U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Environmental Occurrence

Halogenated Alkenes


cis 1,3-dichloropropylene
trans 1,3-dichloropropylene

Sold as D-D mixture (Nemafene) and Telone II or EC®, 1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-DCP) is a large-quantity soil fumigant used to control nematodes. In 1997, NCFA (1997) estimated that 34.7 million pounds of the pesticide were applied to fields. The EPA Toxics Release Inventory contains 14 facilities that reported the release of 5,720 pounds of 1,3-DCP primarily in air emissions in 2005.

While it is possible to find 1,3-DCP in the environment as a result of an industrial release or improper disposal, its environmental presence is associated mostly with its application to farm land. Its mobility in the environment has been recognized. Thus, its use is generally restricted to non-sandy soil and areas where the ground water is deeper than 50 feet. It is not allowed in karst areas (U.S. EPA 1998).

Of the 1,678 NPL hazardous waste sites where 1,3-DCP has been detected, 1,3-DCP was identified in air samples at six sites, ground water samples at 70 sites, and soil samples at 28 sites (ATSDR 2006 from HazDat 2006). Zorgorski et al. (2006) did not find 1,3-DCP in any aquifer samples tested.

For Further Information

The 2005 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Public Data Release Report

Certain classes of businesses report on their releases of pollution to EPA, which compiles the data in the TRI.

Toxicological Profile for Dichloropropenes
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA, 2008

This profile provides information on human health effects, fate and transport, production, and uses of 1,3-DCP.

NCFAP Pesticide Use Database
National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy (NCFAP), 1997

This privately maintained database lists the application acreages of various pesticides by crop and state.

Adobe PDF LogoThe Quality of Our Nation's Waters: Volatile Organic Compounds in the Nation's Ground Water and Drinking-Water Supply Wells
Zogorski, John, Janet M. Carter, Tamara Ivahnenko, Wayne W. Lapham, Michael J. Moran, Barbara L. Rowe, Paul J. Squillace, and Patricia L. Toccalino
U.S. Geological Survey, USGS Circular 1292, 2006, 1112 pp

This report summarizes the findings of an investigation of aquifers that supply drinking water to the public. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the presence or absence of 55 volatile organic chemicals in the aquifers.

Adobe PDF LogoR.E.D. Facts 1,3-Dichloropropene
Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances
U.S. EPA Report: EPA-738-F-98-014, 1998

Brief eight-page discussion of pesticide use, potential exposure, and toxicity for re-registration purposes.