U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Upcoming Live Web Events

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CLU-IN's ongoing series of Internet Seminars are free, web-based slide presentations with a companion audio portion. We provide two options for accessing the audio portion of the seminar: by phone line or streaming audio simulcast. More information and registration for all Internet Seminars is available by selecting the individual seminar below. Not able to make one of our live offerings? You may also view archived seminars.

 
 
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Analytical Chemistry Data Review - Volatile Organics Data

This webinar will cover review and validation of Volatile Organics data. In this webinar, the instructor will discuss the data quality requirements of the EPA methods for waste (solid, liquid), including Methods 8260 and 8015, along with preparation methods 5030, 5031, 5032, and 5035. The data review process and documentation will be discussed using the 2014 National Functional Guidelines for Superfund Organic Methods Data Review. Participants will be asked to review a data package prior to the live webinar.

SRI Webinar Series: Potentially Responsible Party (PRP) Perspectives on Superfund Site Reuse

A potentially responsible party, or PRP, is an individual or company that is potentially responsible for contamination problems at a Superfund site. Whenever possible, EPA requires PRPs to clean up hazardous waste sites the PRP may have contaminated. Many PRPs not only perform the cleanup, but also seek ways to return the site to beneficial use for the community and maximize the extent of land use on the site. Presenters on this webinar will include representatives from several PRP groups who have taken an active role in facilitating the beneficial use of sites they manage and who have worked collaboratively with EPA over many years to ensure that both the cleanup and the reuse of the property remain protective of human health and the environment.

Progress in Research: TCE, PCBs, and Phthalates - Exposure, Mechanisms of Disease, and Clean-Up Remedies

This Superfund Research Program (SRP) Progress in Research webinar series highlights promising research from two SRP Centers. Researchers at the Northeastern University SRP Center are studying chlorinated solvents and phthalates, contaminants that could be linked to high preterm birthrates in Puerto Rico. The University of Kentucky SRP Center explores how nutrition and exercise might offer protection from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) toxicity and are developing new sustainable remediation approaches using nanotechnology.

Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (Northeastern University SRP Center, P42ES017198)

The Northeastern University Superfund Research Center "Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats," or PROTECT, brings together researchers from multiple disciplines to study the transport, exposure, health impact, and remediation of contaminants. Center researchers are particularly focused on chlorinated solvents and phthalates, which are commonly found at Superfund sites, as both suspect and model agents in the high preterm birth rates in Puerto Rico. To better understand demographic, environmental, and genetic contributors to preterm birth, they are collecting information on exposure and health outcomes in the PROTECT cohort, which includes women from three hospitals in Puerto Rico’s north coast with high rates of preterm birth and their affiliated physician’s clinics. They have developed a tool to extract contaminants from urine samples from the cohort and water samples from the field and are also developing solar-powered green remediation tools to remove TCE from groundwater. They are also investigating the transport and exposure pathways of phthalates and trichloroethylene (TCE) in karst groundwater systems.

Nutrition and Superfund Chemical Toxicity (University of Kentucky Superfund Research Program Center, P42ES007380)

Due to their relative chemical stability and ubiquity in the environment, chlorinated organic contaminants such as PCBs and TCE pose significant health risks and enduring remediation challenges. The University of Kentucky (UK) SRP Center is investigating nutrition and exercise as protective mechanisms against the toxicity of PCBs. Projects are advancing our understanding of toxicant-induced mechanisms of disease, including atherosclerosis, postnatal complications, and diabetes; and introducing sustainable approaches for PCB and TCE remediation, such as green nanomembrane remediation devices. Use of PCBs as a model contaminant will advance understanding of inflammatory diseases associated with exposure to persistent chlorinated organic pollutants. The UK SRP is working with communities and conducting research at three Kentucky Superfund sites: the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Red Penn in Louisville, and Dayhoit in Harlan, Kentucky.
Interstate Technology Regulatory Council
Seminars Sponsored by the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council


Issues and Options in Human Health Risk Assessment - A Resource When Alternatives to Default Parameters and Scenarios are Proposed

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Many state and local regulatory agencies responsible for the cleanup of chemicals released to the environment have adopted regulations, guidance and policies that define default approaches, scenarios, and parameters as a starting point for risk assessment and the development of risk-based screening values. Regulatory project managers and decision makers, however, may not have specific guidance when alternative approaches, scenarios, and parameters are proposed for site-specific risk assessments, and are faced with difficult technical issues when evaluating these site-specific risk assessments. This ITRC web-based document is a resource for project managers and decision makers to help evaluate alternatives to risk assessment default approaches, scenarios and parameters.

ITRC's Decision Making at Contaminated Sites: Issues and Options in Human Health Risk Assessment (RISK-3, 2015) guidance document is different from existing ITRC Risk Assessment guidance and other state and federal resources because it identifies commonly encountered issues and discusses options in risk assessment when applying site-specific alternatives to defaults. In addition, the document includes links to resources and tools that provide even more detailed information on the specific issues and potential options. The ITRC Risk Assessment Team believes that state regulatory agencies and other organizations can use the RISK-3 document as a resource or reference to supplement their existing guidance. Community members and other stakeholders also may find this document helpful in understanding and using risk assessment information.

After participating in this ITRC training course, the learner will be able to apply ITRC's Decision Making at Contaminated Sites: Issues and Options in Human Health Risk (RISK-3, 2015) document when developing or reviewing site-specific risk assessments by:
  • Identifying common issues encountered when alternatives to default parameters and scenarios are proposed during the planning, data evaluation, toxicity, exposure assessment, and risk characterization and providing possible options for addressing these issues
  • Recognizing the value of proper planning and the role of stakeholders in the development and review of risk assessments
  • Providing information (that includes links to additional resources and tools) to support decision making when alternatives to default approaches, scenarios and parameters are proposed
ITRC offers additional documents and training on risk management. ITRC's Use of Risk Assessment in Management of Contaminated Sites (RISK-2, 2008) and associated Internet-based training archive highlight variation of risk-based site management and describes how to improve the use of risk assessment for making better risk management decisions. ITRC's Examination of Risk-Based Screening Values and Approaches of Selected States (RISK-1, 2005) and associated Internet-based training archive focus on the process by which risk-based levels are derived in different states.

Petroleum Vapor Intrusion: Fundamentals of Screening, Investigation, and Management

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Chemical contaminants in soil and groundwater can volatilize into soil gas and migrate through unsaturated soils of the vadose zone. Vapor intrusion (VI) occurs when these vapors migrate upward into overlying buildings through cracks and gaps in the building floors, foundations, and utility conduits, and contaminate indoor air. If present at sufficiently high concentrations, these vapors may present a threat to the health and safety of building occupants. Petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) is a subset of VI and is the process by which volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) released as vapors from light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPL), petroleum-contaminated soils, or petroleum-contaminated groundwater migrate through the vadose zone and into overlying buildings. Fortunately, in the case of PHC vapors, this migration is often limited by microorganisms that are normally present in soil. The organisms consume these chemicals, reducing them to nontoxic end products through the process of biodegradation. The extent and rate to which this natural biodegradation process occurs is strongly influenced by the concentration of the vapor source, the distance the vapors must travel through soil from the source to potential receptors, and the presence of oxygen (O2) in the subsurface environment between the source and potential receptors.

The ITRC Technical and Regulatory Guidance Web-Based Document, Petroleum Vapor Intrusion: Fundamentals of Screening, Investigation, and Management (PVI-1, 2014) and this associated Internet-based training provides regulators and practitioners with consensus information based on empirical data and recent research to support PVI decision making under different regulatory frameworks. The PVI assessment strategy described in this guidance document enables confident decision making that protects human health for various types of petroleum sites and multiple PHC compounds. This guidance provides a comprehensive methodology for screening, investigating, and managing potential PVI sites and is intended to promote the efficient use of resources and increase confidence in decision making when evaluating the potential for vapor intrusion at petroleum-contaminated sites. By using the ITRC guidance document, the vapor intrusion pathway can be eliminated from further investigation at many sites where soil or groundwater is contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons or where LNAPL is present.

After attending this ITRC Internet-based training, participants should be able to:
  • Determine when and how to use the ITRC PVI document at their sites
  • Describe the important role of biodegradation impacts on the PVI pathway (in contrast to chlorinated solvent contaminated sites)
  • Value a PVI conceptual site model (CSM) and list its key components
  • Apply the ITRC PVI 8 step decision process to screen sites for the PVI pathway and determine actions to take if a site does not initially screen out, (e.g., site investigation, modeling, and vapor control and site management)
  • Access fact sheets to support community engagement activities at each step in the process
For reference during the training class, participants should have a copy of the flowcharts, Figures 1-2, 3-2, and 4-1 from the ITRC Technical and Regulatory Guidance Web-Based Document, Petroleum Vapor Intrusion: Fundamentals of Screening, Investigation, and Management (PVI-1, 2014) and are available as a 3-page PDF at http://www.cluin.org/conf/itrc/PVI/ITRC-PVI-FlowCharts.pdf

Starting in late 2015, ITRC will offer a 2-day PVI focused classroom training at locations across the US. The classroom training will provide participants the opportunity to learn more in-depth information about the PVI pathway and practice applying the ITRC PVI guidance document with a diverse group of environmental professionals. Email training@itrcweb.org if you would like us to email you when additional information is available.

Groundwater Statistics for Environmental Project Managers

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Statistical techniques may be used throughout the process of cleaning up contaminated groundwater. It is challenging for practitioners, who are not experts in statistics, to interpret, and use statistical techniques. ITRC developed the Technical and Regulatory Web-based Guidance on Groundwater Statistics and Monitoring Compliance (GSMC-1, 2013, http://www.itrcweb.org/gsmc-1/) and this associated training specifically for environmental project managers who review or use statistical calculations for reports, who make recommendations or decisions based on statistics, or who need to demonstrate compliance for groundwater projects. The training class will encourage and support project managers and others who are not statisticians to:

ITRC's Technical and Regulatory Web-based Guidance on Groundwater Statistics and Monitoring Compliance (GSMC-1, 2013) and this associated training bring clarity to the planning, implementation, and communication of groundwater statistical methods and should lead to greater confidence and transparency in the use of groundwater statistics for site management.

An Improved Understanding of LNAPL Behavior in the Subsurface - State of Science vs. State of Practice - Part 1

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) are organic liquids such as gasoline, diesel, and other petroleum hydrocarbon products that are immiscible with water and less dense than water. Understanding LNAPLs is important because they are present in the subsurface at thousands of remediation sites across the country, and are often the sole reason why a site remains "open." The spectrum of sites where LNAPL assessment and remediation efforts may take place include petroleum manufacturing and handling facilities such as refineries, bulk product terminals, gas stations, airports and military bases. LNAPLs in the subsurface can be a complex problem to address, and frequently prevent or delay regulatory closure (no further action) of remediation projects.

This training course is relevant for all levels of state and federal regulators, environmental consultants, and technically-inclined site owners and public stakeholders. The training course is divided into three parts:
  • An Improved Understanding of LNAPL Behavior in the Subsurface - State of Science vs. State of Practice
  • LNAPL Characterization and Recoverability -- Improved Analysis
  • Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals
Part 1 explains how LNAPLs behave in the subsurface and examines what controls their behavior. Part 1 also explains what LNAPL data can tell you about the LNAPL and site conditions. Relevant and practical examples are used to illustrate key concepts. A sound LNAPL understanding is necessary to effectively characterize and assess LNAPL conditions and potential risks, as well as to evaluate potential remedial technologies or alternatives. Unfortunately, many environmental professionals have a faulty understanding of LNAPL conditions based on outdated paradigms. The ITRC LNAPLs Team is providing Internet-based training to improve the general understanding of LNAPLs. Better understanding leads to better decision making. Additionally, this training provides a necessary technical foundation to foster effective use of the ITRC LNAPLs Team Technical and Regulatory Guidance document, Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals (LNAPL-2, 2009).

LNAPL Characterization and Recoverability - Improved Analysis - Part 2

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) are organic liquids such as gasoline, diesel, and other petroleum hydrocarbon products that are immiscible with water and less dense than water. Understanding LNAPLs is important because they are present in the subsurface at thousands of remediation sites across the country, and are often the sole reason why a site remains "open." The spectrum of sites where LNAPL assessment and remediation efforts may take place include petroleum manufacturing and handling facilities such as refineries, bulk product terminals, gas stations, airports and military bases. LNAPLs in the subsurface can be a complex problem to address, and frequently prevent or delay regulatory closure (no further action) of remediation projects.

This training course is relevant for all levels of state and federal regulators, environmental consultants, and technically-inclined site owners and public stakeholders. The training course is divided into three parts:
  • An Improved Understanding of LNAPL Behavior in the Subsurface - State of Science vs. State of Practice
  • LNAPL Characterization and Recoverability-- Improved Analysis
  • Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals
Part 2 addresses LNAPL characterization and site conceptual model development as well as LNAPL recovery evaluation and remedial considerations. Specifically, Part 2 discusses key LNAPL and site data, when and why those data may be important, and how to get those data. Part 2 also discusses how to evaluate LNAPL recoverability. A sound LNAPL understanding is necessary to effectively characterize and assess LNAPL conditions and potential risks, as well as to evaluate potential remedial technologies or alternatives. Unfortunately, many environmental professionals have a faulty understanding of LNAPL conditions based on outdated paradigms. The ITRC LNAPLs Team is providing Internet-based training to improve the general understanding of LNAPLs. Better understanding leads to better decision making. Additionally, this training provides a necessary technical foundation to foster effective use of the ITRC LNAPLs Team Technical and Regulatory Guidance document, Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals (LNAPL-2, 2009).

Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals - Part 3

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council Light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) are organic liquids such as gasoline, diesel, and other petroleum hydrocarbon products that are immiscible with water and less dense than water. Understanding LNAPLs is important because they are present in the subsurface at thousands of remediation sites across the country and are often the sole reason why a site remains open. The spectrum of sites where LNAPL assessment and remediation efforts may take place include petroleum manufacturing and handling facilities such as refineries, bulk product terminals, gas stations, airports and military bases. LNAPLs in the subsurface can be a complex problem to address, and frequently prevent or delay regulatory closure (no further action) of remediation projects.

Over the past few decades, LNAPL remedial technologies have evolved from conventional pumping or hydraulic recovery systems to a variety of innovative, aggressive, and experimental technologies that address the mobile and residual LNAPL fractions, as well as volatile and dissolved-phase plumes. Thus, many different LNAPL remedial technologies with differing site and LNAPL applicabilities and capabilities are available to remediate LNAPL releases. This can make selection of a remedial technology daunting and inefficient. To foster informed remedial technology selection and appropriate technology application, the LNAPLs Team developed the ITRC Technical and Regulatory Guidance document, Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals (LNAPL-2, 2009). This document addresses seventeen LNAPL remedial technologies and provides a framework to streamline remedial technology evaluation and selection.

This training course is relevant for new and veteran regulators, environmental consultants, and technically-inclined site owners and public stakeholders. The training course is divided into three parts:
  • Part 1: An Improved Understanding of LNAPL Behavior in the Subsurface - State of Science vs. State of Practice
  • Part 2: LNAPL Characterization and Recoverability - Improved Analysis
  • Part 3: Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals
Part 3 uses the LNAPL conceptual site model (LCSM) approach to identify the LNAPL concerns or risks and set proper LNAPL remedial objectives and technology-specific remediation goals and performance metrics. The training course also provides an overview of the LNAPL remedial technology selection framework. The framework uses a series of tools to screen the seventeen remedial technologies based on site and LNAPL conditions and other important factors. LNAPL Training Part 1 and LNAPL Training 2 are recommended pre-requisites for this Part 3 training course. Archives are available at http://cluin.org/live/archive.cfm?sort=title#itrc (note: courses are listed alphabetically, you will have to scroll down to find the course of interest).