U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Treatment Technologies

Thermal Processes: In Situ

Steam Injection and Extraction

Halogenated Alkenes


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General Resources | Case Studies: Chlorinated Solvents | Case Studies: PCE

General Resources

Adobe PDF LogoIn Situ Thermal Treatment of Chlorinated Solvents: Fundamentals and Field Applications
U.S. EPA. EPA 542-R-04-010, 145 pp, 2004

Contains information about the use of in situ thermal treatment technologies to treat chlorinated solvents in source zones containing free-phase contamination or high concentrations of contaminants that are either sorbed to soil or dissolved in groundwater in the saturated or unsaturated zone.

Case Studies: Chlorinated Solvents

Cost and Performance: Dual Auger Rotary Steam Stripping at DOE's Pinellas Northeast Site, Largo, Florida
Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable Cost and Performance Database, 1998

Contaminants of concern included TCE, PCE, 1,2-DCE, vinyl chloride, 1,1-DCE, 1,1-DCA, methylene chloride, chloromethane, benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and total xylenes at concentrations ranging from 500-5,000 ppm. DNAPL was suspected to occur as an immiscible phase. The technology demonstration showed the ability to remove large amounts of contaminants from soil and groundwater in a treatment column. An average of 77% of the VOCs in the groundwater and soil were removed (approximately 1,200 pounds ), with over 2,000 cubic yds of soil and groundwater treated.

Adobe PDF LogoDynamic Underground Stripping-Hydrous Pyrolysis Oxidation at the Savannah River Site 321-M Solvent Storage Tank Area, Aiken, South Carolina
Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable Cost and Performance Database, 2003

Provides cost and performance data on a demonstration of the Dynamic Underground Stripping/Hydrous Pyrolysis Oxidation process (steam and oxygen injection and recovery) at a site contaminated with chlorinated solvent DNAPLs.

Adobe PDF LogoCost and Performance Report: Steam Enhanced Extraction at the A.G. Communications Systems Site, Northlake, Illinois
Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable Cost and Performance Database, 2003

Provides cost and performance data with a lessons learned section on steam remediation (with a small use of chemical oxidation) to clean up a site contaminated primarily with TCE and cis-1,2-DCE DNAPLs and mineral spirit components.

Adobe PDF LogoOptimization of Soil Mixing Technology Through Metallic Iron Addition
L. Moos.
ANL/ESH/CP-98216, 120 pp, 1998

Describes the use of an auger system at Argonne National Laboratory to treat primarily clays contaminated with chlorinated solvent. The system applied steam and hot air injection to bring 70 to 80% of the contaminants to the surface for treatment. Following the steam application, zero-valent iron was mixed into the soil by the augers as a polishing step.

Case Studies: PCE

Adobe PDF LogoSteam Enhanced Remediation Research for DNAPL in Fractured Rock, Loring Air Force Base, Limestone, Maine
E. Davis, et al.
U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, EPA 540/R-05/010, 211 pp, 2005

Details a research project on steam enhanced remediation for the recovery of VOCs (primarily PCE) from fractured limestone carried out at an abandoned quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, ME.

Technology Cost and Performance: Steam Enhanced Remediation Research for DNAPL in Fractured Rock, Loring Air Force Base, Limestone, Maine
Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable Cost and Performance Database, 2006

Describes a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of treating DNAPL in fractured rock with steam. A quarry historically had been used for the disposal of wastes from construction, industrial, and maintenance activities at the Base. Contaminants included 1,1-DCE, benzene, chlorobenzene, cis-1,2-DCE, ethylbenzene, PCE, trans-1,2-DCE, toluene, TCE, vinyl chloride, and xylenes (total), with some contaminants in DNAPL form.