U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Recent Additions

Request for Proposals: FY 2019 Brownfields Multipurpose, Assessment, and Cleanup Grants

Posted: November 30, 2018

These brownfields grants may be used to address sites contaminated by hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants (including hazardous substances co-mingled with petroleum) and petroleum. Multipurpose Grants are funded up to $800,000 over five years and EPA anticipates selecting 10 proposals. Community-wide and Site-specific proposals for Assessment Grants are each funded up to $200,000 over three years; Assessment Coalition proposals are funded up to $600,000 over three years. EPA anticipates selecting 114 proposals. Cleanup Grants are funded up to $500,000 over three years and EPA anticipates selecting 40 proposals. The proposal submission deadline is January 31, 2019, and a webinar to assist in preparing proposals will be held on December 11, 2018 at 2:00pm EST.

Funding Opportunity: FY 2020 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) Solicitations

Posted: November 1, 2018

The Department of Defense's SERDP is seeking environmental research and development proposals for funding beginning in FY 2020. Projects will be selected through a competitive process. The Core Solicitation provides funding opportunities for basic and applied research and advanced technology development. Core projects vary in cost and duration consistent with the scope of the work proposed. The Statements of Need (SON) referenced by this solicitation request proposals related to the SERDP program areas of Environmental Restoration (ER), Munitions Response (MR), Resource Conservation and Resiliency (RC), and Weapons Systems and Platforms (WP). The SERDP Exploratory Development (SEED) Solicitation provides funding opportunities for work that will investigate innovative environmental approaches that entail high technical risk or require supporting data to provide proof of concept. Funding is limited to not more than $200,000 and projects are approximately one year in duration. This year, SERDP is requesting SEED proposals for the Munitions Response and Weapons Systems and Platforms program areas. All Core pre-proposals are due January 8, 2019. SEED proposals are due March 5, 2019.

Vapor Intrusion Screening Level Calculator

Posted: October 26, 2018

The Vapor Intrusion Screening Level (VISL) calculator identifies chemicals that are considered to be sufficiently volatile and toxic to warrant an investigation of the soil gas intrusion pathway when they are present as subsurface contaminants. The calculator provides generally recommended, media-specific, risk-based screening-level concentrations for groundwater, near-source soil gas, sub-slab soil gas, and
indoor air. These screening-level concentrations (i.e., the VISLs) are based on default residential or nonresidential exposure scenarios, a target cancer risk level of one per million, and
a target hazard quotient of one for potential non-cancer effects.

Updated Focus Area: 1,4-Dioxane

Posted: October 2, 2018

The 1,4-Dioxane Focus Area has been updated to reflect the current state of the science, with an emphasis on the behavior, occurrence, site characterization and analytical methods, and treatment technologies sections.

Validation of Biotechnology for Quantifying the Abundance and Activity of Vinyl-Chloride Oxidizers in Contaminated Groundwater: Guidance Document

Posted: September 18, 2018

The purpose of this project was to evaluate qPCR-based molecular diagnostic tools for the purpose of estimating the attenuation contribution of VC-oxidizing bacteria. Groundwater and aquifer samples were taken from several DoD sites. The method targeted functional genes used by etheneotrophic bacteria in the aerobic VC biodegradation pathway. Functional genes associated with both VC oxidation and VC reduction were found present and expressed in groundwater samples. The researchers determined this by analyzing the relationships between functional genes associated with VC biodegradation and geochemical parameters, as well as the bulk VC attenuation rate at these contaminated sites. This novel technology promises to reveal the abundance and functionality of etheneotrophs at VC-contaminated sites. When this information is provided alongside a site-wide VC degradation rate, it could provide evidence that aerobic VC biodegradation is a significant contributor to overall VC natural attenuation processes.

Assessment of Post Remediation Performance of a Biobarrier Oxygen Injection System at a Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-Contaminated Site, Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, San Diego, California

Posted: September 18, 2018

Project ER-201588 was conducted to evaluate the long-term performance of natural attenuation of MTBE after shutdown of a biobarrier system. The long-term impact of the biobarrier system on formation permeability was assessed via slug tests. In addition to evaluating data collected using conventional monitoring techniques, this project applied metagenomics and metaproteomics to improve the understanding of long-term impacts of the remedy on biodegradation at the site.

Long-Term Performance Assessment at a Highly Characterized and Instrumented DNAPL Source Area Following Bioaugmentation: ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

Posted: September 18, 2018

Monitoring was performed using soil sampling, passive flux meters, and push-pull tracer testing up to 3.7 years following active bioremediation of chlorinated ethene DNAPL source areas located at Alameda Point, Calif. Results showed that despite the absence of lactate, lactate fermentation transformation products, or hydrogen, biogeochemical conditions remained favorable for the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. While ethene levels suggested relatively low dechlorination of the parent TCE and daughter products, compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) showed that the extent of complete dechlorination was much greater than indicated by ethene generation. Results of the push-pull tracer testing confirmed that DNAPL remained in a portion of the source area, consistent with soil and groundwater data. Reliance on ethene generation alone as an indicator of complete dechlorination significantly underestimated the extent of complete dechlorination, as CSIA analysis provided a more reliable estimate of dechlorination than reliance on ethene generation alone.

Sustained In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) of 1,4-Dioxane and Chlorinated VOCs Using Slow-Release Chemical Oxidant Cylinders

Posted: September 18, 2018

Slow-release chemical oxidant cylinders were applied to the treatment of a plume containing 1,4-dioxane and chlorinated VOCs (1,2-DCE, 1,1-DCA, cis-1,2-DCE, and TCE) in a technology demonstration conducted at Naval Air Station North Island, Calif. The objectives were to demonstrate and evaluate the technology's effectiveness, sustainability, longevity, oxidant transport and destruction, implementability, secondary water quality impacts, and technology reproducibility. Unactivated persulfate embedded in a slow-release paraffin wax formulation was emplaced in two 4-inch wells housed inside 18-inch diameter boreholes. The majority of the project's performance objectives were met. The oxidant cylinders are commercially available, but equipment for suspending cylinders in wells or reactive gates is not standardized and will require engineering design and possible custom fabrication.

Electrokinetic-Enhanced (Ek-Enhanced) Amendment Delivery for Remediation of Low Permeability and Heterogeneous Materials

Posted: September 18, 2018

Electrokinetic (EK)-enhanced amendment delivery for in situ bioremediation (EK-BIO) via enhanced reductive dechlorination of a PCE source area in clay was conducted at Naval Air Station Jacksonville, Florida. The EK-enhanced amendment delivery technology entails the establishment of an electric field in the subsurface using a network of electrodes. The electrical current and voltage gradient established across a direct-current electric field provide the driving force to transport remediation amendments, including electron donors, chemical oxidants, and even bacteria, through the subsurface. The EK demonstration system consisted of 9 electrode wells and 8 supply wells located within a target treatment area measuring ~40 ft by 40 ft. The remediation amendments distributed by the EK system included electron donor (lactate provided as potassium lactate), pH control reagents (potassium carbonate), and a dechlorinating microbial consortium (KB-1®) containing Dehalococcoides. Project results showed that EK achieved relatively uniform transport in low-permeability materials.

Advances in the State of the Practice for Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation

Posted: September 18, 2018

Enhanced in situ bioremediation (EISB) is an engineered technology that introduces physical, chemical, and biological changes to the aquifer to create the conditions necessary for microorganisms to transform contaminants of concern to innocuous byproducts. Recent innovations and trends to facilitate successful application are introduced. While this document discusses current industry-accepted best practices to design and apply EISB with a primary focus on chlorinated ethene remediation, it also discusses progress in identifying microorganisms capable of degrading 1,4-dioxane.

In-Situ Chromium Treatability Study Results Report, Nevada Environmental Response Trust Site, Henderson, Nevada: Revision 1

Posted: October 2, 2018

Separate field treatability studies were performed at the Trust site to evaluate biological and chemical reduction of Cr(VI) in the groundwater. For the biological reduction treatability study (Nov. 2016-Oct. 2017) in the Central Retention Basin, three separate substrate injection events were conducted to promote in situ biological reduction of Cr(VI). Carbon substrates injected over the three injection events included EOSPRO®, industrial sugar wastewater, granular sugar, and/or molasses. Monosodium orthophosphate (Aquapure 3601®) and a 39% solution urea/diammonium phosphate blend were injected as additional sources of phosphate and nitrogen nutrients. Sodium sulfite and ascorbic acid, both oxygen scavengers, were mixed with the substrate solution to promote anaerobic conditions prior to injecting. Sodium bicarbonate was also mixed with the substrate solution to adjust the pH as needed. Stabilized Lake Mead Water (SLMW), used as chase/flush water, was injected to enhance the carbon substrate distribution across the injection well network. For the chemical reduction study conducted August 7-8, 2017, the injection and monitoring wells installed as part of the Ammonium Perchlorate Area Up and Down Flushing Treatability Study were used for a single chemical injection event of a total of 600 gal of a calcium polysulfide (CPS) solution (60 gal of CPS and 540 gal of SLMW). The solution was injected across the shallow and intermediate injection wells associated with Plots 1 and 2 in the flushing treatability study area. A total of 3,910 gal of SLMW was injected as chase/flush water to enhance subsurface distribution. The findings of these treatability studies will be included in the feasibility study of remedial action alternatives to address Henderson legacy conditions.

A Practical Approach for Remediation Performance Assessment and Optimization at DNAPL Sites for Early Identification and Correction of Problems Considering Uncertainty

Posted: October 2, 2018

The objective of this project was to develop and test a methodology to periodically assess and optimize remediation and monitoring strategies at sites affected by DNAPL where remedies are in place. Methods were developed to model cost and performance of source zone and dissolved plume remediation technologies—including thermal treatment, chemical oxidation, enhanced bioremediation, and reactive barriers—and to optimize system operation and monitoring to meet user-defined cleanup criteria with minimum life-cycle cost, considering uncertainty in performance predictions using a stochastic optimization approach. The capability of the Stochastic Cost Optimization Toolkit (SCOToolkit) developed under SERDP Project ER-1611 was greatly extended in this project. The previous 2D contaminant transport model was rewritten to simulate 3D transport with steady-state groundwater flow along linear or curvilinear streamlines with multiple DNAPL sources.

Demonstration of Fluorescent Magnetic Particles for Linking Sources to Sediments at DOD Sites

Posted: October 2, 2018

Particle tracking offers a practical means to investigate source-sink relationships and map the transport pathways of contaminated sediments both at the point of and following delivery into waterways, through time and across space. This project demonstrated a particle tracking technology for quantitative mapping of the spatiotemporal distribution and depositional footprint of particles released from typical DoD contaminant sources into adjacent aquatic environments. Fluorescent ferromagnetic particles were released from specific sources, tracked through the water column, and collected at the sediment surface. The particles then were analyzed to determine their spatial distribution and depositional pattern and demonstrate quantitatively the linkage between sources and receiving water areas where the particle sources were most likely to impact the sediments.

White Paper On Thermal Remediation Technologies for Treatment of Chlorinated Solvents: Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Simi Valley, California

Posted: October 2, 2018

The objective of this white paper is to present information that will support the eventual evaluation of in situ thermal remediation (ISTR) to meet remedial objectives in selected areas of groundwater contamination at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory site. Corrective measures studies will be prepared separately by DOE, NASA, and Boeing for their respective areas of responsibility. The ultimate remedial objectives for the site are chlorinated solvent mass removal to a level that meets applicable state and federal risk-based groundwater standards. The ISTR evaluation consists of a comprehensive literature review focused on the application of ISTR to remove VOCs from bedrock sites. This paper is not intended to be a general review of all reported ISTR applications, nor does it provide details regarding ISTR system construction and operation. Rather, this paper summarizes the primary types of ISTR, discusses their effectiveness in reducing chlorinated VOC contamination in bedrock, and provides several specific examples of full-scale implementation.

Final Close-Out Report, Frontier Hard Chrome Superfund Site, Wad53614988, City of Vancouver, Clark County, Washington

Posted: October 18, 2018

Chromium, the hazardous substance of primary concern at the FHC site, is present in two forms, Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Although the 1987 OU-1 ROD called for excavation, stabilization, and replacement of all soils with concentrations greater than 550 mg/kg total Cr (~7,400 yd3 of soil) and the OU 2 ROD called for groundwater pump and treat from the area of greatest contamination (levels of Cr >50,000 µg/L), testing demonstrated the remedy would be insufficiently effective; hence, the remedy selected in the 2001 ROD Amendment was implemented in 2003. Injections of a blend of sodium dithionite and ferrous sulfate were performed to create an in situ redox manipulation (ISRM) treatment zone for the Cr-contaminated groundwater, followed by similar injections in source and hot spot areas. These treatments were effective. EPA issued a Notice of Deletion of the Frontier Hard Chrome Inc. Superfund Site from the National Priorities List on August 6, 2018.

Sustained In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) of 1,4-Dioxane and Chlorinated VOCs Using Slow-Release Chemical Oxidant Cylinders: ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

Posted: November 2, 2018

This study demonstrated the use of slow-release chemical oxidant cylinders to treat a plume containing 1,4-dioxane and chlorinated VOC constituents. Unactivated persulfate embedded in a slow-release paraffin wax formulation was emplaced in two 4-inch wells housed inside 18-inch diameter boreholes. The objectives were to demonstrate/evaluate the technology effectiveness, sustainability/ longevity, oxidant transport and destruction, implementability/secondary water quality impacts, and technology reproducibility. The demonstration met the majority of the performance objectives.

Electrokinetic-Enhanced (Ek-Enhanced) Amendment Delivery for Remediation of Low Permeability and Heterogeneous Materials: ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

Posted: November 2, 2018

EK-enhanced amendment delivery for in situ bioremediation (EK-BIO) was demonstrated and validated via enhanced reductive dechlorination of a PCE source area in clay. The EK-enhanced amendment delivery technology entails the establishment of an electric field in the subsurface using a network of electrodes. The electrical current and voltage gradient established across a direct-current electric field provide the driving force to transport remediation amendments, including electron donors, chemical oxidants, and even bacteria, through the subsurface. Results showed that EK could achieve relatively uniform transport in low-permeability materials.

Assessment and Management of Stormwater Impacts On Sediment Recontamination

Posted: November 16, 2018

To develop, test, and assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive set of lab, field, and modeling approaches in characterizing the role of urban stormwater in contamination of sediments and recontamination of remediated sites, a field study was conducted at Paleta Creek, an urban watershed partially encompassing Naval Base San Diego and draining to San Diego Bay. Stormwater discharges at a secondary site at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard were also studied to identify whether the methods were applicable and whether general characteristics noted at Paleta Creek were reproduced at an additional site. This report is organized by the tools and measurements as related to the understanding gained during their use.

The Effects of Methylmercury On Wildlife: a Comprehensive Review and Approach for Interpretation

Posted: November 16, 2018

A comprehensive literature review was conducted to (1) identify relevant effect thresholds for wild birds and mammals, (2) further define effects (i.e., compare traditionally used lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels [LOAEL] with recently preferred effect concentrations), (3) understand choice of tissue types and what they mean, and (4) describe the importance of taxonomic differences. This synthesis is based on 214 peer-reviewed publications (n = 138 bird studies and n = 76 mammal studies) that represent much of the literature on the effects of Hg on free-living populations and wild species experimentally dosed in captivity. Domesticated species were not included, unless they were germane for understanding relevant responses in wild species.

Phytoremediation at Ryeland Road Arsenic Site, Heidelberg Township, Pa

Posted: December 4, 2018

The 7.3-acre Ryeland Road Arsenic site is located in Berks County, Pennsylvania. Past operations contaminated soil and groundwater on part of the property with arsenic, lead, and other chemicals. In addition to excavation and removal of contaminated materials, a pilot study initiated in May 2007 determined that phytoextraction by ferns was a successful method to reduce arsenic in shallow soils and areas saturated by springs. Full-scale efforts have been ongoing since 2009. The ferns have demonstrated their effectiveness in over 30% of the area where arsenic contamination once existed along the stream.

Aqueous Film-Forming Foam

Posted: December 4, 2018

Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) is highly effective foam intended for fighting high-hazard flammable-liquid fires. AFFF products typically are formed by combining hydrocarbon foaming agents with fluorinated surfactants. The purpose of this fact sheet is to outline how to properly identify, handle, store, capture, collect, manage, and dispose of AFFF. The fact sheet is not intended to replace manufacturer specifications or industry guidance for AFFF use, or to discuss alternatives in detail. It is only intended to educate users on AFFF use to reduce and eliminate potential harm to human health and the environment.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Sources, Fate, Effects On Birds and Mammals, and Mechanisms of Action

Posted: December 4, 2018

PCBs comprise a group of organic compounds that have been persistent and widespread pollutants in the 20th and 21st centuries. PCBs have been shown to have multiple deleterious effects in wildlife. This article focuses on how PCBs have entered the environment, the organic and inorganic matrices they move into, the biological effects they have on wildlife and mammalian health, and the main mechanisms of action by which PCBs exert those effects. Two case studies of PCB contamination are considered in this article along with the effects wrought by PCBs at a cellular and molecular level.