U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Recent Additions

Superfund Remedy Report, Fifteenth Edition

Posted: September 21, 2017

The Superfund Remedy Report (SRR), Fifteenth Edition, was published by the EPA Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) in August 2017. The report focuses on Superfund remedial actions selected in fiscal years 2012, 2013 and 2014, and on remedy trends since 1982. The report includes remedies selected in 308 decision documents (Records of Decision [RODs], ROD amendments, and Explanations of Significant Differences with changes to remedy components) signed in this three-year period. The SRR compiles data on overall remedy selection and remedies for source materials (such as soil and sediments), groundwater, surface water and air related to vapor intrusion. The report also analyzes media and contaminants for sites with remedies. The appendices summarize all of the remedy components selected for sources and groundwater in each decision document signed in 2012, 2013, and 2014.

U.S. EPA 2017-2018 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I

Posted: September 21, 2017

U.S. EPA contemplates awarding about 12 firm-fixed-price contracts of $100,000 each under the SBIR Program Phase I during FY 2018. Among the six topic areas identified by the Agency, the needs for feasibility-related research or R&D efforts on per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds may be of particular interest to the cleanup community: removal of PFOA/PFOS from drinking water, removal of PFOA/PFOS from wastewater, and remediation of PFAS-contaminated soil and sediment. The anticipated release date of the solicitation is October 17, 2017, with proposals likely due December 7, 2017. Phase I awards are anticipated by June 30, 2018, each with a 6-month period of performance. An informational webinar will be held on Thursday, September 28, 2017.

FY 2018 Brownfields Assessment, Revolving Loan Fund, and Cleanup Grants

Posted: September 21, 2017

These brownfields grants may be used to address sites contaminated by petroleum and hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants (including hazardous substances co-mingled with petroleum). Assessment grants are funded over three years. Applicants may apply for up to $200,000 in hazardous substances funding or up to $200,000 in petroleum funding. Community-wide Applicants applying for both hazardous substances funding and petroleum funding may request a combined total up to $300,000. Assessment Coalition Applicants may apply for up to $600,000 in hazardous substances funding and/or petroleum funding. Revolving Loan Fund (RLF) Grants are funded over five years. Applicants, including RLF Coalitions, may apply for up to $1,000,000 in hazardous substances funding and/or petroleum funding. Cleanup Grants are funded over three years. Applicants may request funding to address either a single brownfield site, or multiple brownfield sites, within each proposal. An applicant may request up to $200,000 in each proposal and can submit up to three cleanup proposals. The proposal submission deadline is November 16, 2017.

Ecological Reuse: The Importance of Ecological Reuse

Posted: September 19, 2017

One of the EPA's main goals is to restore contaminated properties and return them to beneficial reuse. Ecological revitalization transforms contaminated sites into functioning habitats, and it can provide substantial cost savings compared to traditional remedies and create significant community benefits. This video presents examples of successful EPA ecological revitalization projects at two Superfund sites: the Palmerton Zinc Pile Site in Palmerton, Pennsylvania and the Ryeland Road Arsenic site in Berks County, Pennsylvania.

Blackwell Forest Preserve: A Reuse Success Story Video

Posted: September 19, 2017

At the DuPage County Landfill/Blackwell Forest Preserve Superfund site in DuPage County, Illinois, remedial actions have addressed site contamination, and local residents of all ages are celebrating a rich selection of year-round recreational uses. At the outset, the municipal landfill was established on 40-acres of the 1,500-acre Blackwell Forest Preserve, with the goal of creating the "hill", known as Mount Hoy, to serve as the centerpiece of the forest preserve. Current land uses at the site include 40 acres of restored habitat for ecological uses and public recreation, as well as trails, an observation area, archery range, urban stream research facility and fishing pier.

Ecosystem Services at Contaminated Site Cleanups

Posted: September 13, 2017

The U.S. EPA developed this issue paper to provide cleanup site teams with information about ecosystem services. These concepts and tools are useful in communicating the positive results of cleanup in addition to achieving the goals of cleanup. Information about ecosystem services may be considered in characterization of future land use options or design of a cleanup that is consistent with anticipated ecological reuse, depending on the regulatory authority of the cleanup program.

Superfund Remedy Report, Fifteenth Edition

Posted: September 13, 2017

The Superfund Remedy Report (SRR), Fifteenth Edition, was published by the EPA Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) in August 2017. The report focuses on Superfund remedial actions selected in fiscal years 2012, 2013 and 2014, and on remedy trends since 1982. The report includes remedies selected in 308 decision documents (Records of Decision [RODs], ROD amendments, and Explanations of Significant Differences with changes to remedy components) signed in this three-year period. The SRR compiles data on overall remedy selection and remedies for source materials (such as soil and sediments), groundwater, surface water and air related to vapor intrusion. The report also analyzes media and contaminants for sites with remedies. The appendices summarize all of the remedy components selected for sources and groundwater in each decision document signed in 2012, 2013, and 2014.

Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)

Posted: September 13, 2017

The objective of this focus area is to provide an overview of the current understanding of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), particularly perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), regarding their major historical and current uses; scientific information about their sources, chemistry and analysis, potential human exposure and associative adverse health outcomes, and environmental fate and transport; and progress in site investigation techniques and cleanup alternatives for environmental media affected by PFASs at levels of concern.

Superfund Optimization Progress Report 2011 - 2015

Posted: August 10, 2017

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is continuing to make progress on (1) implementing recommendations for individual optimization events, (2) conducting site-specific technical support, and (3) implementing the elements of the 2012 National Strategy to Expand Superfund Optimization Practices from Site Assessment to Site Completion ("the Strategy"). Status updates are provided in this report for (1) optimization recommendations for 41 new optimization events conducted during Fiscal Years (FY) 2011 through FY 2015, for (2) 20 optimization events with outstanding recommendations recorded in previous progress reports, and for (3) 25 technical support projects conducted during FY 2011 through FY 2015. Project highlights are provided for both optimization and technical support events.

In-Situ Thermal Remediation Construction Completion Report: Solvents Recovery Service of New England (SRSNE) Site

Posted: June 24, 2017

A multi-phase cleanup is underway at the SRSNE Site, located on ~14 acres of land along the Quinnipiac River in Southington, Connecticut. In situ thermal remediation completed in 2015 removed >99% of the targeted waste oils and solvents (PCE, TCE, TCA, etc.) in soils beneath the site. See Appendix F: In-Situ Thermal Remediation Demonstration of Attainment of Interim NAPL Cleanup Levels and Recommendations for details. Following site preparation between 2010 and 2013, treatment was carried out between 2013 and 2015 via a network of 607 heating probes and 551 vapor recovery wells. The next and expected final step of the remedy construction involves consolidating remaining contaminated soils and isolating them beneath a permanent, waterproof cap. The area's rails-to-trails network will be expanded as part of the cap construction. This report, its appendices, and other technical documents are available at

Applying Bioaugmentation to Treat DNAPL Sources in Fractured Rock

Posted: June 24, 2017

This document aims to provide practical guidance and insight into the application of bioaugmentation to treat DNAPL sources in fractured rock with a focus on treatment of residual (i.e., non-mobile) DNAPL sources. Recommendations are based largely on insights attained through a field demonstration performed in fractured granite at Site 37 at Edwards Air Force Base in the vicinity of Building 8595, adjacent to the location of a reported surface release of PCE. The following sections of this document provide: 1) recommended approaches for source area identification and characterization, 2) guidance on amendment delivery and operation, 3) a recommended monitoring approach, 4) a strategy for assessing performance data (including rebound), and 5) a discussion of secondary groundwater impacts and biofouling.

Vapor Intrusion Guidance for Contaminated Sites

Posted: June 24, 2017

The Alaska DEC has finalized its 2009 draft vapor intrusion guidance for evaluating and controlling vapors migrating from the subsurface into an occupied structure. This guide presents a strategy—a series of steps—for consistently assessing the potential for risk from vapor intrusion.

Voluntary Remediation Program Progress Report #5, Rheem Manufacturing Company, Milledgeville, Georgia

Posted: July 14, 2017

A vacant building and an asphalt-paved parking lot now occupy a site used from 1978-2009 for the manufacturing of air conditioning units and furnaces. Following discovery in 1988 of a release of reclaimed TCE from a tank farm area, a groundwater recovery system, still in operation, was installed in 1989-1990. During the current reporting period, in addition to operation of pump and treat and soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems, operation of the property-line Accelerated Remediation Technology (ART) recirculation well system continued with three new wells (ART-6, ART-7, and ART-8) installed in February 2016 to extend the geographic reach of the ART system and further reduce flux of VOCs off-property. The ART technology combines in situ air stripping, air sparging, SVE, and subsurface circulation and flushing. ART-1 and ART-2 were retired. The ART wells are located within the area of highest TCE concentrations detected in groundwater at the property's western boundary. The goal of the ART system is to reduce the mass flux of TCE exiting the property, allowing natural attenuation processes along the groundwater flow path to address the lesser VOC flux condition. TCE concentrations in groundwater passing through the ART well network are being reduced significantly. As of January 2016, SVE operations had removed an estimated total of 12,506 lb VOCs. To replace pump and treat, in situ biostimulation/bioaugmentation is planned for two areas of the property using emulsified vegetable oil and bioaugmentation culture introduced via injection wells and direct-push injections.

First Pilot Test On the Integration of GCW (Groundwater Circulation Well) With ENA (Enhanced Natural Attenuation) for Chlorinated Solvents Source Remediation

Posted: July 14, 2017

A groundwater circulation well (GCW) is designed to create in situ vertical groundwater circulation cells by drawing groundwater from an aquifer through one screened section of a multi-screened well and discharging it through another screened section. The pressure gradient between the two hydraulically separated screen sections in the well induces a circulation flow in the aquifer, forcing water through less permeable layers and moving groundwater through the treatment zone both horizontally and vertically. Researchers tested the possibility of using a GCW to enhance in situ bioremediation in an operating industrial site affected by different chlorinated solvents (concentrations up to 100 mg/L) in a complex hydrogeological saturated zone. A GCW at 30 m depth with three screen sections was designed and installed at the site for pilot testing. Groundwater pumped toward two screen sections of the GCW was reinjected into the aquifer by another screen section after passing through an external unit treatment. The external treatment unit comprised a sand filter tank and two reactors: one filled with a biodegradable polymer (polyhydroxy-butyrrate, or PHB) and the other with a mixture of zero-valent iron and PHB. Results from the first 8 months of operation demonstrated how groundwater recirculation through the PHB reactor allowed continuous delivery of electron donors that enhanced contaminant mobilization and stimulated natural attenuation processes.

Demonstration and Commercialization of the Sediment Ecosystem Assessment Protocol

Posted: July 14, 2017

The Sediment Ecosystem Assessment Protocol (SEAP), an integrated ecological risk assessment approach developed under SERDP Project ER-1550, is based on the performance of a field-deployed device referred to as the Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring (SEA Ring). SEAP technology integrates in situ biological uptake and effects measures with passive sampling devices and physicochemical tools to assess the sediment-water interface, surficial sediment, overlying water and advective exposure pathways at contaminated sediment sites. Minor modifications also allow for direct application to surface water exposure pathway assessment. The commercially available SEA Ring developed and refined under this project consists of a circular carousel capable of housing an array of in situ bioassay chambers and passive sampling devices. The SEA Ring represents an alternative to traditional lab-based approaches to toxicity and bioaccumulation testing. Field demonstrations were conducted utilizing two different commercial prototypes of the SEA Ring for in situ bioaccumulation or toxicity testing at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility; the Marine Corps Base in Quantico, VA; and Naval Base San Diego.

Passive Biobarrier for Treating Co-Mingled Perchlorate and RDX in Groundwater at An Active Range: ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

Posted: July 14, 2017

Results of the field trial at Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (Virginia) suggest that an emulsified oil biobarrier is a viable alternative to reduce the migration of co-mingled perchlorate and explosives in groundwater at this and similar range sites. The optimal areas for application of this technology include OB/OD sites, munitions test ranges, EOD training areas, target areas, munitions disposal sites, and other regions where high concentrations of munitions constituents are likely to occur. Despite the site's heterogeneous subsurface lithology, low pH, and low hydraulic conductivity in the aquifer, emulsified oil and buffer were well distributed to form a subsurface biobarrier. RDX, HMX, and perchlorate were reduced by ≥92% in the centerline of monitoring wells extending 40 ft downgradient of the biobarrier after the second injection of emulsified oil. Accumulation of nitroso-degradation products from RDX was minimal. The biobarrier required no O&M other than injection and reinjection of oil substrate and had no effect ongoing range activities. A cost analysis for full-scale application was completed to compare this approach with several different applicable treatment technologies.

Laboratory, Field, and Analytical Procedures for Using Passive Sampling in the Evaluation of Contaminated Sediments: User's Manual

Posted: July 14, 2017

U.S. EPA and SERDP/ESTCP produced this document as a guide for using passive sampling to evaluate contaminated sediments. The guide is intended to cover lab, field, and analytical aspects of passive sampler applications. This resource is designed to aid in developing user-specific lab, field, and analytical procedures and to complement existing sediment assessment tools.

Demonstration and Validation of a Portable Raman Sensor for In-Situ Detection and Monitoring of Perchlorate ClO4-)

Posted: August 1, 2017

A portable Raman sensor based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technology and elevated gold nano-ellipse dimer architectures was designed and developed for a perchlorate detection limit of ~100 µg/L in contaminated water. Large-scale commercial production of SERS substrate sensors via nanoimprinting was successfully demonstrated—a major step toward commercialization of the SERS sensors. Commercially produced SERS sensors were demonstrated to detect perchlorate at levels above 100 µg/L using a portable Raman analyzer. Performance of the commercial SERS sensors for perchlorate detection in the presence and absence of interferences was determined for a series of standard solutions. Sulfate exhibited the greatest interference among the anions tested. Field demonstration of the sensor with commercially produced SERS substrates was completed twice at the Indian Head Naval Surface Warfare Center and once at Redstone Arsenal. Multiple wells were sampled at both sites and results were compared with those from a standard ion chromatography approach. Results generally were comparable, but significant variations due to the presence of interference ions and co-contaminants in the groundwater in some samples were observed.

Solar-Powered Remediation and Ph Control: ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

Posted: August 1, 2017

The primary project goal was to demonstrate a solar-powered technology—Proton Reduction Technology (PRT)—to generate hydrogen in situ and reduce aquifer acidity to promote reductive dechlorination. During operation, PRT uses a low voltage potential applied across electrodes installed within an aquifer to impress a direct current in the subsurface. PRT was tested on a plume of dissolved-phase TCE and cis-DCE in a low-pH aquifer at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, New Jersey. Successful application of this technology would allow economical treatment of contaminated low-pH aquifers and remote contaminant plumes where electrical power is not readily available or where long treatment times are expected. This field demonstration used electrodes inserted into PVC wells within the contaminated low-pH aquifer. The electrodes (three cathodes and two anodes) were operated to generate H2 to support biodegradation and consume H+ to increase aquifer pH. The PRT system was operated for 507 days from startup to shutdown. The contaminated aquifer was inoculated with a bioaugmentation culture (SDC-9™) to ensure the presence of dechlorinating bacteria to support biodegradation. Solar panels and deep-cycle 12-volt batteries provided electricity to operate the system. PRT resulted in partial reductive dechlorination of CVOCs in the low-pH aquifer, but TCE dechlorination was incomplete under the demonstration conditions, likely due to borderline pH and reducing conditions in the aquifer.

Methods and Metrics for Evaluating Environmental Dredging at the Ashtabula River Area of Concern (AOC)

Posted: August 1, 2017

Environmental dredging relies on rapid mechanical removal of the contaminated sediment layer and subsequent off-site confined disposal. Environmental dredging was selected as the remedy of choice for remediation and cleanup of the Ashtabula River area of concern (AOC), a highly contaminated sediment site in northeastern Ohio. PCBs constituted the primary COC for this site, with PAHs and inorganic chemicals comprising secondary COCs. Dredging on this AOC was carried out from fall 2006 through fall 2007. The site was extensively characterized in the spring and summer of 2006 prior to dredging. A comprehensive evaluation and monitoring program was conducted by EPA during the dredging period, immediately following dredging in early 2008, and then through 2011 to assess long-term recovery. This report summarizes and interprets the results of the 6-year study to monitor pollutant fate and transport and ecosystem recovery through the use of bathymetry; sampling and chemical analysis of sediment, water, and indigenous fish; and deployment and follow-up retrieval and analysis of macrobenthos and passive samplers.

Estimating Inorganic Arsenic Exposure From U.S. Rice and Total Water Intakes

Posted: August 1, 2017

Researchers estimated Americans' inorganic arsenic exposures from drinking water and rice—a food that may contain arsenic—and concluded that rice consumption may account for as much inorganic arsenic exposure as drinking water in some U.S. populations.

PCB Facility Approval Streamlining Toolbox (FAST): a Framework for Streamlining PCB Site Cleanup Approvals

Posted: August 1, 2017

In October 2014, EPA Region 9 conducted the "Lean Six Sigma" event to identify potential process improvements for its PCB cleanup program. The event team developed a list of potential actions to reduce the time and effort required to approve and facilitate their PCB cleanups. Before the event, it took Region 9 an average of 80 days to review and approve an initial PCB cleanup plan. Amendments to the cleanup plan generally took another 56 days to approve. During the event, participants developed over 25 separate recommendations for internal EPA process improvements and external tools to improve the quality of cleanup applications and notifications. The process improvements, measures, and tools in this document are available to be used to accelerate the pace of PCB cleanups in all 10 EPA regions.

Manual to Identify Sources of Fluvial Sediment

Posted: August 1, 2017

Sediment can degrade and alter aquatic habitat. A sediment budget is an accounting of the sources, storage, and export of sediment over a defined spatial and temporal scale. This manual focuses on field approaches to estimate a sediment budget. The objective of this study was to develop a guidance document for sediment source analysis. The guidance document developed synthesized studies that incorporate sediment fingerprinting and sediment budget approaches in agricultural and urban watersheds.

In Situ Treatment and Management Strategies for 1,4-Dioxane-Contaminated Groundwater

Posted: September 7, 2017

The technical approach for the project focused on the following tasks: (1) conduct a "big data" study to identify the typical scale and conditions within 1,4-dioxane and CVOC sites; (2) assess metal catalysis as a novel treatment approach; (3) evaluate chemical oxidation, catalysis, and biodegradation processes to understand the potential advantages of combined treatments on dioxane degradation kinetics; and (4) investigate the potential contribution of matrix diffusion processes on fate and transport via comprehensive modeling of typical dioxane release scenarios and a field investigation of the relationship between dioxane concentrations and site hydrostratigraphy at two contaminated groundwater sites. The goal is to use the findings to develop a more informed basis for managing 1,4-dioxane sites.

Risk Evaluations for Existing Chemicals Under TSCA

Posted: September 7, 2017

Each of the following scope documents (5 of the 10 documents posted) covers the hazards, exposures, conditions of use, and the potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations EPA expects to consider in the risk evaluation. The documents describe the occupational scenarios in which workers and occupational non-users might be exposed to specific chemicals of concern during conditions of use, such as manufacturing, processing, repackaging, and recycling. Each document is accompanied online by a separate extensive bibliography of literature concerning the chemical's fate, exposure, and environmental and human health hazards.
  • Scope of the Risk Evaluation for 1,4-Dioxane, EPA 740-R-17-003, 58 pp, 2017

Remediation and Recovery: International In-Situ Thermal Treatment (I2t2) Symposium, May 30-31, 2017, Banff, Alberta, Canada

Posted: September 19, 2017

The goal of the 2-day I2T2 symposium was to share knowledge and experience on in situ thermal remediation and recovery technologies to provide the attendees with an informed and unbiased understanding of how these processes might be useful tools. Fifteen presentations from the meeting have been compiled in a PDF file and made available through a link at

Challenges of Soil Mixing Using Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide With Rotating Dual Axis Blending Technology

Posted: August 22, 2017

At the Kearsarge Metallurgical Superfund Site in New Hampshire, an enhanced catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (CHP) modified Fenton's reagent (MFR) was applied using an innovative rotating dual-axis blender to mix the MFR into low-plasticity silt and clay soils to remediate residual 1,1,1-TCA, 1,1-DCE, and 1,4-dioxane. The remediation program was designed to treat ~3,000 yd3 of residual source area soil in situ by aggressively mixing in MFR from 7 to 15 ft bgs. The use of stabilizing agents along with careful calculation of the peroxide dose helped to ensure vapor-free conditions in the vicinity of the soil mixing operation. Post-treatment test results showed 1,1,1-TCA and 1,1-DCE concentrations at nondetect or below their cleanup goals of 150 µg/kg 1,1,1-TCA and 60 µg/kg 1,1-DCE, with these results verified at 6 and 12 months post-treatment. See details in the Remedial Action Completion Report at