U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Treatment Technologies

Source Area Excavation

Halogenated Alkanes

The following sites utilized excavation as part of the cleanup.


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Dibromochloromethane | Bromodichloromethane | Methylene Chloride | Carbon Tetrachloride | Trichlorofluoromethane | 1,2-Dichloroethane | 1,1,1-Trichloroethane | 1,1,2,2- Tetrachloroethane

Dibromochloromethane

Although DBCM is listed for these sites, it is not the principal risk or technology selection driver. The treatment technologies are selected primarily to address other, more concentrated contaminants.

Brown & Bryant, Inc. (Arvin Plant)
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

Fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, and fumigants were formulated (and spilled) at this 5-acre site. The soil contains numerous pesticides, such as dinoseb, ethylene dibromide, and other fumigants. The groundwater also is contaminated with pesticides. Total trihalomethanes comprise the sum of bromodichloromethane, bromoform, dibromochloromethane, and chloroform. In 1991, dinoseb-contaminated soil was excavated, cleaned, treated, and returned to the ground. The water used to clean the soil was treated by UV/ozone technology. The 1993 remedy called for consolidation of contaminated soil, installation of a cap over it, and pump and treat for the first water-bearing unit. Design of these remedies was completed in early 1997. The design for the 2007 groundwater remedy of extraction and MNA is scheduled for completion in 2010.

Spartan Chemical Co., Wyoming, Michigan
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

Spartan was a bulk chemical transfer and repackaging plant from 1952 to 1991, handling aromatic solvents, napthas, alcohols, ketones, ethers, chlorinated solvents, and lacquer thinners. Prior to 1963, the company discharged wastewater into the ground. The soil and groundwater are contaminated with over 25 organic compounds, primarily ethylbenzene, toluene, benzene, xylene, and 1,1,1-TCA. A final ROD addressing both soil and groundwater contamination was issued in 2007, calling for institutional controls on groundwater and land use, excavation and off-site disposal of highly contaminated soils, expansion of the existing SVE system, AS/SVE, ISCO, MNA, and a contingency for enhanced in situ bioremediation.

Bromodichloromethane

Spartan Chemical Co., Wyoming, Michigan
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

Spartan was a bulk chemical transfer and repackaging plant from 1952 to 1991, handling aromatic solvents, napthas, alcohols, ketones, ethers, chlorinated solvents, and lacquer thinners. Prior to 1963, the company discharged wastewater into the ground. The soil and groundwater are contaminated with over 25 organic compounds, primarily ethylbenzene, toluene, benzene, xylene, and 1,1,1-TCA. A final ROD addressing both soil and groundwater contamination was issued in 2007, calling for institutional controls on groundwater and land use, excavation and off-site disposal of highly contaminated soils, expansion of the existing SVE system, AS/SVE, ISCO, MNA, and a contingency for enhanced in situ bioremediation.

Methylene Chloride

Electrical Resistive Heating at the Avery Dennison Site, Waukegan, Illinois (2003)
Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) Cost and Performance Database.

In May 1985, roughly 1,585 gallons of MC was released from an underground pipe. Site cleanup activities performed from 1985 through 1998 included excavation, SVE, groundwater pump and treat, and air sparging. After additional investigations indicated the presence of DNAPL in the soil, electrical resistive heating was used from December 1999 through November 2000 to address the DNAPL source in the unsaturated zone.

Former Sta-Lube Site, Rancho Dominguez, California
DNAPL Remediation: Selected Projects Where Regulatory Closure Goals Have Been Achieved. EPA 542-R-09-008, p 44-46, 2009Adobe PDF Logo

A methylene chloride release resulted in contaminated groundwater and DNAPL in soil. Treatment technologies chosen for the site included initial pump and treat, SVE, and excavation by large-diameter auger. A difficult-to-reach source zone was remediated using hydrogen peroxide and sodium persulfate, and the results allowed the state to certify closure.

Carbon Tetrachloride

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

In 1987, INL found that CT and TCE had migrated from where they were buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex to the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Many other organic, inorganic, and radioactive contaminants affect the site. Remedy components include soil excavation and removal, capping, SVE, and an evapotranspiration surface barrier. As of February 2010, 1.34 acres of the 5.69 acres total has been exhumed, and 3607 cubic meters of targeted waste has been packaged, over half of which has already been sent to WIPP for disposal. Over 232,000 pounds of total VOCs has been removed, over 135,600 pounds of which was CT.

Trichlorofluoromethane

Metamora Landfill, Metamora, Michigan
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

This 80-acre closed landfill accepted industrial and municipal waste between 1955 and 1980. As many as 35,000 drums might be buried in the landfill. TCFM was found in the groundwater at concentrations up to 200 �g/L. The 1986 remedy consisted of excavation and off-site incineration of source area soils and drums. Following the RI/FS, a second ROD was issued in 1990 that specified pump and treat for groundwater and a RCRA-style cap for the landfill areas, with a gas collection and flaring system. TCFM is not cited as a chemical of concern in the second ROD. A 2001 ROD amendment changed the treatment technology from pump and treat to monitored natural attenuation.

1,2-Dichloroethane

Brio Refining
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

This re-refinery reclaimed petrochemicals from various source materials, mostly residues, tank bottoms, and tars. Contaminants include bis-(2-chloroethyl)ether, phenanthrene, 1,1,2-TCA, 1,1-DCE, 1,2-DCE, 1,1-DCA, 1,2-DCA, and vinyl chloride. On-site incineration was selected initially, but high concentrations of fugitive emissions from excavation activities led to a ROD amendment in 1997. The remedy was changed to a slurry wall for containment, pump and treat for hydraulic control, and a composite cap. The pump and treat system has removed over 157,000 gallons of DNAPL for treatment off site. Deletion of the site from the NPL was effective December 28, 2006.

Combustion, Inc., Livingston Parish, Louisiana
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

Dubose Oil Company (later Combustion, Inc.) operated mainly as a used oil reclamation facility from the late 1960s until the early 1980s. The more widely distributed constituent groups in the groundwater are the semivolatile aromatic amines and VOCs, including 1,2-DCA, which is being used as a VOC tracking surrogate. Treatment technologies chosen were excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soils, phytohydraulics, and MNA for the low-concentration groundwater plume area. Should the selected remedy fail to meet the specified criteria by the first 5-year review, the aromatic amines in groundwater hot spots will be addressed with hydrogen peroxide and an iron catalyst, and the chlorinated alkanes will be treated utilizing a hydrogen-releasing compound.

1,1,1-Trichloroethane

Adobe PDF LogoApplied Materials Building 1: Long-Term Monitoring Strategy
EPA 542-R-11-006, 45 pp, 2011

A former semi-conductor wafer manufacturing facility at this location (Santa Clara, CA) began operations in 1974, leaving a broad area of solvent-contaminated groundwater, mainly 1,1,1-TCA and daughter products. Remedial actions include excavation of the USTs and surrounding soil and extensive groundwater pump and treat. The site largely has achieved remedial goals for groundwater, but specific NPL closeout prospects for sites with rare or intermittent exceedance of groundwater cleanup goals over a limited spatial extent are not clear, and the presence of groundwater plumes on adjacent properties could complicate the closeout decision. This report reviews historical site data and discusses how they might support the development of a long-term closeout strategy for the AM1 site.

Fried Industries, East Brunswick, NJ
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The company manufactured industrial-strength aqueous detergent solutions, floor finishing products, adhesives, and algicides. Chemicals purchased in bulk quantities as ingredients included xylene, butyl cellosolve, methyl carbitol, sodium metasilicate, formaldehyde, sodium tripolyphosphate, ammonia, methylene chloride, soap, surfactants, mineral spirits, and quaternary amines. Fried Industries also produced chemical products from components such as toluene and 1,1,1-TCA. The site soil and groundwater are contaminated with a variety of VOCs, including 1,1,1-TCA (22,000 �g/L). The technologies selected were excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil and groundwater pump and treat.

1,1,2,2- Tetrachloroethane

Otis Air National Guard Base/Camp Edwards, Falmouth, Massachusetts
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The CS-4 plume (PCE, TCE, and 1,1,2,2-TetCA) is ~4,900 feet long and a maximum of 800 feet wide. Groundwater samples between the source area and trailing edge of the CS-4 plume indicate that it has detached from its source area. Excavation with on-site ex situ thermal desorption was chosen for source zone soils and pump and treat for the groundwater plume.