U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Recent Additions

Anaconda Smelter Superfund Site, Anaconda, MT

Posted: April 21, 2016

Contamination from nearly 100 years of copper smelter operations affected the health and quality of the environment at the Ancaconda Smelter Site. Estimates indicate that more than a billion gallons of groundwater were contaminated and thousands of acres of soil were affected by fluvially transported mine wastes and smelter emissions. The massive 300-square-mile site area and variable, rugged terrain provided major remedial design challenges. The innovative site evaluation and assessment techniques, paired with effective remedial processes such as tilling and adding soil amendments, have helped restore these vital grasslands and ranch areas. The uplands remediation and ecological revitalization efforts have served to provide key lessons and replicable assessment techniques for other sites with area-wide contamination.

The Remediated Sites and Brownfields - Success Stories in Europe

Posted: April 21, 2016

This document presents cases and successful stories of remediated sites and brownfields while facilitating the exchange of information on contaminated soils and soil remediation between the Eionet contributing countries. It is not meant to provide an exhaustive inventory of remediated sites in all countries. Thirteen countries comprising 19 European regions present a total of 29 cases which illustrate how soil and brownfields remediation along with sustainable land management have become essential for reversing the trend of soil degradation and ensuring the provision of ecosystem services by soil.

Surfactant-Oxidant Co-Application for Soil and Groundwater Remediation

Posted: April 4, 2016

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatments can leave sites with temporarily clean groundwater that is subject to contaminant rebound when sorbed and free-phase contaminants leach back into the aqueous phase. Surfactant-enhanced in situ chemical oxidation (S-ISCO®) uses a combined oxidant-surfactant solution to provide optimized contaminant delivery to the oxidants for destruction via desorption and emulsification of the contaminants by the surfactants. This paper provides an overview of S-ISCO technology, followed by a cleanup case study at a coal tar-contaminated site in Queens, New York. S-ISCO implementation over a 5-month period consisted of simultaneous injections of VeruSOL-3, sodium persulfate, and sodium hydroxide into 34 wells. Data points from the site illuminate how S-ISCO delivers desorbed contaminants without uncontrolled contaminant mobilization, as desorbed and emulsified contaminants are immediately available to the simultaneously injected oxidant for reaction. This paper is Open Access at

In Situ Solidification (Iss) of River Sediments: Pilot Demonstration and Discussion of Iss as a Remedial Alternative to Dredging and Capping

Posted: April 4, 2016

In the first successful use of ISS techniques to solidify underwater sediments containing coal-tar NAPL from a former manufactured gas plant, cementitious grout was mixed with the sediments in situ to create a monolith that immobilized the contaminants, significantly decreased the hydraulic conductivity, and vastly decreased contaminant leaching potential of the sediments. The project utilized a customized marine platform (modular floats, tug boats) and full-scale ISS equipment (auger rig, silos). Operational parameters were varied to provide a range of data for use in planning future ISS projects on the water. This paper is Open Access at

Determination of 1,4-Dioxane in the Cape Fear River Watershed by Heated Purge-And-Trap Preconcentration and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Posted: April 4, 2016

A rapid and sensitive analytical method capable of quantifying 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) over a wide concentration range in a broad spectrum of aqueous matrices was developed to support dioxane occurrence investigations, source identification, and exposure assessment. Based on heated purge-and-trap preconcentration and GC-MS with selected-ion storage, the fully automated method has a reporting limit of 0.15 µg/L and allows 1,3-dioxane to be distinguished from 1,4-dioxane. The method was applied to investigate dioxane occurrence and sources in North Carolina's Cape Fear River watershed, where concentrations ranged from <0.15 µg/L in surface water to 436 µg/L downstream of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge. Discharges from three municipal WWTPs were primarily responsible for elevated dioxane concentrations in the Cape Fear River watershed. Presentation slides:

The Biogeochemical Reductive Dehalogenation Groundwater Treatment Process: Commercialization Status at Bench, Pilot and Full Scale

Posted: April 19, 2016

A novel in situ remediation technology that combines biological and abiotic processes has been commercialized as the BiRD biogeochemical reductive dehalogenation treatment process. The technology generates amorphous and crystalline forms of iron sulfide (referred to as FexSy) in situ, which can dehalogenate compounds such as PCE, TCE, and other chlorinated aliphatics at significant rates. The FexSy reactive zone is created rapidly and can treat passing groundwater over a relatively long period of time. The process can be applied via direct injection or trenching techniques using inexpensive nontoxic reactants that are readily available in either liquid or solid form. The technology is compatible with enhanced bioremediation and zero-valent iron treatments. For additional information on this technology, see the compilation of technical information and case studies at

Ow-5/55r Area In-Situ Geochemical Stabilization Remediation Performance Evaluation, Former Koppers Wood Treating Plant, Nashua, New Hampshire

Posted: April 19, 2016

In November 2014, in situ geochemical stabilization (ISGS) reagent injections were performed in the OW-5/55R area, targeting previously identified zones of subsurface creosote NAPL. Targeted injection depths were determined by the Environmental Visualization System (EVS) model generated during characterization. The EVS model is a statistical distribution of the subsurface NAPL developed based on the logs recorded during characterization. EVS represents the best available tool for evaluation of the extent and depths of NAPL seams in the pilot-test area. Direct-push injections were performed with a Geoprobe® rig. The direct-push injection points were initially established based on a 15-ft triangular grid pattern throughout the pilot-test area. The field locations of injection points were adjusted based on rig access and the locations of large trees, keeping the injection locations as close as possible to the proposed locations. The majority of the injection intervals were performed at depths between 25-35 ft bgs. Full-scale implementation will be designed based on the procedures and approaches documented in the successful 2014 pilot test.

Pre-Final Design for Former Process Area In-Situ Geochemical Stabilization Remediation, Former Cabot Carbon/Koppers, Inc. Site, Gainesville, Florida

Posted: April 19, 2016

This report documents the successful implementation of a pilot test to remediate subsurface DNAPLs (creosote) at the former Koppers Inc. portion of the Cabot Carbon/Koppers Superfund Site in Gainesville, Florida. Included with this report is the proposed design and implementation of the full-scale in situ geochemical stabilization (ISGS) treatment of the former Process Area. The ISGS remediation technology consists of a permanganate-based reagent (RemOx® EC) that is injected into DNAPL-impacted zones. Section 2.0 of this report presents the ISGS pilot-test implementation approach and results. Section 3.0 describes the Pre-Final Design for full-scale ISGS implementation in the former Process Area.