U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


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CLU-IN's ongoing series of Internet Seminars are free, web-based slide presentations with a companion audio portion. We provide two options for accessing the audio portion of the seminar: by phone line or streaming audio simulcast. More information and registration for all Internet Seminars is available by selecting the individual seminar below. Not able to make one of our live offerings? You may also view archived seminars.

 
 
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Leveraging Resources for Brownfields Revitalization: Meet the Funders - Economic Development

Brownfield grants from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are one of many sources of funds that can support redevelopment of contaminated sites. This webinar will highlight a number of economic development resources available from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Economic Development Administration, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to leverage your brownfield dollars. The webinar will also feature two communities that have successfully used grants, loans and other support from these agencies for their revitalization efforts. It is the second in OBLR's webinar series on what communities need to know to successfully leverage resources for brownfields revitalization.

Leveraging Resources for Brownfields Revitalization: Meet the Funders - Infrastructure

This "Meet the Funders" webinar will highlight resources available from the Department of Transportation, The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the EPA Office of Water. It is the third of OBLR's webinar series focusing on what communities need to do to successfully leverage resources for brownfields revitalization.

US Small Business Funding Opportunities (SBIR/STTR) for Environmental Technologies at NIEHS SRP, EPA, NSF, and USDA

This webinar is designed to help small businesses and academic researchers better understand the different agencies that fund environmental technologies, and the fundamental goals of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs.

The SBIR and STTR programs are one of the largest sources of funding for eligible U.S. small businesses [https://www.sbir.gov/faqs/eligibility-requirements] to develop innovative high technical risk technologies that have potential for substantial commercial or societal benefits.

The webinar is hosted jointly by the SBIR/STTR programs within the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program (NIEHS SRP), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the United States Department of Agriculture. Hear agency experts —Heather Henry from NIEHS SRP; April Richards from EPA; Prakash Balan from NSF; and Charles Cleland from USDA — highlight the unique characteristics of each of their environmental funding options, details of their SBIR/STTR programs, and tips on how to develop a successful SBIR/STTR application. A majority of the time will be dedicated to a Q&A session at the end of the webinar.

The NIEHS SRP SBIR/STTR programs fund the development of innovative technologies for the detection and remediation of hazardous substances of relevance to Superfund.

The EPA SBIR program funds small businesses focused on technologies for the treatment of drinking water and wastewater; air quality sensors, filters, and pollution reduction; and innovative green manufacturing and green materials.

The NSF SBIR/STTR environmental programs fund any innovative technologies which have a significant, beneficial impact on the environment and enhance sustainability. Technologies include, but are not limited to, innovations in energy and bioenergy; biotechnology; separations; green chemistry-based products and byproducts; water conservation and reuse; agriculture; and chemical, food, and pharmaceutical processing.

The USDA SBIR program funds a broad range of innovative new technologies that reduce the adverse impact of agriculture on the environment and mitigate the adverse impact of the environment on agriculture. The focus includes reducing the impact of animal waste on air and water pollution, monitoring and remediation of pollution of surface and groundwater, and methods to measure and prevent soil erosion and soil contamination.

The Interplay Between Environmental Exposures and Infectious Agents: Session I - Introduction to Infectious Agents and Their Interactions with Environmental Exposures

The NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP) presents the first session in the Risk e-Learning series, The Interplay Between Environmental Exposures and Infectious Agents. The seminar series examines the interactions between environmental exposures and infectious agents in the development of disease. The series will highlight researchers from around the country who are doing innovative research to better understand this relationship between environmental exposures, infectious agents, and immune response.

This session will introduce the topic and provide examples illustrating the interplay between environmental exposures and infectious agents. Karl Western, M.D., from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, will set the stage by providing an introduction on pathogens and immune response. Rita Loch-Caruso, Ph.D., a professor at the University of Michigan and project leader for the Northeastern University SRP Center, will discuss her work related to toxicant-microbial interactions in infection of human extraplacental membranes. Collaborators at the Northeastern SRP Center will briefly introduce ongoing work on interactions between hazardous substances and Zika virus incidence in Puerto Rico. Thomas Kensler, Ph.D., a professor at the University of Pittsburgh, will then discuss his research on the relationship between aflatoxins and hepatitis B in the development of liver cancer.

The Interplay Between Environmental Exposures and Infectious Agents: Session II - Environmental Chemicals and Immune Response

The NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP) presents the second session in the Risk e-Learning series, The Interplay Between Environmental Exposures and Infectious Agents. The seminar series examines the interactions between environmental exposures and infectious agents in the development of disease. The series will highlight researchers from around the country who are doing innovative research to better understand this relationship between environmental exposures, infectious agents, and immune response.

In this session, researchers will present innovative research to better understand how environmental chemicals alter immune response. Phillippe Grandjean, M.D., D.M.Sc., a professor at the Harvard School of Public Health, will describe his work to understand how elevated exposure to perfluorinated compounds is associated with reduced immune response to vaccines. Bruce Stanton, Ph.D., a professor at Dartmouth College and Center Director for the Dartmouth SRP Center, will discuss his research on the effects of arsenic on Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in the lung by adversely affecting the innate immune response. Syed Hashsham, Ph.D., a professor at Michigan State University (MSU) and leader of an MSU SRP Center project, will focus on the role of the microbiome in modulating the immune system in response to dioxin exposure.

The Interplay Between Environmental Exposures and Infectious Agents: Session III - Co-exposures in the Lung

The NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP) presents the third session in the Risk e-Learning series, The Interplay Between Environmental Exposures and Infectious Agents. The seminar series examines the interactions between environmental exposures and infectious agents in the development of disease. The series will highlight researchers from around the country who are doing innovative research to better understand this relationship between environmental exposures, infectious agents, and immune response.

This session series will focus on interactions between environmental exposures and infectious agents in the lung. Steven Kleeberger, Ph.D., a principle investigator in the NIEHS Intramural Research Program, will describe his work to understand the mechanisms of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection and disease severity and how that relates to exposure to environmental insults. Fenna Sillé, Ph.D., an SRP postdoctoral researcher at the University of California, Berkeley, will discuss how early-life exposure to arsenic permanently changes the immune system and increases infectious disease risk later in life, using Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lung as the model. Stephania Cormier, Ph.D., a professor at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center and Center Director of the Louisiana State University SRP Center, will discuss the relationship between environmentally-persistent free radicals (EPFRs) and severity of respiratory viral infections.

Military Munitions Support Services - Remedial / Removal Actions

This will be a Military Munitions Support Services seminar with subject matter experts discussing Remedial / Removal Actions.

Passive Treatment of Mining-Influenced Water: From Bench Scale to O&M

Passive treatment refers to processes that do not require frequent human intervention, operation, or maintenance, and typically employ natural construction materials, natural treatment media, and promote growth of natural vegetation. Biochemical reactors (BCRs) are a type of passive treatment system that use microorganisms to remove contaminants from mining-influenced water (MIW). BCRs and other passive treatment processes can be cost-effective and lower-maintenance treatment options for mine site cleanups. They also offer significant opportunities to reduce the environmental footprint associated with treatment of MIW.

In recent years, development and implementation of passive systems has increased. However, there’s still plenty to learn about their effectiveness. Pilot studies are good ways to study passive treatment and their application scenarios. In this webinar, two case studies will be presented that document design and implementation of BCRs to passively treat MIW – from bench-scale tests to full-scale operation and maintenance, including recovery of iron oxide byproducts for sale.

Case Study 1: Passive Treatment of Metal Mine Drainage at an Abandoned Mine near Lake Shasta, California

James Gusek, Sovereign Consulting, Inc. and Rick Weaver, USDA Forest Service

Case Study 2: Operation and Maintenance of Passive Treatment Systems at Two Bituminous Coal Mines in Southwestern Pennsylvania

Bob Hedin, Hedin Environmental and Iron Oxide Recovery, Inc. and Amy Wolfe, Trout Unlimited, Pennsylvania Coldwater Habitat Restoration Program and Easter Abandoned Mine Program
Interstate Technology Regulatory Council
Seminars Sponsored by the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council


Issues and Options in Human Health Risk Assessment - A Resource When Alternatives to Default Parameters and Scenarios are Proposed

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Many state and local regulatory agencies responsible for the cleanup of chemicals released to the environment have adopted regulations, guidance and policies that define default approaches, scenarios, and parameters as a starting point for risk assessment and the development of risk-based screening values. Regulatory project managers and decision makers, however, may not have specific guidance when alternative approaches, scenarios, and parameters are proposed for site-specific risk assessments, and are faced with difficult technical issues when evaluating these site-specific risk assessments. This ITRC web-based document is a resource for project managers and decision makers to help evaluate alternatives to risk assessment default approaches, scenarios and parameters.

ITRC's Decision Making at Contaminated Sites: Issues and Options in Human Health Risk Assessment (RISK-3, 2015) guidance document is different from existing ITRC Risk Assessment guidance and other state and federal resources because it identifies commonly encountered issues and discusses options in risk assessment when applying site-specific alternatives to defaults. In addition, the document includes links to resources and tools that provide even more detailed information on the specific issues and potential options. The ITRC Risk Assessment Team believes that state regulatory agencies and other organizations can use the RISK-3 document as a resource or reference to supplement their existing guidance. Community members and other stakeholders also may find this document helpful in understanding and using risk assessment information.

After participating in this ITRC training course, the learner will be able to apply ITRC's Decision Making at Contaminated Sites: Issues and Options in Human Health Risk (RISK-3, 2015) document when developing or reviewing site-specific risk assessments by:
  • Identifying common issues encountered when alternatives to default parameters and scenarios are proposed during the planning, data evaluation, toxicity, exposure assessment, and risk characterization and providing possible options for addressing these issues
  • Recognizing the value of proper planning and the role of stakeholders in the development and review of risk assessments
  • Providing information (that includes links to additional resources and tools) to support decision making when alternatives to default approaches, scenarios and parameters are proposed
ITRC offers additional documents and training on risk management. ITRC's Use of Risk Assessment in Management of Contaminated Sites (RISK-2, 2008) and associated Internet-based training archive highlight variation of risk-based site management and describes how to improve the use of risk assessment for making better risk management decisions. ITRC's Examination of Risk-Based Screening Values and Approaches of Selected States (RISK-1, 2005) and associated Internet-based training archive focus on the process by which risk-based levels are derived in different states.

An Improved Understanding of LNAPL Behavior in the Subsurface - State of Science vs. State of Practice - Part 1

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) are organic liquids such as gasoline, diesel, and other petroleum hydrocarbon products that are immiscible with water and less dense than water. Understanding LNAPLs is important because they are present in the subsurface at thousands of remediation sites across the country, and are often the sole reason why a site remains "open." The spectrum of sites where LNAPL assessment and remediation efforts may take place include petroleum manufacturing and handling facilities such as refineries, bulk product terminals, gas stations, airports and military bases. LNAPLs in the subsurface can be a complex problem to address, and frequently prevent or delay regulatory closure (no further action) of remediation projects.

This training course is relevant for all levels of state and federal regulators, environmental consultants, and technically-inclined site owners and public stakeholders. The training course is divided into three parts:
  • An Improved Understanding of LNAPL Behavior in the Subsurface - State of Science vs. State of Practice
  • LNAPL Characterization and Recoverability -- Improved Analysis
  • Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals
Part 1 explains how LNAPLs behave in the subsurface and examines what controls their behavior. Part 1 also explains what LNAPL data can tell you about the LNAPL and site conditions. Relevant and practical examples are used to illustrate key concepts. A sound LNAPL understanding is necessary to effectively characterize and assess LNAPL conditions and potential risks, as well as to evaluate potential remedial technologies or alternatives. Unfortunately, many environmental professionals have a faulty understanding of LNAPL conditions based on outdated paradigms. The ITRC LNAPLs Team is providing Internet-based training to improve the general understanding of LNAPLs. Better understanding leads to better decision making. Additionally, this training provides a necessary technical foundation to foster effective use of the ITRC LNAPLs Team Technical and Regulatory Guidance document, Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals (LNAPL-2, 2009).

LNAPL Characterization and Recoverability - Improved Analysis - Part 2

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) are organic liquids such as gasoline, diesel, and other petroleum hydrocarbon products that are immiscible with water and less dense than water. Understanding LNAPLs is important because they are present in the subsurface at thousands of remediation sites across the country, and are often the sole reason why a site remains "open." The spectrum of sites where LNAPL assessment and remediation efforts may take place include petroleum manufacturing and handling facilities such as refineries, bulk product terminals, gas stations, airports and military bases. LNAPLs in the subsurface can be a complex problem to address, and frequently prevent or delay regulatory closure (no further action) of remediation projects.

This training course is relevant for all levels of state and federal regulators, environmental consultants, and technically-inclined site owners and public stakeholders. The training course is divided into three parts:
  • An Improved Understanding of LNAPL Behavior in the Subsurface - State of Science vs. State of Practice
  • LNAPL Characterization and Recoverability-- Improved Analysis
  • Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals
Part 2 addresses LNAPL characterization and site conceptual model development as well as LNAPL recovery evaluation and remedial considerations. Specifically, Part 2 discusses key LNAPL and site data, when and why those data may be important, and how to get those data. Part 2 also discusses how to evaluate LNAPL recoverability. A sound LNAPL understanding is necessary to effectively characterize and assess LNAPL conditions and potential risks, as well as to evaluate potential remedial technologies or alternatives. Unfortunately, many environmental professionals have a faulty understanding of LNAPL conditions based on outdated paradigms. The ITRC LNAPLs Team is providing Internet-based training to improve the general understanding of LNAPLs. Better understanding leads to better decision making. Additionally, this training provides a necessary technical foundation to foster effective use of the ITRC LNAPLs Team Technical and Regulatory Guidance document, Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals (LNAPL-2, 2009).

Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals - Part 3

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) are organic liquids such as gasoline, diesel, and other petroleum hydrocarbon products that are immiscible with water and less dense than water. Understanding LNAPLs is important because they are present in the subsurface at thousands of remediation sites across the country and are often the sole reason why a site remains open. The spectrum of sites where LNAPL assessment and remediation efforts may take place include petroleum manufacturing and handling facilities such as refineries, bulk product terminals, gas stations, airports and military bases. LNAPLs in the subsurface can be a complex problem to address, and frequently prevent or delay regulatory closure (no further action) of remediation projects.

Over the past few decades, LNAPL remedial technologies have evolved from conventional pumping or hydraulic recovery systems to a variety of innovative, aggressive, and experimental technologies that address the mobile and residual LNAPL fractions, as well as volatile and dissolved-phase plumes. Thus, many different LNAPL remedial technologies with differing site and LNAPL applicabilities and capabilities are available to remediate LNAPL releases. This can make selection of a remedial technology daunting and inefficient. To foster informed remedial technology selection and appropriate technology application, the LNAPLs Team developed the ITRC Technical and Regulatory Guidance document, Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals (LNAPL-2, 2009). This document addresses seventeen LNAPL remedial technologies and provides a framework to streamline remedial technology evaluation and selection.

This training course is relevant for new and veteran regulators, environmental consultants, and technically-inclined site owners and public stakeholders. The training course is divided into three parts:
  • Part 1: An Improved Understanding of LNAPL Behavior in the Subsurface - State of Science vs. State of Practice
  • Part 2: LNAPL Characterization and Recoverability - Improved Analysis
  • Part 3: Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals
Part 3 uses the LNAPL conceptual site model (LCSM) approach to identify the LNAPL concerns or risks and set proper LNAPL remedial objectives and technology-specific remediation goals and performance metrics. The training course also provides an overview of the LNAPL remedial technology selection framework. The framework uses a series of tools to screen the seventeen remedial technologies based on site and LNAPL conditions and other important factors. LNAPL Training Part 1 and LNAPL Training 2 are recommended pre-requisites for this Part 3 training course. Archives are available at http://cluin.org/live/archive.cfm?sort=title#itrc (note: courses are listed alphabetically, you will have to scroll down to find the course of interest).

Petroleum Vapor Intrusion: Fundamentals of Screening, Investigation, and Management

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Chemical contaminants in soil and groundwater can volatilize into soil gas and migrate through unsaturated soils of the vadose zone. Vapor intrusion (VI) occurs when these vapors migrate upward into overlying buildings through cracks and gaps in the building floors, foundations, and utility conduits, and contaminate indoor air. If present at sufficiently high concentrations, these vapors may present a threat to the health and safety of building occupants. Petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) is a subset of VI and is the process by which volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) released as vapors from light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPL), petroleum-contaminated soils, or petroleum-contaminated groundwater migrate through the vadose zone and into overlying buildings. Fortunately, in the case of PHC vapors, this migration is often limited by microorganisms that are normally present in soil. The organisms consume these chemicals, reducing them to nontoxic end products through the process of biodegradation. The extent and rate to which this natural biodegradation process occurs is strongly influenced by the concentration of the vapor source, the distance the vapors must travel through soil from the source to potential receptors, and the presence of oxygen (O2) in the subsurface environment between the source and potential receptors.

The ITRC Technical and Regulatory Guidance Web-Based Document, Petroleum Vapor Intrusion: Fundamentals of Screening, Investigation, and Management (PVI-1, 2014) and this associated Internet-based training provides regulators and practitioners with consensus information based on empirical data and recent research to support PVI decision making under different regulatory frameworks. The PVI assessment strategy described in this guidance document enables confident decision making that protects human health for various types of petroleum sites and multiple PHC compounds. This guidance provides a comprehensive methodology for screening, investigating, and managing potential PVI sites and is intended to promote the efficient use of resources and increase confidence in decision making when evaluating the potential for vapor intrusion at petroleum-contaminated sites. By using the ITRC guidance document, the vapor intrusion pathway can be eliminated from further investigation at many sites where soil or groundwater is contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons or where LNAPL is present.

After attending this ITRC Internet-based training, participants should be able to:
  • Determine when and how to use the ITRC PVI document at their sites
  • Describe the important role of biodegradation impacts on the PVI pathway (in contrast to chlorinated solvent contaminated sites)
  • Value a PVI conceptual site model (CSM) and list its key components
  • Apply the ITRC PVI 8 step decision process to screen sites for the PVI pathway and determine actions to take if a site does not initially screen out, (e.g., site investigation, modeling, and vapor control and site management)
  • Access fact sheets to support community engagement activities at each step in the process
For reference during the training class, participants should have a copy of the flowcharts, Figures 1-2, 3-2, and 4-1 from the ITRC Technical and Regulatory Guidance Web-Based Document, Petroleum Vapor Intrusion: Fundamentals of Screening, Investigation, and Management (PVI-1, 2014) and are available as a 3-page PDF at http://www.cluin.org/conf/itrc/PVI/ITRC-PVI-FlowCharts.pdf


ITRC also offers a 2-day PVI focused classroom training at locations across the US. The classroom training provides participants the opportunity to learn more in-depth information about the PVI pathway and practice applying the ITRC PVI guidance document with a diverse group of environmental professionals. Learn more at the ITRC PVI classroom training page.

Environmental Molecular Diagnostics: New Tools for Better Decisions

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Environmental molecular diagnostics (EMDs) are a group of advanced and emerging analytical techniques used to analyze biological and chemical characteristics of environmental samples. Conventional data (e.g., hydrogeological data, chemical, and geochemical analyses) often provide only indirect data regarding the mechanisms and rates of key attenuation or treatment processes. EMDs can complement these data by providing direct measurements of the organisms, genes or enzymes involved in contaminant biodegradation, of the relative contributions of abiotic and biotic processes, and of the relative rates of various degradation processes. The information provided by EMDs can improve estimates of attenuation rates and capacities and improve remedy performance assessments and optimization efforts. Improved understanding of the biological and non-biological degradation processes also can lead to greater confidence in MNA or closure decisions. EMDs have application in each phase of environmental site management (including site characterization, remediation, monitoring, and closure activities), address a wide variety of contaminants (including PCE, PCBs, radionuclides, perchlorate, fuels), and work with various media (including groundwater, soil, sediments, soil vapor).

Although EMDs have been used over the past 25 years in various scientific fields, particularly medical research and diagnostic fields, their application to environmental remediation management is relatively new and rapidly developing. The ITRC Environmental Molecular Diagnostics Fact Sheets (EMD-1, 2011), ITRC Environmental Molecular Diagnostics Technical and Regulatory Guidance (EMD-2, 2013) and this companion Internet-based training will foster the appropriate uses of EMDs and help regulators, consultants, site owners, and other stakeholders to better understand a site and to make decisions based on the results of EMD analyses. At the conclusion of the training, learners will be able to determine when and how to use the ITRC Environmental Molecular Diagnostics Technical and Regulatory Guidance (EMD-2, 2013); define when EMDs can cost-effectively augment traditional remediation data sets; and describe the utility of various types of EMDs during remediation activities.

Training participants are encouraged to review the ITRC EMD Fact Sheets, in particular the Introduction to EMDs fact sheet, before the Internet-based training.

Groundwater Statistics for Environmental Project Managers

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Statistical techniques may be used throughout the process of cleaning up contaminated groundwater. It is challenging for practitioners, who are not experts in statistics, to interpret, and use statistical techniques. ITRC developed the Technical and Regulatory Web-based Guidance on Groundwater Statistics and Monitoring Compliance (GSMC-1, 2013, http://www.itrcweb.org/gsmc-1/) and this associated training specifically for environmental project managers who review or use statistical calculations for reports, who make recommendations or decisions based on statistics, or who need to demonstrate compliance for groundwater projects. The training class will encourage and support project managers and others who are not statisticians to:

ITRC's Technical and Regulatory Web-based Guidance on Groundwater Statistics and Monitoring Compliance (GSMC-1, 2013) and this associated training bring clarity to the planning, implementation, and communication of groundwater statistical methods and should lead to greater confidence and transparency in the use of groundwater statistics for site management.

Use and Measurement of Mass Flux and Mass Discharge

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Most decisions at groundwater contamination sites are driven by measurements of contaminant concentration -- snapshots of contaminant concentrations that may appear to be relatively stable or show notable changes over time. Decisions can be improved by considering mass flux and mass discharge. Mass flux and mass discharge quantify the source or plume strength at a given time and location resulting in better-informed management decisions regarding site prioritization or remedial design as well as lead to significant improvements in remediation efficiency and faster cleanup times. The use of mass flux and mass discharge is increasing and will accelerate as field methods improve and practitioners and regulators become familiar with its application, advantages, and limitations. The decision to collect and evaluate mass flux data is site-specific. It should consider the reliability of other available data, the uncertainty associated with mass flux measurements, the specific applications of the mass flux data, and the cost-benefit of collecting mass measurements.

The ITRC technology overview, Use and Measurement of Mass Flux and Mass Discharge (MASSFLUX-1, 2010), and associated Internet-based training provide a description of the underlying concepts, potential applications, description of methods for measuring and calculating, and case studies of the uses of mass flux and mass discharge. This Technology Overview, and associated internet based training are intended to foster the appropriate understanding and application of mass flux and mass discharge estimates, and provide examples of use and analysis. The document and training assumes the participant has a general understanding of hydrogeology, the movement of chemicals in porous media, remediation technologies, and the overall remedial process. Practitioners, regulators, and others working on groundwater sites should attend this training course to learn more about various methods and potential use of mass flux and mass discharge information.

Geophysical Classification for Munitions Response

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council For decades, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) has produced and used military munitions for live-fire testing and training to prepare the U.S. military for combat operations. As a result, unexploded ordnance (UXO) and discarded military munitions may be present at over 5,200 former ranges and former munitions operating facilities throughout the United States. With the traditional technique to identify munitions for removal at these sites, DOD and its contractors have used various types of detection instruments to simply detect buried metal objects then excavation and examination of most of the detected items, to determine whether or not they are military munitions. Even highly trained UXO-qualified personnel typically excavate hundreds of metal items for each one munition recovered. Nearly half of these sites require a munitions response, at an estimated cost to complete of $14 billion and with a completion date of 2100. To improve the efficiency of munitions response, DOD’s Environmental Security Technology Certification Program and its research partners in academia and industry have developed a new approach: geophysical classification. Geophysical classification is the process of using advanced data to make principled decisions as to whether buried metal objects are potentially hazardous munitions (that is targets of interest) that should be excavated, or items such as metal clutter and debris (non-targets of interest) that can be left in the ground.

ITRC’s Geophysical Classification for Munitions Response (GCMR-2, 2015) and training class explain the process of geophysical classification, describe its benefits and limitations, and discuss the information and data needed by regulators to monitor and evaluate the use of the technology. This document and training also emphasize using a systematic planning process to develop data acquisition and decision strategies at the outset of a munitions response effort, as well as quality considerations throughout the project. Stakeholder issues that are unique to munitions response are also discussed. After this training class, participants will:
  • Understand the technology and terminology
  • Be ready to engage in the planning process to address quality considerations throughout a project
  • Find tools to transfer knowledge within organizations and to stakeholders
  • Start to transition mindset to decisions that leave non-hazardous items in the ground
An audience who understand current munitions response tools and procedures (for example, geophysical surveys, sensors, data analysis) will benefit most from this document and training. For federal and state environmental regulators, scientists, and engineers, as well as contractors, munitions response managers, technical staff, geophysicists, and stakeholders, this document explains how geophysical classification can be used in munitions response. Stakeholders with an interest in a particular munitions response site (MRS) at which classification has been or may be proposed will also benefit from this document and training.

For use during this training class, we created a reference with the Terminology and Acronyms used in ITRC “Geophysical Classification for Munitions Response” Training.
The Training Exchange (Trainex)

The Training Exchange website (Trainex) is designed to provide a wide range of training information to EPA, other federal agency, state, tribal, and local staff involved in hazardous waste management and remediation. Trainex focuses on free training directed to federal and state staff. This site includes training schedules for deliveries of many courses, both classroom and Internet-based.

EPA works in partnership with organizations, such as the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC), and other agencies, such as the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), to offer training relevant to hazardous waste remediation, site characterization, risk assessment, emergency response, site/incident management, counter-terrorism, and the community's role in site management and cleanup.

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