U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division
Characterization, Cleanup, and Revitalization of Mining Sites

This website provides site managers, regulatory agencies, consultants, and the general public with information on technologies and resources related to the assessment, characterization, cleanup, and revitalization of current and former (active, closed, and abandoned1) mining sites.


  • EPA's new Office of Mountains, Deserts and Plains will assume EPA's oversight responsibilities for hardrock mining cleanup sites west of the Mississippi River, serve as a central contact for other federal agencies, states, and tribes with responsibility for or impacted by these sites, and develop innovative technologies and adaptive management approaches to address legacy pollution. The office also will support efforts of conservation organizations to voluntarily undertake projects to improve conditions at abandoned mines. Watch the press conference.
  • The selected remedy in the Record of Decision for OU1 of the Ballard Mine Superfund site includes a combination of engineered source controls, permeable reactive barriers, sediment control best management practices, and engineered wetland treatment cells.
  • Check out slides and audio for the latest CLU-IN webinar in the Mining Sites series, Revegetation of Mine Wastes in Arid Environments: Linking Above- and Below-Ground Performance (Archived August 12, 2020).
  • The Technology Information News Survey (TINS), published bimonthly by EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI), focused its May 16-31, 2020 issue on the topic of mining site cleanups. The news survey contains market/commercialization information; reports on demonstrations, feasibility studies and research; and other news relevant to the hazardous waste community.
  • The Cleanup Technologies section of the Mining Sites technology area is updated quarterly to include links to resources describing recent Research and Demonstrations/Feasibility Studies, as documented in EPA's TINS. As new resources are published, new links are added below each technology description.


EPA regulates three general categories of mining activities: hardrock, non-metals, and coal mining. Regulation of the mining sector involves every major EPA program. For example, EPA's EPA's Abandoned Mine Lands Program handles issues related to management of mineral processing wastes, while EPA Regional offices use statutory authority granted by the Clean Water Act to regulate coal, hardrock and non-metals mining activities through the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits program. The EPA Superfund Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Program identifies ways to protect human health and the environment using regulatory and non-regulatory approaches to addressing contamination at abandoned mine sites1. This can include Superfund remediation, voluntary cleanups, emergency responses, and cleanups leading to redevelopment and land revitalization. To coordinate the risk reduction and cleanup of abandoned mine lands, the AML Program works directly with other federal agencies, tribes, states, communities, and mine operators on research, characterization, cleanup, and redevelopment-related activities. The AML Program is coordinated through EPA's National Mining Team and the Abandoned Mine Lands Team, which together serve as a focal point for coordinating and facilitating national technical, policy and process issues with stakeholders on abandoned/inactive mine research, characterization, cleanup and redevelopment activities.

Other federal government agencies involved in the management of mining sites include the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) (Mining and Minerals Program and Abandoned Mine Lands Program), the U.S. Forest Service (Minerals & Geology Management), the National Park Service (NPS) (Energy & Minerals Management and Abandoned Mineral Lands Program), and the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) (coal mine regulation and abandoned mine land reclamation). Federal agencies also have access to the Superfund program for removal or remedial actions. The Superfund program can be used when a significant environmental or public health threat is imminent, or where a site poses an environmental threat and no potentially responsible party can be found. Because ownership of lands on which mining sites exist ranges widely, management of these sites is a complex issue. State mining agency websites may contain more in-depth information on the number of mining sites and the total area they occupy within individual states. Links to state mining programs can be found through the U.S. Department of Labor's Mine Safety and Health Administration resource area.

1 Information on the types of abandoned mining sites that exist across the United States and site ownership issues can be found through the U.S. Government's Abandoned Mine Lands Portal.

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