U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Recent Additions

FY 2019 Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP)

Posted: January 10, 2018

The Department of Defense's (DoD) Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) released a solicitation on January 9, 2018, requesting proposals for demonstrations of environmental and installation energy technologies. Researchers from Federal organizations, universities, and private industry can apply for ESTCP funding. All proposals must respond to a Topic Area associated with the solicitation. ESTCP projects are formal demonstrations in which innovative technologies are rigorously evaluated. ESTCP demonstrations are conducted at DoD facilities and sites to document improved efficiency, reduced liability, improved environmental outcomes, and cost savings. The due date for all pre-proposals is March 8, 2018 by 2:00 p.m. ET.

EPA's 15th Annual People, Prosperity and the Planet (P3) Student Design Competition

Posted: January 4, 2018

This collegiate design competition promotes the use of scientific and engineering principles in creating innovative projects to address challenges and develop real world solutions. This Phase I Request for Applications (RFA) is seeking applications in the research areas of air quality, clean and safe water, land revitalization, and safer chemicals in the marketplace. P3 was developed to foster progress by achieving the mutual goals of improved quality of life, economic prosperity, and protection of the planet - people, prosperity and the planet. EPA's P3 Program offers technical solutions to implement while supporting education in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). The P3 program is a two-phase team competition. For the first phase, interdisciplinary student teams submit proposals to compete for $15,000 grants for project ideas addressing environmental solutions. Recipients use the funding to research and develop their design projects during the academic year. In the spring, teams compete for P3 Phase II grant funding of up to $75,000 to implement their projects in a real world setting. The application deadline is February 7, 2018.

Public Comment Period for SW-846 Update VI, Phase III: New Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) Methods and Technical Implementation Guide

Posted: December 21, 2017

This update contains four tests (EPA Methods 1313, 1314, 1315 and 1316), known as the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) tests, and technical implementation guidance (The LEAF How-To Guide) that evaluate how waste constituent leaching changes with different environmental conditions. The LEAF tests are intended to be more accurate than other leaching tests by assessing constituent leaching potential under actual or plausible disposal conditions. Because the LEAF test methods represent a new approach to evaluating leaching potential, the Agency is developing technical implementation guidance (The LEAF How-To Guide) to help potential users understand the LEAF tests and how to use them. The guidance will also help users interpret the data generated by these tests and provide examples of how the test data can be used for assessing possible constituent release and provide a source term for groundwater fate and transport models used in risk assessment. The LEAF test methods and technical implementation guidance are available for public comment through January 31, 2018.

FY 2019 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP)

Posted: November 13, 2017

The Department of Defense's SERDP is seeking environmental research and development proposals for funding beginning in FY 2019. Projects will be selected through a competitive process. The Core Solicitation provides funding opportunities for basic and applied research and advanced technology development. Core projects vary in cost and duration consistent with the scope of the work proposed. The Statements of Need (SON) referenced by this solicitation request proposals related to the SERDP program areas of Environmental Restoration (ER), Munitions Response (MR), Resource Conservation and Resiliency (RC), and Weapons Systems and Platforms (WP). The SERDP Exploratory Development (SEED) Solicitation provides funding opportunities for work that will investigate innovative environmental approaches that entail high technical risk or require supporting data to provide proof of concept. Funding is limited to not more than $200,000 and projects are approximately one year in duration. This year, SERDP is requesting SEED proposals for the Munitions Response program area. All Core pre-proposals are due January 4, 2018. SEED proposals are due March 6, 2018.

Demonstration and Commercialization of the Sediment Ecosystem Assessment Protocol (Seap): ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

Posted: November 7, 2017

This project was designed to demonstrate, commercialize, and promote regulatory awareness and acceptance of the Sediment Ecosystem Assessment Protocol (SEAP), an integrated assessment ecological risk assessment approach developed under SERDP Project ER-1550, which was focused largely on the performance of a field-deployed device referred to as the Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring (SEA Ring). The now commercially available SEA Ring, developed and refined under this project, consists of a circular carousel capable of housing an array of in situ bioassay chambers and passive sampling devices. Results from a total of eight SEA Ring deployments at three demonstration sites, in addition to third-party technology verification under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification program, were used to assess performance.

Evaluating Long-Term Impacts of Soil-Mixing Source-Zone Treatment Using Cryogenic Core Collection

Posted: November 7, 2017

This project focused on DNAPL source zone remediation using soil mixing with zero-valent iron and bentonite, a technology referred to as ZVI-clay soil mixing. In November 2012, the soil mixing technology was implemented in a TCE DNAPL source zone at Site 17, Naval Support Facility Indian Head, Maryland. Four years of remediation performance data indicate that TCE concentrations in soil and groundwater within the treated-soil zone had been reduced by up to four and five orders of magnitude, respectively. Groundwater concentrations in portions of the former-DNAPL source-zone approached MCLs within four years of soil-mixing completion. To assess post-remediation potential for TCE concentrations to rebound, as well as effects of remediation on natural fate and transport processes, high-resolution data representing both high-permeability and low-permeability soil strata were collected using cryogenic core collection.

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In Situ Chemical Oxidation Involving Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds: Design and Deployment Guidelines, Parris Island, Sc, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Site 45 Pilot Study

Posted: November 17, 2017

A pilot-scale demonstration of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using sodium permanganate was performed at Site 45 to address groundwater originally contaminated with PCE. High-resolution site characterization involved multiple iterations of soil core sampling and analysis in addition to the use of nested micro-wells and conventional wells to sample groundwater for analysis of PCE and daughter products. Site impediments to ISCO activities in the source area involved subsurface utilities, including a high-pressure water main, a high-voltage power line, a communication line, and sanitary and stormwater sewer lines. A portable, low-cost, direct-push injection system was designed, constructed, and deployed at the site. Oxidant delivery deployment and design included numerous injection locations, a narrow radius of influence of the injected oxidant, short vertical-screen injection intervals, low injection pressure, outside-in oxidant injection, and a total porosity oxidant volume design. Following three oxidant injection events, significant reductions were observed in post-oxidation CVOC concentrations in groundwater and soil, and a 92% and 76% reduction in total CVOC mass flux in shallow and deep micro-wells, respectively. CVOC rebound was determined in 3 of the 38 wells, and post-oxidation PCE concentrations in one well indicated the presence of DNAPL, which suggests that rebound will continue and that additional ISCO activities are needed in the source area. Results of this study are intended to provide details and guidelines that can be used by EPA and DoD remedial project managers for planning ISCO remediation at other sites.

Opportunities for Groundwater Microbial Electro-Remediation

Posted: November 17, 2017

Microbial electro-remediation by means of microbial electrochemical technologies (MET) can be applied to groundwater treatment in situ or ex situ as well as to monitoring chemical state or microbiological activity. In this technological approach, electroactive bacteria are able to use a solid electrode as an electron donor alternative to organic matter/hydrogen or as an electron acceptor alternative to oxygen/nitrate. Depending on contaminant and groundwater characteristics, a MET system can be operated as a microbial fuel cell (MFC) or as a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The MFC is an autonomous device from which energy can be extracted, while the MEC is a device that accepts energy to support or enhance a bioelectrochemical process. This paper reviews the application of microbial electro-remediation to organics, chlorinated hydrocarbons, inorganics, and nutrients (e.g., nitrate) in groundwater. This paper is Open Access at

Enhanced Anaerobic Oxidative Bioremediation

Posted: November 17, 2017

The addition of Chapter 14 is the first update to the guide since the updates published in 2004. This chapter provides the basic information needed to evaluate a corrective action plan (CAP) that proposes the use of enhanced anaerobic oxidative bioremediation (EAOB) to treat petroleum hydrocarbons contamination. The evaluation process is divided into four steps accompanied by a checklist to evaluate the completeness of the EAOB CAP and focus attention on areas where additional information might be needed.

Horizontal Remediation Wells

Posted: November 17, 2017

Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) can be used to install wells at environmental cleanup sites; these are known as horizontal remediation wells (HRWs) or horizontal environmental wells. HDD uses a specialized drill rig and drill-head locating equipment to create a curved borehole along a pre-determined borepath, producing either a surface-to-surface well or a blind well. HRWs are able to access locations beneath surface obstructions and to place long well screens in contact with the contaminated area. The wells can be thousands of feet long, with hundreds of feet of well screen. The potential for HRWs to complement a site remedy is described with reference to air sparging and soil vapor extraction, hot air or steam injection, bioremediation, chemical injection, LNAPL removal, plume containment, injection of treated water, and sampling. This appendix also provides a detailed overview of equipment and procedures for drilling a horizontal remediation well.

Pfas: Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances

Posted: November 17, 2017

The ITRC has released three technical PFAS fact sheets: (1) History and Use (8 pages); (2) Regulations, Guidance, and Advisories (6 pages plus 2 Excel files); and (3) Naming Conventions and Physical and Chemical Properties (15 pages). The PFAS Technical Team has developed easily understood information about the whole spectrum of PFAS issues. The fact sheets also provide an extensive reference list if readers want additional details. The fact sheets are living documents and will be updated as more technical and regulatory information becomes available. Publication of three additional fact sheets is anticipated in December 2017. The PFAS team is also working on an in-depth guidance document to provide a greater understanding of the technical and regulatory aspects of PFAS as well as a fact sheet focused on aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF). The fact sheets are currently being translated into Spanish.

SERDP and ESTCP Workshop On Research and Demonstration Needs for Management of Afff-Impacted Sites

Posted: November 17, 2017

To provide strategic guidance for future research and demonstrations on management and remediation of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) sites, SERDP and ESTCP conducted a workshop on May 2-3, 2017, in Washington, D.C. The objectives were to (1) review the current state of the science regarding sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contamination, particularly AFFF, (2) evaluate currently available and developing technologies for characterization and remediation of AFFF sites, and (3) identify research and demonstration needs to improve remediation performance and efficiency, and ultimately reduce the cost of managing AFFF sites. Research needs identified during the workshop are described in Section 3.0, and demonstration and technology transfer needs are described in Sections 4.0 and 5.0, respectively. The broad needs categories are fate and transport properties, ecological risk characterization, treatment, and sampling and analytical procedures.

Faqs Regarding Pfass Associated With Afff Use at U.S. Military Sites

Posted: January 17, 2018

This brief report summarizes the state of knowledge regarding per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) as related to the use and release of aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) at U.S. military sites. The document addresses eight frequently asked questions about PFASs and provides citations from the literature that offer more detailed information. In addition to describing the unique structural attributes and uses of PFASs in AFFFs, the report identifies other sources of human and environmental exposure, the environmental media in which PFASs are found, and the factors that control PFASs fate and transport. An overview of currently available characterization and remedial tools is provided in addition to information on the pathways of human and ecological health effects.

Bottle Selection and Other Sampling Considerations When Sampling for Per- and Poly-Fluoroalkyl Substances (Pfas) - Revision 1.2

Posted: January 17, 2018

During sample collection, the use of products that contain PFASs could contaminate the samples. While written for a DoD practitioner audience, the information is useful for a broader audience, but is not an EPA guidance document. To prevent accidental contamination of samples, this fact sheet identifies materials to use and materials to avoid.

Characterization and Remediation of Fractured Rock

Posted: January 17, 2018

Contaminated fractured rock sites have often been considered too complex to be remediated, so site managers default to simply containing the contamination. This web-based document provides an introduction to the unique puzzle faced when investigating and remediating fractured rock sites. The guide explains the processes controlling contaminant fate and transport in fractured rock; addresses significant advances in skills, tools, and lessons learned in understanding contaminant flow and transport in fractured rock environments; describes how to develop a useful conceptual site model; and discusses how to identify strategies to remediate contamination in fractured rock.

Co2 Sparging: Phase 3 Full-Scale Implementation and Monitoring Report, Lcp Chemicals Site, Brunswick, Ga

Posted: December 5, 2017

In situ carbon dioxide (CO2) sparging was designed and implemented to address a subsurface caustic brine pool (CBP) formed as a result of releases from historical chlor-alkali manufacturing operations at the LCP Chemicals Site. The remedial action objectives included reducing the pH of the CBP to between 10 and 10.5. Prior to the start of CO2 sparging, the total mercury concentration in the CBP ranged from 35.7 to 2,530 µg/L (mean: 270 µg/L; median: 128 µg/L). By the end of Phase 3, almost every monitoring point (28 out of 30) in the deep Satilla aquifer had lower total Hg compared to pre-sparge levels. Most of the monitoring points (23 out of 30) had total Hg concentrations <20 µg/L. About one-third of all monitoring points had Hg concentrations <2 µg/L. At the end of Phase 3, the average total Hg concentration fell from 270 to 36 µg/L, and the median concentration fell from 128 to 4 µg/L. CO2 sparging was extremely effective in lowering the mean pH in the deep Satilla aquifer from 11.32 (2011-2012) to 7.11. The median pH decreased from 11.44 to 6.57.

Thermal Treatment of Hydrocarbon-Impacted Soils: a Review of Technology Innovation for Sustainable Remediation

Posted: December 5, 2017

The authors review several common thermal treatment technologies for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, assess their potential environmental impacts, and propose frameworks for sustainable and low-impact deployment based on a holistic consideration of energy and water requirements, ecosystem ecology, and soil science. The review covers thermal desorption in situ and ex situ, smoldering, incineration, pyrolysis, vitrification, radio-frequency heating/microwave heating, hot air injection, and steam injection. Selecting an appropriate thermal treatment depends on the contamination scenario (including the type of hydrocarbons present) and on site-specific considerations such as soil properties, water availability, and the heat sensitivity of contaminated soils. This paper is Open Access at

Environmental Electrokinetics for a Sustainable Subsurface

Posted: December 5, 2017

Many remediation technologies achieve only limited success at sites challenged by low permeability soils, such as silts and clays. Electrokinetics (EK), a soil remediation technique recognized mainly for in situ treatment of low-permeability soils, has been combined with more conventional techniques and can significantly enhance the performance of several remediation technologies, including in situ chemical oxidation, in situ chemical reduction, enhanced in situ bioremediation, and phytoremediation. EK techniques can be used in tandem with conventional remediation techniques to achieve improved remediation performance, and this paper highlights new EK applications that might play a role in sustainable treatment of contaminated sites.

Technical Fact Sheets

Posted: December 5, 2017

In September 2017, EPA released updated technical fact sheets to provide brief summaries of contaminants of concern that present unique issues and challenges at contaminated federal facility sites. Ranging from 6 to 9 pages in length, each fact sheet provides a brief summary of the contaminant's physical and chemical properties, environmental and health impacts, existing federal and state guidelines, and detection and treatment methods. These fact sheets are intended for project managers and field personnel to use when addressing specific contaminants at cleanup sites.
  • Perchlorate — EPA 505-F-17-003
  • Tungsten — EPA 505-F-17-004
  • N-Nitroso-dimethylamine (NDMA) — EPA 505-F-17-005
  • 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) — EPA 505-F-17-007
  • Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) — EPA 505-F-17-008
  • 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) — EPA 505-F-17-009
  • Dinitrotoluene (DNT) — EPA 505-F-17-010

Providing Additional Support for MNA by, Including Quantitative Lines of Evidence for Abiotic Degradation and Co-Metabolic Oxidation of Chlorinated Ethylenes

Posted: December 19, 2017

The five sites selected for the ER-201584 demonstration project were Hill AFB OU-10, Hopewell Precision Site, Tooele Army Depot, the former Twin Cites Army Ammunition Plant, and the former Plattsburgh AFB. The objectives were to (1) provide a method to readily and inexpensively acquire the magnetic susceptibility data required to evaluate the abiotic degradation of TCE by magnetite in aquifer materials using existing non-metallic groundwater monitoring wells, and (2) provide a method to readily and inexpensively acquire the data required to evaluate and quantify the rate constant for aerobic biological co-oxidation of TCE. This report shows that an inexpensive downhole sonde (probe) can be used in existing 2- and 4-inch PVC groundwater monitoring wells to quantify magnetic susceptibility of aquifer material. The cost to determine volume magnetic susceptibility in one well using a down-hole sonde was ~$2,000. Additional per-well costs were ~$476 for C-14 assay of the rate constant of TCE cooxidation; ~$1,900 for EAP assay; and ~$835 for qPCR analyses.

Evidence of a Sewer Vapor Transport Pathway at the USEPA Vapor Intrusion Research Duplex

Posted: December 19, 2017

Although previous site remediation efforts have highlighted the importance of sewer lines in transporting VOCs, sewer lines are not routinely sampled during most vapor intrusion investigations, and their role as pathways for vapor intrusion is poorly understood. Results from the tracer study at the USEPA vapor intrusion research duplex (Indianapolis, Ind.) demonstrated the migration of gas from the sewer main line into the duplex. The migration pathway appears to be complex and may include leakage from the sewer lateral at a location below the building foundation. These results combined with results from the prior multi-year study suggest sewer lines should be routinely evaluated as part of vapor intrusion investigations.

Groundwater and Pfas: State of Knowledge and Practice

Posted: December 19, 2017

Beginning in October 2016, 37 scientists and engineers voluntarily collaborated through the National Ground Water Association to develop information on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) for the broader groundwater community. Using a consensus-driven process that included a public comment period, their efforts were completed toward the end of 2017. NGWA published this PFAS document to assist members and other groundwater professionals who may be tasked with investigating the transport pathways and extent of PFASs in groundwater and surface water, assessing potential risks to receptors, or designing and constructing engineering controls to manage subsurface PFAS contamination. The main purpose of this document is to summarize the current state of knowledge and practice regarding PFAS fate, transport, remediation, and treatment, recognizing that knowledge in this field continues to advance. This document also summarizes current technologies, methods, and field procedures being used to characterize sites and test remediation and treatment technologies. Temporarily available at

Contaminant Flux Reduction Barriers for Managing Difficult-To-Treat Source Zones in Unconsolidated Media: Technical Guidance Manual

Posted: December 19, 2017

The overall objective of this project was to evaluate if inexpensive flow reduction agents delivered via permeation grouting technology could help manage difficult-to-treat chlorinated solvent source zones. The approach aims to provide two benefits for improving groundwater quality at chlorinated VOC sites by (1) physically reducing the mass flux of contaminants leaving the source zone by using permeation grouting, thereby reducing risk and making the downgradient plume more amenable to management by natural attenuation processes; and (2) increasing the natural depletion rate within the source by diverting competing electron acceptors around it to create an enhanced reductive dechlorination zone. This report describes the results of a small-scale demonstration that achieved an average 64% reduction in flow through three small barriers, which was lower than the 90% reduction in flow objective, likely owing to the low permeability of the silty sands in the test area. Applications of one acre in area or more can be significantly less costly than conventional in situ remediation technologies ($996K/acre and $21/yd3 for a 1-acre site). Based on lessons learned during the small-scale demonstration, the process is moderately complex to implement in the field but with no major problems.