U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Chemistry and Behavior

Halogenated Alkanes

Methanes

Bromoform

BromoformBromoform (CAS #75-25-2) is a colorless, heavy, nonflammable liquid with an odor and taste similar to chloroform. Bromoform belongs to a group of chemicals known as trihalomethanes.

Bromoform is slightly soluble in water with a solubility of 3,010 mg/L at 25oC. It has a log Kow value of 2.30 and a log Koc value of 2.45. The compound has a vapor pressure of 4.0 mm Hg at 25oC, which makes it a volatile liquid. Its Henry's Law constant is 5.32 e-04 atm-m3/mol at 25oC (Cohen and Mercer 1993).

Because of its slight solubility in water, bromoform in the environment could be removed from the air by dissolution into clouds or raindrops. The chemical has a minor affinity for soil particles, as indicated by its log Koc, and tends to be mobile in soil particles with low organic content. Because of its log Kow value, bromoform is expected to have low bioaccumulation potential (HSDB).

The theoretical half life of bromoform in a model river is 7.3 hours and 7.1 days in a model lake. Hydrolysis is not expected to be an important fate for this compound. Vapor-phase bromoform is expected to be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (HSDB). The compound undergoes aerobic biodegradation slowly, if at all, but degrades readily under anaerobic conditions (HSDB and ATSDR 2005).

References

Bromoform, CASRN: 75-25-2
Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)
TOXNET, National Library of Medicine Web site.

DNAPL Site EvaluationAdobe PDF Logo
Cohen, R. and J. Mercer.
EPA 600-R-93-022, 369 pp, 1993

Toxicological Profile for Bromoform and Chlorodibromomethane
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 273 pp, 2005

For Further Information

Formation of Trihalomethanes in Soil and Groundwater by the Release of Sodium Hypochlorite
Jackman, T.A. and C.L. Hughes.
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation 30(1):74-78(2010)

This paper reports the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in soil and water resulting from the reaction of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) with soil. Analysis of soil samples reacted with dilute bleach solutions found all THMs were detected in test samples after treatment. Concentrations of chloroform up to 2,450 ug/L in aqueous extracts were detected compared to 40 ug/L in bleach and 1 ug/L in blank samples. View abstract