U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Treatment Technologies

In Situ Reduction

Halogenated Monoaromatics


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Chlorobenzene | 1,2-Dichlorobenzene | 1,3-Dichlorobenzene | 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

Chlorobenzene

Zero-valent iron (ZVI) might be effective in treating chlorobenzene (Gavaskar et al. 2000); however, this process will yield benzene, which ZVI does not reductively degrade.

References

Final Design Guidance for Application of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Groundwater Remediation
Gavaskar, A., N. Gupta, B. Sass, R. Janosy, and J. Hicks.
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), Arlington, VA. 247 pp, 2000

1,2-Dichlorobenzene

Zero-valent iron (ZVI) alone probably is not effective in treating 1,2-DCB; however, when combined with a catalyst (palladium), ZVI will reduce all the dichlorobenzenes to benzene and chloride (Schueth et al. 1999).

References

Zeolite Based Catalysts for the Hydrodehalogenation of Chlorinated Compounds in Groundwater
Schueth, C., S. Kummer, S. Kraft.
SAFIRA AbstractsAdobe PDF Logo of the Workshop of November 17-18, 1999 at Bitterfeld/Germany, Weiss, H., H. Rijnaarts, S. Staps, and P. Merkel (eds.), p 59-62, 1999

1,3-Dichlorobenzene

Zero valent iron (ZVI) alone probably is not effective in treating 1,3-DCB; however, when combined with a catalyst (palladium), ZVI will reduce all the dichlorobenzenes to benzene and chloride (Schueth et al. 1999).

References

Zeolite Based Catalysts for the Hydrodehalogenation of Chlorinated Compounds in Groundwater
Schueth, C., S. Kummer, S. Kraft.
SAFIRA AbstractsAdobe PDF Logo of the Workshop of November 17-18, 1999 at Bitterfeld/Germany, Weiss, H., H. Rijnaarts, S. Staps, and P. Merkel (eds.), p 59-62, 1999

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is probably not effective for 1,2,4-TCB; however, when combined with a catalyst (palladium), ZVI will reduce the compound to benzene and chloride (Zhu et al. 2006).

References

Reductive Dechlorination of 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene with Palladized Nanoscale Fe(0) Particles Supported on Chitosan and Silica
Zhu, B.W., T.-T. Lim, and J. Feng.
Chemosphere 65(7):1137-1145(2006)

Nano-scale Pd-Fe particles completely dechlorinated 1,2,4-TCB to benzene within 60 min with 1.0% Pd-Fe/chitosan and within 100 min with 1.0% Pd-Fe/silica. Reaction rates were observed to increase with increasing Pd content. The model suggests that 1,2,4-TCB transformation mainly followed the primary pathway of direct reductive dechlorination to benzene and secondary pathway of sequential hydrogenolysis to 1,2-DCB and then chlorobenzene or benzene. View abstract