U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Treatment Technologies

Thermal Processes: In Situ

Steam Injection and Extraction

Multi-Component Waste

Case Studies: Creosote

Adobe PDF LogoInnovative Technology Summary Report: Hydrous Pyrolysis Oxidation/Dynamic Underground Stripping
DOE EM-05/04, 26 pp, 2000

Describes a demonstration project at a former pole treating facility located in Visalia, CA, and presents the results of injecting steam and oxygen into a creosote-contaminated DNAPL zone.

Adobe PDF LogoIn Situ Hydrothermal Oxidative Destruction of DNAPLs in a Creosote Contaminated Site
R.N. Leif, M. Chiarappa, R.D. Aines, R.L. Newmark, K.G. Knauss, and C. Eaker.
The First International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds Monterey, CA, May 18-21, 1998

Discusses hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO), an in situ thermal remediation technology that uses hot, oxygenated groundwater to completely mineralize a wide range of organic pollutants. At a field demonstration of HPO during the summer of 1997, the groundwater was heated by steam injections and oxygen was added by co-injection of compressed air. Dissolved organic carbon levels increased in response to steam injections as a result of the enhanced dissolution and mobilization of the creosote into the heated groundwater. Elevated concentrations of partially oxidized organic compounds (i.e., phenols, benzoic acid, fluorenone, anthrone and 9,10-anthracenedione), decreased levels of dissolved oxygen, and isotopic shifts in the dissolved inorganic pool were indicators of partial to complete oxidative destruction of the creosote in the heated aquifer as a result of the HPO process.

Jennison-Wright Corporation Superfund Site
Contact (2007): Howard Caine, Remedial Project Manager, U.S. EPA,, 312-353-9685

The Jennison-Wright site in Granite City, IL, is an abandoned facility that engaged in wood treatment of railroad ties and wood blocks, using creosote, pentachlorophenol, and zinc naphthanate on the northern portion of the site. The northern portion of the site also had a railcar that contained waste and contaminated soil stockpiles, called Area H. Jennite, an asphalt sealant, was manufactured on the southern part of the site. The Jennite pit (a lagoon) was an on-site disposal pit where creosote wastes were dumped. Other areas in the southern part of the site included the 22nd Street Lagoon, the Jennite Building (which had 2 silos), a tank farm (including a buried railcar) and other operations buildings. As of early 2007, future cleanup activities include removal of the dioxin contaminated soils; removal of the Jennite Pit; Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC) injection and air sparging to treat the highly contaminated groundwater plumes; removal of the 22nd Street lagoon; completion of Area H cleanup; the process tank farm cleanup; and construction/operation of the hot water and steam flushing system to remove NAPLs from the groundwater.

Southern California Edison Co. (Visalia Poleyard)
Contact (2007): Emmanuel Mensah, State of California,, 916-255-3704

The 20-acre site was operated as a utility pole treatment yard from the 1920s until 1980, and approximately 275,000 poles were treated at the site. Wood preservatives, including 2,500,000 gallons of creosote and 900,000 gallons of pentachlorophenol, were used and stored on site during site operations. In 1977, a slurry wall was built to slow contaminant migration in the shallow aquifer. Southern California Edison, the potentially responsible party, removed all facilities and 2,300 cubic yards of contaminated soil and disposed of it off site at an approved disposal facility. The site has a subsurface barrier wall and a groundwater extraction and on-site treatment system. Starting in 1997, a pre-design pilot-scale steam injection system was installed. It injected over 100,000,000 pounds of steam, which greatly enhanced recovery of pole-treating chemicals. In addition, a full-scale steam injection system was used over a 30-month period to remove and destroy over 150,000 gallons of contamination from the site. Once the subsurface temperature dropped below 70°C, vadose zone bioventing and saturated zone biosparging operated with continued groundwater pump and treat from June 2000 until March 2004. Following the 2005 5-year review, contaminated surface soil to 10 feet below grade was removed in July 2006 and verified with confirmatory sampling to be below the prescribed cleanup standards. The final site closeout report was signed on May 19, 2009. Additional information: In Situ Destruction of Contaminants via Hydrous Pyrolysis/Oxidation: Visalia Field TestAdobe PDF Logo (1998); Innovative Technology Summary Report: Hydrous Pyrolysis Oxidation/Dynamic Underground StrippingAdobe PDF Logo (2000).