U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Environmental Occurrence

Halogenated Alkanes


In the past, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (TCTFE, or Freon 113) was used as a refrigerant in commercial/industrial air conditioning and industrial process cooling; as a drycleaning solvent; to make chlorotrifluoroethylene; as a blowing agent and a polymer intermediate; in fire extinguishers; and for solvent drying and drying electronic parts and precision equipment (HSDB). The manufacture and use of the chemical in the United States has been phased out under the Montreal Protocol.

EPA's Toxics Release Inventory does not track TCTFE.

In a U.S. Geological Survey study of water quality in aquifers and drinking water wells, TCTFE was found at very low levels in 0.77 percent of the aquifer samples, 0.33 percent of domestic well samples, and 0.32 percent of public well samples (Zogorski et al. 2006). TCTFE has been found in groundwater at some Superfund sites, but generally it is commingled with other chemicals and is not the driver for risk or technology remediation choice.

Several site profiles provide examples of TCTFE contamination:


1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (76-13-1)
Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)
TOXNET, National Library of Medicine Web site.

The Quality of Our Nation's Waters: Volatile Organic Compounds in the Nation's Ground Water and Drinking-Water Supply WellsAdobe PDF Logo
Zogorski, J., J.M. Carter, T. Ivahnenko, W.W. Lapham, M.J. Moran, B.L. Rowe, P.J. Squillace, and P.L. Toccalino.
U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1292, 112 pp, 2006