number of Innovative Technology Evaluation Reports to document the results of the field analytical and sampling technologies it has demonstrated.

California Environmental Technology Certification Program

Cal/EPA's certification program is a voluntary program that provides participating technology developers, manufacturers, and vendors an independent, recognized third-party evaluation of the performance of new and mature environmental technologies. Developers and manufacturers define quantitative performance claims for their technologies and provide supporting documentation; Cal/EPA reviews that information and, where necessary, conducts additional testing to verify the claims. The technologies, equipment, and products that are proven to work as claimed receive official state certification. The certification program is voluntary and self-supporting. Companies participating in the program pay the costs of evaluating and certifying their technologies.

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Methods Information and SOPs

A Guide for Assessing Biodegradation and Source Identification of Organic Groundwater Contaminants Using Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA)

When organic contaminants are degraded in the environment, the ratio of stable isotopes will often change, and the extent of degradation can be recognized and predicted from the change in the ratio of stable isotopes. Recent advances in analytical chemistry make it possible to perform Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) on dissolved organic contaminants such as chlorinated solvents, aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, and fuel oxygenates, at concentrations in water that are near their regulatory standards. The traditional approach for monitoring of concentrations of contaminants at sites often does not offer adequate information about the processes that are responsible for removal of the contaminants. Stable isotope analyses can provide an in-depth understanding of biodegradation or abiotic transformation processes in contaminated aquifers.

Because CSIA is a new approach, there are no widely accepted standards for accuracy, precision and sensitivity, and no established approaches to document accuracy, precision, sensitivity and representativeness. This Guide provides general recommendations on good practice for sampling, for measurement, for data evaluation and for interpretation in CSIA.

Methods Innovation Rule and SW-846 Final Update IIIB

The Environmental Protection Agency is amending a variety of testing and monitoring requirements in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous and nonhazardous
solid waste regulations and for certain Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations that relate to hazardous waste combustors. These amendments allow more flexibility when conducting RCRA-related sampling and analysis by removing from the regulations a requirement to use the methods found in "Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods," also known as "SW-846," in conducting various testing and monitoring and by limiting required uses of an SW-846 method to circumstances where the method is the only one capable of measuring the particular property (i.e., the method is used to measure a required method-defined parameter).

Superfund Analytical Services/Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) Analytical Methods

The analytical methods section of the CLP web site contains information about Statements of Work (SOWs) under which CLP samples may be analyzed. It provides information about analytical methods available from the CLP on inorganics, organics and low concentration, and non-routine analyses.

DNAPL Characterization Methods and Approaches

Contamination from the use of chlorinated solvents, often classified as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) when in an undissolved state, represents an environmental challenge with global implications. The identification of DNAPL source zones located beneath the water table is critical to ultimately achieve site remediation and aquifer restoration. These papers from Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation provide a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of many of the methods being used for detecting and delineating DNAPL contaminant source zones and compare the costs for implementing various characterization approaches using synthetic unit model scenarios. The objective is to determine which options are best to pursue based on site characteristics, method performance, and method costs. The findings can be used to assist with selection of appropriate site remediation management options.

U.S. EPA Environmental Response Team Center

The Environmental Response Team (ERT) offers an array of products to assist other environmental practitioners both in the field and in the office. They offer immediate download of items such as software packages, guidance related to a wide variety of environmental sampling procedures, analytical and quality assurance Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), fact sheets, and bulletins.

For more information, please contact Marc Greenburg, Environmental Response Team, (732) 321-6740,

SW-846 On-line

SW-846 contains over 200 documents, including the Table of Contents, Disclaimer, Preface, Chapters One through Thirteen, and many different methods for the sampling and analysis of wastes. All of the documents found in the Third Edition of SW-846, as updated by Updates I, II, IIA, IIB, III, IIIA, IIIB, IVA and IVB are located at this site. Just click on the appropriate document type at the top of this page, which will in turn take you to a complete listing of the applicable documents and links to each of those documents. For example, in order to locate Method 1311, the TCLP, click on the phrase "1000 Series," which will take you to a listing of the SW-846 methods in the 1000 series.

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