U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Recent Additions

FY 2019 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP)

Posted: November 13, 2017

The Department of Defense's SERDP is seeking environmental research and development proposals for funding beginning in FY 2019. Projects will be selected through a competitive process. The Core Solicitation provides funding opportunities for basic and applied research and advanced technology development. Core projects vary in cost and duration consistent with the scope of the work proposed. The Statements of Need (SON) referenced by this solicitation request proposals related to the SERDP program areas of Environmental Restoration (ER), Munitions Response (MR), Resource Conservation and Resiliency (RC), and Weapons Systems and Platforms (WP). The SERDP Exploratory Development (SEED) Solicitation provides funding opportunities for work that will investigate innovative environmental approaches that entail high technical risk or require supporting data to provide proof of concept. Funding is limited to not more than $200,000 and projects are approximately one year in duration. This year, SERDP is requesting SEED proposals for the Munitions Response program area. All Core pre-proposals are due January 4, 2018. SEED proposals are due March 6, 2018.

Superfund Remedy Report, Fifteenth Edition

Posted: September 21, 2017

The Superfund Remedy Report (SRR), Fifteenth Edition, was published by the EPA Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) in August 2017. The report focuses on Superfund remedial actions selected in fiscal years 2012, 2013 and 2014, and on remedy trends since 1982. The report includes remedies selected in 308 decision documents (Records of Decision [RODs], ROD amendments, and Explanations of Significant Differences with changes to remedy components) signed in this three-year period. The SRR compiles data on overall remedy selection and remedies for source materials (such as soil and sediments), groundwater, surface water and air related to vapor intrusion. The report also analyzes media and contaminants for sites with remedies. The appendices summarize all of the remedy components selected for sources and groundwater in each decision document signed in 2012, 2013, and 2014.

U.S. EPA 2017-2018 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I Solicitation Now Open

Posted: September 21, 2017

EPA is calling for small businesses to apply for Phase I awards up to $100,000 to demonstrate proof of concept in the following topic areas: air quality, manufacturing, clean and safe water, land revitalization, homeland security, and building construction materials. Successful Phase I companies are eligible to apply for Phase II funding, which awards up to $300,000 for two years with a commercialization option of up to $100,000, to further develop and commercialize their technologies. The proposal submission deadline is December 19, 2017.

Ecological Reuse: The Importance of Ecological Reuse

Posted: September 19, 2017

One of the EPA's main goals is to restore contaminated properties and return them to beneficial reuse. Ecological revitalization transforms contaminated sites into functioning habitats, and it can provide substantial cost savings compared to traditional remedies and create significant community benefits. This video presents examples of successful EPA ecological revitalization projects at two Superfund sites: the Palmerton Zinc Pile Site in Palmerton, Pennsylvania and the Ryeland Road Arsenic site in Berks County, Pennsylvania.

Blackwell Forest Preserve: A Reuse Success Story Video

Posted: September 19, 2017

At the DuPage County Landfill/Blackwell Forest Preserve Superfund site in DuPage County, Illinois, remedial actions have addressed site contamination, and local residents of all ages are celebrating a rich selection of year-round recreational uses. At the outset, the municipal landfill was established on 40-acres of the 1,500-acre Blackwell Forest Preserve, with the goal of creating the "hill", known as Mount Hoy, to serve as the centerpiece of the forest preserve. Current land uses at the site include 40 acres of restored habitat for ecological uses and public recreation, as well as trails, an observation area, archery range, urban stream research facility and fishing pier.

Ecosystem Services at Contaminated Site Cleanups

Posted: September 13, 2017

The U.S. EPA developed this issue paper to provide cleanup site teams with information about ecosystem services. These concepts and tools are useful in communicating the positive results of cleanup in addition to achieving the goals of cleanup. Information about ecosystem services may be considered in characterization of future land use options or design of a cleanup that is consistent with anticipated ecological reuse, depending on the regulatory authority of the cleanup program.

Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)

Posted: September 13, 2017

The objective of this focus area is to provide an overview of the current understanding of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), particularly perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), regarding their major historical and current uses; scientific information about their sources, chemistry and analysis, potential human exposure and associative adverse health outcomes, and environmental fate and transport; and progress in site investigation techniques and cleanup alternatives for environmental media affected by PFASs at levels of concern.

In Situ Treatment and Management Strategies for 1,4-Dioxane-Contaminated Groundwater

Posted: September 7, 2017

The technical approach for the project focused on the following tasks: (1) conduct a "big data" study to identify the typical scale and conditions within 1,4-dioxane and CVOC sites; (2) assess metal catalysis as a novel treatment approach; (3) evaluate chemical oxidation, catalysis, and biodegradation processes to understand the potential advantages of combined treatments on dioxane degradation kinetics; and (4) investigate the potential contribution of matrix diffusion processes on fate and transport via comprehensive modeling of typical dioxane release scenarios and a field investigation of the relationship between dioxane concentrations and site hydrostratigraphy at two contaminated groundwater sites. The goal is to use the findings to develop a more informed basis for managing 1,4-dioxane sites.

Risk Evaluations for Existing Chemicals Under TSCA

Posted: September 7, 2017

Each of the following scope documents (5 of the 10 documents posted) covers the hazards, exposures, conditions of use, and the potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations EPA expects to consider in the risk evaluation. The documents describe the occupational scenarios in which workers and occupational non-users might be exposed to specific chemicals of concern during conditions of use, such as manufacturing, processing, repackaging, and recycling. Each document is accompanied online by a separate extensive bibliography of literature concerning the chemical's fate, exposure, and environmental and human health hazards.
  • Scope of the Risk Evaluation for 1,4-Dioxane, EPA 740-R-17-003, 58 pp, 2017

Remediation and Recovery: International In-Situ Thermal Treatment (I2t2) Symposium, May 30-31, 2017, Banff, Alberta, Canada

Posted: September 19, 2017

The goal of the 2-day I2T2 symposium was to share knowledge and experience on in situ thermal remediation and recovery technologies to provide the attendees with an informed and unbiased understanding of how these processes might be useful tools. Fifteen presentations from the meeting have been compiled in a PDF file and made available through a link at

Challenges of Soil Mixing Using Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide With Rotating Dual Axis Blending Technology

Posted: August 22, 2017

At the Kearsarge Metallurgical Superfund Site in New Hampshire, an enhanced catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (CHP) modified Fenton's reagent (MFR) was applied using an innovative rotating dual-axis blender to mix the MFR into low-plasticity silt and clay soils to remediate residual 1,1,1-TCA, 1,1-DCE, and 1,4-dioxane. The remediation program was designed to treat ~3,000 yd3 of residual source area soil in situ by aggressively mixing in MFR from 7 to 15 ft bgs. The use of stabilizing agents along with careful calculation of the peroxide dose helped to ensure vapor-free conditions in the vicinity of the soil mixing operation. Post-treatment test results showed 1,1,1-TCA and 1,1-DCE concentrations at nondetect or below their cleanup goals of 150 µg/kg 1,1,1-TCA and 60 µg/kg 1,1-DCE, with these results verified at 6 and 12 months post-treatment. See details in the Remedial Action Completion Report at

Demonstration and Commercialization of the Sediment Ecosystem Assessment Protocol (Seap): ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

Posted: November 7, 2017

This project was designed to demonstrate, commercialize, and promote regulatory awareness and acceptance of the Sediment Ecosystem Assessment Protocol (SEAP), an integrated assessment ecological risk assessment approach developed under SERDP Project ER-1550, which was focused largely on the performance of a field-deployed device referred to as the Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring (SEA Ring). The now commercially available SEA Ring, developed and refined under this project, consists of a circular carousel capable of housing an array of in situ bioassay chambers and passive sampling devices. Results from a total of eight SEA Ring deployments at three demonstration sites, in addition to third-party technology verification under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification program, were used to assess performance.

Evaluating Long-Term Impacts of Soil-Mixing Source-Zone Treatment Using Cryogenic Core Collection

Posted: November 7, 2017

This project focused on DNAPL source zone remediation using soil mixing with zero-valent iron and bentonite, a technology referred to as ZVI-clay soil mixing. In November 2012, the soil mixing technology was implemented in a TCE DNAPL source zone at Site 17, Naval Support Facility Indian Head, Maryland. Four years of remediation performance data indicate that TCE concentrations in soil and groundwater within the treated-soil zone had been reduced by up to four and five orders of magnitude, respectively. Groundwater concentrations in portions of the former-DNAPL source-zone approached MCLs within four years of soil-mixing completion. To assess post-remediation potential for TCE concentrations to rebound, as well as effects of remediation on natural fate and transport processes, high-resolution data representing both high-permeability and low-permeability soil strata were collected using cryogenic core collection.

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In Situ Chemical Oxidation Involving Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds: Design and Deployment Guidelines, Parris Island, Sc, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Site 45 Pilot Study

Posted: November 17, 2017

A pilot-scale demonstration of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using sodium permanganate was performed at Site 45 to address groundwater originally contaminated with PCE. High-resolution site characterization involved multiple iterations of soil core sampling and analysis in addition to the use of nested micro-wells and conventional wells to sample groundwater for analysis of PCE and daughter products. Site impediments to ISCO activities in the source area involved subsurface utilities, including a high-pressure water main, a high-voltage power line, a communication line, and sanitary and stormwater sewer lines. A portable, low-cost, direct-push injection system was designed, constructed, and deployed at the site. Oxidant delivery deployment and design included numerous injection locations, a narrow radius of influence of the injected oxidant, short vertical-screen injection intervals, low injection pressure, outside-in oxidant injection, and a total porosity oxidant volume design. Following three oxidant injection events, significant reductions were observed in post-oxidation CVOC concentrations in groundwater and soil, and a 92% and 76% reduction in total CVOC mass flux in shallow and deep micro-wells, respectively. CVOC rebound was determined in 3 of the 38 wells, and post-oxidation PCE concentrations in one well indicated the presence of DNAPL, which suggests that rebound will continue and that additional ISCO activities are needed in the source area. Results of this study are intended to provide details and guidelines that can be used by EPA and DoD remedial project managers for planning ISCO remediation at other sites.

Opportunities for Groundwater Microbial Electro-Remediation

Posted: November 17, 2017

Microbial electro-remediation by means of microbial electrochemical technologies (MET) can be applied to groundwater treatment in situ or ex situ as well as to monitoring chemical state or microbiological activity. In this technological approach, electroactive bacteria are able to use a solid electrode as an electron donor alternative to organic matter/hydrogen or as an electron acceptor alternative to oxygen/nitrate. Depending on contaminant and groundwater characteristics, a MET system can be operated as a microbial fuel cell (MFC) or as a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The MFC is an autonomous device from which energy can be extracted, while the MEC is a device that accepts energy to support or enhance a bioelectrochemical process. This paper reviews the application of microbial electro-remediation to organics, chlorinated hydrocarbons, inorganics, and nutrients (e.g., nitrate) in groundwater. This paper is Open Access at

Enhanced Anaerobic Oxidative Bioremediation

Posted: November 17, 2017

The addition of Chapter 14 is the first update to the guide since the updates published in 2004. This chapter provides the basic information needed to evaluate a corrective action plan (CAP) that proposes the use of enhanced anaerobic oxidative bioremediation (EAOB) to treat petroleum hydrocarbons contamination. The evaluation process is divided into four steps accompanied by a checklist to evaluate the completeness of the EAOB CAP and focus attention on areas where additional information might be needed.

Horizontal Remediation Wells

Posted: November 17, 2017

Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) can be used to install wells at environmental cleanup sites; these are known as horizontal remediation wells (HRWs) or horizontal environmental wells. HDD uses a specialized drill rig and drill-head locating equipment to create a curved borehole along a pre-determined borepath, producing either a surface-to-surface well or a blind well. HRWs are able to access locations beneath surface obstructions and to place long well screens in contact with the contaminated area. The wells can be thousands of feet long, with hundreds of feet of well screen. The potential for HRWs to complement a site remedy is described with reference to air sparging and soil vapor extraction, hot air or steam injection, bioremediation, chemical injection, LNAPL removal, plume containment, injection of treated water, and sampling. This appendix also provides a detailed overview of equipment and procedures for drilling a horizontal remediation well.

Pfas: Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances

Posted: November 17, 2017

The ITRC has released three technical PFAS fact sheets: (1) History and Use (8 pages); (2) Regulations, Guidance, and Advisories (6 pages plus 2 Excel files); and (3) Naming Conventions and Physical and Chemical Properties (15 pages). The PFAS Technical Team has developed easily understood information about the whole spectrum of PFAS issues. The fact sheets also provide an extensive reference list if readers want additional details. The fact sheets are living documents and will be updated as more technical and regulatory information becomes available. Publication of three additional fact sheets is anticipated in December 2017. The PFAS team is also working on an in-depth guidance document to provide a greater understanding of the technical and regulatory aspects of PFAS as well as a fact sheet focused on aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF). The fact sheets are currently being translated into Spanish.

SERDP and ESTCP Workshop On Research and Demonstration Needs for Management of Afff-Impacted Sites

Posted: November 17, 2017

To provide strategic guidance for future research and demonstrations on management and remediation of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) sites, SERDP and ESTCP conducted a workshop on May 2-3, 2017, in Washington, D.C. The objectives were to (1) review the current state of the science regarding sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contamination, particularly AFFF, (2) evaluate currently available and developing technologies for characterization and remediation of AFFF sites, and (3) identify research and demonstration needs to improve remediation performance and efficiency, and ultimately reduce the cost of managing AFFF sites. Research needs identified during the workshop are described in Section 3.0, and demonstration and technology transfer needs are described in Sections 4.0 and 5.0, respectively. The broad needs categories are fate and transport properties, ecological risk characterization, treatment, and sampling and analytical procedures.

Sediment Management Methods to Reduce Dredging, Part 2: Sediment Collector Technology

Posted: October 17, 2017

This technical note presents an evaluation of sediment collector technology, a new device that may help to manage sediments and reduce traditional dredging requirements. The installation of sediment collector technology in Fountain Creek, Pueblo, Colorado, demonstrated that the technology worked with coarse sediments in a shallow unidirectional flow environment; had minimal maintenance costs over a 1-yr deployment; survived record floods with minimal damage; was capable of producing up to 100 yd3 per hour with a single 30-ft collector; and was relatively inexpensive and easy to deploy without specialized equipment. U.S. EPA funded the demonstration project.

Using Groundwater Age Distributions to Understand Changes in Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) Concentrations in Ambient Groundwater, Northeastern United States

Posted: October 17, 2017

MTBE use in the U.S. peaked in 1999 and was largely discontinued by 2007. Based on a national survey of wells selected to represent ambient conditions, temporal changes in MTBE concentrations in groundwater were evaluated in the northeastern United States, an area of the nation with widespread low-level detections of MTBE. Six well networks, each representing specific areas and well types (monitoring or supply wells), were each sampled at 10-yr intervals between 1996 and 2012. Concentrations were decreasing or unchanged in most wells as of 2012, with the exception of a small number of wells where concentrations continue to increase. Statistically significant increasing concentrations were found in one network sampled for the second time shortly after peak MTBE use, and decreasing concentrations were found in two networks sampled for the second time about 10 yr after peak MTBE use. Modeling and sample results showed that wells with young median ages and narrow age distributions responded more quickly to changes in the contaminant source than wells with older median ages and broad age distributions. Well depth and aquifer type affect these responses. Regardless of the timing of decontamination, all of these aquifers show high susceptibility for contamination by a highly soluble, persistent constituent.