U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Recent Additions

Launch Complex 39a, Swmu 008, Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

Posted: May 14, 2017

This report presents the findings, observations, and results from Year 1 operation of the air sparging groundwater interim measure (IM) for high-concentration and low-concentration plumes within the perimeter fence line at Launch Complex 39A (LC39A). The objective of the LC39A groundwater IM is to actively decrease concentrations of TCE, cDCE, and VC in groundwater within the pad perimeter fence line via to levels less than Florida Department of Environmental Protection Groundwater Cleanup Target Levels. O&M information from system startup in February 2015 through December 31, 2015, is provided, plus performance monitoring results for quarterly groundwater sampling events through January 2016. From startup through the January 2016 groundwater sampling event, the air sparging system has met the performance criteria, achieving an overall 77% mass reduction of chemicals of concern.

Orchard Supply Company Facility Groundwater Remediation, 1731 17th Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County

Posted: May 14, 2017

The in situ groundwater remediation project consisted of injecting a slurry solution of EHC into the source area shallow and deep groundwater to treat concentrations of 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and carbon tetrachloride. EHC is a mixture of controlled-release carbon, zero-valent iron, and nutrients for stimulating in situ chemical reduction of otherwise persistent chemicals in groundwater. A total volume of 24,525 gal of injection substrate containing 68,000 lb of EHC (30% EHC solids mixed with water) was injected using direct push tooling in the source area groundwater. The injections were completed between July 2015 and September 2015. No further injections are planned for the site. Additional groundwater monitoring is being conducted under a separate agreement. See more technical information in the site documents at

Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Mercury Releases: Reference Report and Guideline for Inventory Level 2. Version 1.4

Posted: May 14, 2017

Chapter 5 of the Level 2 guide provides detailed descriptions of sources of mercury releases from industrial or other human activity.

Joint Technical Document, Msw Landfill B-19, Kettleman Hills Facility, Kings County, California

Posted: May 29, 2017

This document has been prepared to describe the design and operation of a portion of the Kettleman Hills facility—the Landfill B-19 Bioreactor—and to reflect its decommissioning. The anaerobic bioreactor operated within an 18.23-acre portion of B-19 and accepted liquid waste from 2008 to 2014. Nearly 4 million gal of non-hazardous liquid waste was placed in the B-19 bioreactor with no substantial change in leachate generation. The Class II/III waste footprint comprises (1) a bioreactor unit, to which liquids and high liquid content wastes were added as a beneficial use to enhance waste decomposition, and (2) a control unit to which liquids and high liquid content wastes are not added. The Landfill B19 Bioreactor Research Demonstration and Development (RD&D) Project ended September 15, 2014. Landfill B-19 is permitted to operate as a Class II/III landfill, but select monitoring and reporting activities for the Landfill B19 Bioreactor RD&D Project will be discontinued.

Design and Performance Evaluation of a 1000-Year Evapotranspiration-Capillary Surface Barrier

Posted: May 29, 2017

Although surface barrier technology is used to isolate radioactive waste and to reduce or eliminate recharge water to the waste zone for 1000 years or longer, the extremely long design life is a tremendous design and evaluation challenge. The Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) was constructed in 1994 over an existing waste site as a demonstration. The barrier was tested to evaluate its design and performance at field scale under conditions of enhanced and natural precipitation and no vegetation. Monitoring data demonstrated that the barrier satisfied nearly all objectives over the past two decades. The PHB far exceeded the RCRA criteria, functioned in Hanford's semiarid climate, limited drainage to well below the 0.5 mm/yr performance criterion, limited runoff, and minimized erosion and bio-intrusion. The exposed subgrade receives protection against erosion, and institutional controls prevent inadvertent human activity at the barrier. Given the two-decade record of successful performance and consideration of the processes and mechanisms that could affect barrier stability and hydrology in the future, the PHB shows promise that it will be able to perform for its 1000-year design life. See the 123-page 2016 PHB performance report at

Demonstration of In Situ Treatment With Reactive Amendments for Contaminated Sediments in Active DOD Harbors

Posted: May 29, 2017

In situ remediation of PCB-contaminated surface sediment was demonstrated by placing a reactive amendment (powdered activated carbon, or PAC) at a site located at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility, Bremerton, Wash. The PAC was placed successfully on the seafloor of a half-acre target site to sorb PCBs in sediments, thereby reducing bioavailability and limiting bioaccumulation of contaminants into the tissues of benthic invertebrates. The sorbent material, AquaGate+PAC, was manufactured by coating an aggregate core with PAC held in a bentonite clay binder. The AquaGate, which is denser than water, sinks rapidly through the water column directly to the surface of the sediment. Over a short period of time (days), the PAC coating of the AquaGate releases from the aggregate, and bioturbation incorporates the PAC into the surface sediments over time. This project demonstrated the placement and quantitative integration of a suite of common and novel monitoring tools to evaluate amendment stability and performance in deep water (15 m) at an active Naval shipyard with high vessel traffic.

Phase II: Identification and Characterization of Natural Sources of Perchlorate

Posted: May 29, 2017

The project goal was to develop an improved understanding of (1) the distribution and isotopic characteristics of natural perchlorate worldwide, (2) the mechanisms of natural perchlorate production, and (3) the contributing processes resulting in the ubiquitous distribution of this anion and its stable isotope characteristics in soils, groundwater, and vegetation. Distribution of natural perchlorate in soils and groundwater in arid and semi-arid environments was observed worldwide. Natural perchlorate was also found to be the dominant source of this anion in the U.S. Great Lakes at concentrations ranging from 0.05-0.13 µg/L. UV-photolysis and ozone mediated mechanisms both may contribute to the formation of natural perchlorate and to its isotopic characteristics. Biological synthesis of perchlorate in bacteria or plants was not observed, although many plant species were seen to bioaccumulate perchlorate, particularly in leaf tissue. The isotopic signature of the plant-accumulated perchorate represented that of the dominant environmental source, potentially providing a means to identify sources in produce.

Development of a Passive Multisampling Method to Measure Dioxins/Furans and Other Contaminant Bioavailability in Aquatic Sediments

Posted: May 29, 2017

A passive sampling method utilizing polyethylene samplers was developed for in situ sampling of dioxins/furans and a wide range of other hydrophobic organic contaminants in sediment and the overlying water column. Contaminant concentrations resulting from multi-sampler deployments at several sites along the Passaic River (New Jersey) were compared with those in benthic invertebrates to demonstrate the ability to predict tissue concentrations. Good agreement was generally observed between pore water concentrations obtained in the lab and the in situ sampler for dioxins/furans and PCBs. Lipid-normalized PCDD/Fs were better estimated from pore water and river water for the majority of the congeners.

Vapor Intrusion Estimation Tool for Unsaturated-Zone Contaminant Sources: User's Guide

Posted: May 29, 2017

This document presents a tool for estimating vapor intrusion into buildings from unsaturated (vadose) zone contaminant sources. The tool builds on and is related to guidance for evaluation of soil vapor extraction performance relative to the impact of a vadose zone source on groundwater concentrations. This user guide is available with several tools for estimating vapor intrusion at the bottom of the project web page:

Remediation Journal Special Issue Targets 1,4-Dioxane

Posted: June 14, 2017

The Winter 2016 issue of Remediation Journal is dedicated to recent developments in 1,4-dioxane investigation and remediation techniques. The nine papers in this issue offer two case studies in addition to treatment overviews, innovations in characterization, and sustainability issues.

Guidance for the Assessment, Remediation and Management of MTBE

Posted: June 14, 2017

This document provides MTBE-specific information for the assessment, remediation, and management of potentially contaminated sites in Australia. Drawn from international guidance, this guide addresses an odor-based screening level in water, ecological screening levels, and contaminant-specific factors to consider in site investigations, including the development of the conceptual site model. See Report 36 at

In-Situ Thermal Remediation Construction Completion Report: Solvents Recovery Service of New England (Srsne) Site

Posted: June 24, 2017

A multi-phase cleanup is underway at the SRSNE Site, located on ~14 acres of land along the Quinnipiac River in Southington, Connecticut. In situ thermal remediation completed in 2015 removed >99% of the targeted waste oils and solvents (PCE, TCE, TCA, etc.) in soils beneath the site. See Appendix F: In-Situ Thermal Remediation Demonstration of Attainment of Interim NAPL Cleanup Levels and Recommendations for details. Following site preparation between 2010 and 2013, treatment was carried out between 2013 and 2015 via a network of 607 heating probes and 551 vapor recovery wells. The next and expected final step of the remedy construction involves consolidating remaining contaminated soils and isolating them beneath a permanent, waterproof cap. The area's rails-to-trails network will be expanded as part of the cap construction. This report, its appendices, and other technical documents are available at

Applying Bioaugmentation to Treat DNAPL Sources in Fractured Rock

Posted: June 24, 2017

This document aims to provide practical guidance and insight into the application of bioaugmentation to treat DNAPL sources in fractured rock with a focus on treatment of residual (i.e., non-mobile) DNAPL sources. Recommendations are based largely on insights attained through a field demonstration performed in fractured granite at Site 37 at Edwards Air Force Base in the vicinity of Building 8595, adjacent to the location of a reported surface release of PCE. The following sections of this document provide: 1) recommended approaches for source area identification and characterization, 2) guidance on amendment delivery and operation, 3) a recommended monitoring approach, 4) a strategy for assessing performance data (including rebound), and 5) a discussion of secondary groundwater impacts and biofouling.

Vapor Intrusion Guidance for Contaminated Sites

Posted: June 24, 2017

The Alaska DEC has finalized its 2009 draft vapor intrusion guidance for evaluating and controlling vapors migrating from the subsurface into an occupied structure. This guide presents a strategy—a series of steps—for consistently assessing the potential for risk from vapor intrusion.

Voluntary Remediation Program Progress Report #5, Rheem Manufacturing Company, Milledgeville, Georgia

Posted: July 14, 2017

A vacant building and an asphalt-paved parking lot now occupy a site used from 1978-2009 for the manufacturing of air conditioning units and furnaces. Following discovery in 1988 of a release of reclaimed TCE from a tank farm area, a groundwater recovery system, still in operation, was installed in 1989-1990. During the current reporting period, in addition to operation of pump and treat and soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems, operation of the property-line Accelerated Remediation Technology (ART) recirculation well system continued with three new wells (ART-6, ART-7, and ART-8) installed in February 2016 to extend the geographic reach of the ART system and further reduce flux of VOCs off-property. The ART technology combines in situ air stripping, air sparging, SVE, and subsurface circulation and flushing. ART-1 and ART-2 were retired. The ART wells are located within the area of highest TCE concentrations detected in groundwater at the property's western boundary. The goal of the ART system is to reduce the mass flux of TCE exiting the property, allowing natural attenuation processes along the groundwater flow path to address the lesser VOC flux condition. TCE concentrations in groundwater passing through the ART well network are being reduced significantly. As of January 2016, SVE operations had removed an estimated total of 12,506 lb VOCs. To replace pump and treat, in situ biostimulation/bioaugmentation is planned for two areas of the property using emulsified vegetable oil and bioaugmentation culture introduced via injection wells and direct-push injections.

First Pilot Test On the Integration of Gcw (Groundwater Circulation Well) With ENA (Enhanced Natural Attenuation) for Chlorinated Solvents Source Remediation

Posted: July 14, 2017

A groundwater circulation well (GCW) is designed to create in situ vertical groundwater circulation cells by drawing groundwater from an aquifer through one screened section of a multi-screened well and discharging it through another screened section. The pressure gradient between the two hydraulically separated screen sections in the well induces a circulation flow in the aquifer, forcing water through less permeable layers and moving groundwater through the treatment zone both horizontally and vertically. Researchers tested the possibility of using a GCW to enhance in situ bioremediation in an operating industrial site affected by different chlorinated solvents (concentrations up to 100 mg/L) in a complex hydrogeological saturated zone. A GCW at 30 m depth with three screen sections was designed and installed at the site for pilot testing. Groundwater pumped toward two screen sections of the GCW was reinjected into the aquifer by another screen section after passing through an external unit treatment. The external treatment unit comprised a sand filter tank and two reactors: one filled with a biodegradable polymer (polyhydroxy-butyrrate, or PHB) and the other with a mixture of zero-valent iron and PHB. Results from the first 8 months of operation demonstrated how groundwater recirculation through the PHB reactor allowed continuous delivery of electron donors that enhanced contaminant mobilization and stimulated natural attenuation processes.

Demonstration and Commercialization of the Sediment Ecosystem Assessment Protocol

Posted: July 14, 2017

The Sediment Ecosystem Assessment Protocol (SEAP), an integrated ecological risk assessment approach developed under SERDP Project ER-1550, is based on the performance of a field-deployed device referred to as the Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring (SEA Ring). SEAP technology integrates in situ biological uptake and effects measures with passive sampling devices and physicochemical tools to assess the sediment-water interface, surficial sediment, overlying water and advective exposure pathways at contaminated sediment sites. Minor modifications also allow for direct application to surface water exposure pathway assessment. The commercially available SEA Ring developed and refined under this project consists of a circular carousel capable of housing an array of in situ bioassay chambers and passive sampling devices. The SEA Ring represents an alternative to traditional lab-based approaches to toxicity and bioaccumulation testing. Field demonstrations were conducted utilizing two different commercial prototypes of the SEA Ring for in situ bioaccumulation or toxicity testing at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility; the Marine Corps Base in Quantico, VA; and Naval Base San Diego.

Passive Biobarrier for Treating Co-Mingled Perchlorate and Rdx in Groundwater at An Active Range: ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

Posted: July 14, 2017

Results of the field trial at Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (Virginia) suggest that an emulsified oil biobarrier is a viable alternative to reduce the migration of co-mingled perchlorate and explosives in groundwater at this and similar range sites. The optimal areas for application of this technology include OB/OD sites, munitions test ranges, EOD training areas, target areas, munitions disposal sites, and other regions where high concentrations of munitions constituents are likely to occur. Despite the site's heterogeneous subsurface lithology, low pH, and low hydraulic conductivity in the aquifer, emulsified oil and buffer were well distributed to form a subsurface biobarrier. RDX, HMX, and perchlorate were reduced by ≥92% in the centerline of monitoring wells extending 40 ft downgradient of the biobarrier after the second injection of emulsified oil. Accumulation of nitroso-degradation products from RDX was minimal. The biobarrier required no O&M other than injection and reinjection of oil substrate and had no effect ongoing range activities. A cost analysis for full-scale application was completed to compare this approach with several different applicable treatment technologies.

Laboratory, Field, and Analytical Procedures for Using Passive Sampling in the Evaluation of Contaminated Sediments: User's Manual

Posted: July 14, 2017

U.S. EPA and SERDP/ESTCP produced this document as a guide for using passive sampling to evaluate contaminated sediments. The guide is intended to cover lab, field, and analytical aspects of passive sampler applications. This resource is designed to aid in developing user-specific lab, field, and analytical procedures and to complement existing sediment assessment tools.