U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Treatment Technologies

Bioremediation

Halogenated Monoaromatics


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Chlorobenzene | 1,2-Dichlorobenzene | 1,3-Dichlorobenzene | 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

Chlorobenzene

Review of bioremediation approaches indicates that chlorobenzene can be degraded under anaerobic conditions, but the process is slow (Nijenhuis et al. 2007). The chemical is subject to aerobic biodegradation (Balcke 2002, Braeckevelt et al. 2008).

References

Adobe PDF LogoChlorobenzene Biodegradation under Consecutive Aerobic-Anaerobic Conditions
Balcke, G., L. Turunen , R. Geye , D. Wenderoth, and D. Schlosser.
FEMS Microbiology Ecology 49(1):109-120(2004)

Treatment of Chlorobenzene-Contaminated Groundwater in a Pilot-Scale Constructed Wetland
Braeckevelt, M., G. Mirschel, A. Wiessner, M. Rueckert, N. Reiche, C. Vogt, A. Schultz, H. Paschke, P. Kuschk, and M. Kaestner.
Ecological Engineering 33(1):45-53(2008)

At inflow concentrations of 20 mg/L chlorobenzene, 0.19 mg/L 1,2-DCB, and 0.25 mg/L 1,4-DCB, the planted system showed high removals of chlorobenzene and 1,4-DCB after only 2 m of the flow path with averages of 48% chlorobenzene and 38% 1,4-DCB over all depths (71% chlorobenzene and 62% 1,4-DCB in the upper layer of the wetland). The unplanted wetland showed its highest mean removals only after 4 m of the flow path with 35% chlorobenzene and 32% 1,4-DCB. 1,2-DCB was not removed in either system. View abstract

Sensitive Detection of Anaerobic Monochlorobenzene Degradation Using Stable Isotope Tracers
Nijenhuis, I., N. Stelzer, M. Kaestner, and H.-H. Richnow.
Environmental Science & Technology 41(11):3836-3842(2007)
View abstract

1,2-Dichlorobenzene

Review of bioremediation approaches indicates that 1,2-DCB can be degraded under anaerobic conditions, but the process produces benzene as a final product (Fung et al. 2009). The compound is subject to aerobic biodegradation (Lawrence 2006, Werner and Tiehm 1999).

References

Description, Properties, and Degradation of Selected Volatile Organic Compounds Detected in Ground Water: A Review of Selected LiteratureAdobe PDF Logo
Lawrence, S.J.
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1338, 65 pp, 2006

This report contains a discussion of the biodegradation of chorobenzenes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and provides degradation routes.

Elimination of Volatile Organic Compounds by Adsorption and Simultaneous Microbiological Degradation on Activated Carbon
Werner, P. and A. Tiehm.
SAFIRA AbstractsAdobe PDF Logo of the Workshop of November 17-18, 1999 at Bitterfeld/Germany, Weiss, H., H. Rijnaarts, S. Staps, and P. Merkel (eds.), p 44-49, 1999

Reductive Dehalogenation of Dichlorobenzenes and Monochlorobenzene to Benzene in Microcosms
Fung, J.M., B.P. Weisenstein, E.E. Mack, J.E. Vidumsky, T.A. Ei, and S.H. Zinder.
Environmental Science & Technology 43(7):2302-2307(2009)
View abstract

1,3-Dichlorobenzene

Review of bioremediation approaches indicates that 1,3-DCB can be degraded under anaerobic conditions, but the process produces benzene as a final product (Fung et al. 2009). The compound is subject to aerobic biodegradation (Lawrence 2006, Werner and Tiehm 1999).

References

Description, Properties, and Degradation of Selected Volatile Organic Compounds Detected in Ground Water: A Review of Selected LiteratureAdobe PDF Logo
Lawrence, S.J.
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1338, 65 pp, 2006

This report contains a discussion of the biodegradation of chorobenzenes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and provides degradation routes.

Elimination of Volatile Organic Compounds by Adsorption and Simultaneous Microbiological Degradation on Activated Carbon
Werner, P. and A. Tiehm.
SAFIRA AbstractsAdobe PDF Logo of the Workshop of November 17-18, 1999 at Bitterfeld/Germany, Weiss, H., H. Rijnaarts, S. Staps, and P. Merkel (eds.), p 44-49, 1999

Reductive Dehalogenation of Dichlorobenzenes and Monochlorobenzene to Benzene in Microcosms
Fung, J.M., B.P. Weisenstein, E.E. Mack, J.E. Vidumsky, T.A. Ei, and S.H. Zinder.
Environmental Science & Technology 43(7):2302-2307(2009)
View abstract

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

Review of bioremediation approaches indicates that while 1,2,4-TCB can be degraded under anaerobic conditions, the process produces benzene as a final product (Fung et al. 2009). This chemical is subject to aerobic biodegradation (Lawrence 2006).

References

Description, Properties, and Degradation of Selected Volatile Organic Compounds Detected in Ground Water: A Review of Selected LiteratureAdobe PDF Logo
Lawrence, S.J.
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1338, 65 pp, 2006

This report contains a discussion of the biodegradation of chorobenzenes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and provides degradation routes.

Reductive Dehalogenation of Dichlorobenzenes and Monochlorobenzene to Benzene in Microcosms
Fung, J.M., B.P. Weisenstein, E.E. Mack, J.E. Vidumsky, T.A. Ei, and S.H. Zinder.
Environmental Science & Technology 43(7):2302-2307(2009)
View abstract