U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Treatment Technologies

Thermal Processes: In Situ

Halogenated Alkanes

The 17 chlorinated alkanes covered in this focus area are considered amenable to in situ thermal remediation (USACE 2009). Steam Injection and Extraction is discussed in USACE 2009 and Davis 1997.


Adobe PDF LogoDesign: In Situ Thermal Remediation
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. EM 200-1-21, 243 pp, 2014

This document provides guidance and background for the appropriate screening and selection of in situ thermal remediation technologies, including steam enhanced extraction/injection, electrical resistivity heating, and thermal conductive heating. The document is intended to help distinguish proper applications of the technology and identify important design, operational, and monitoring issues.

For Further Information

Ground Water Issue: How Heat Can Enhance In-Situ Soil and Aquifer Remediation: Important Chemical Properties and Guidance on Choosing the Appropriate Technique
Davis, E.
U.S. EPA, EPA 540-S-97-502, 18 pp, 1997
Contact: Eva L. Davis,

Contains in-depth information on the properties of some common organic contaminants (including DNAPLs) that can affect their movement in and recovery from the subsurface, as well as information on how these properties are affected by temperature. Basic information on which of the heat-based remediation techniques is most appropriate to certain subsurface conditions and certain contaminants is also provided, as well as a comparison of the heat-based techniques to other in situ remediation techniques. Three companion issue papers have been written to provide an explanation of how each of the three general types of thermal processes (steam or hot air injection, electrical heating, and hot water injection) works, as well as preliminary information on the design of a system and some estimates of the expected costs.