U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Treatment Technologies

Containment

Halogenated Alkanes


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Bromoform | Bromochloromethane | Dibromochloromethane | Bromodichloromethane | Methylene Chloride | Chloroform | Carbon Tetrachloride | Trichlorofluoromethane | Ethylene Dibromide | 1,1-Dichloroethane | 1,2-Dichloroethane | 1,1,1-Trichloroethane | 1,1,2-Trichloroethane | 1,1,2,2- Tetrachloroethane | 1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane | 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane | 1,2-Dichloropropane

Bromoform

Western Farm Service, Stockton, California (former Pure Gro/Brea)
California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region.

Contaminants include 1,2-DCP, PCE, 1,1-DCA, dibromochloromethane, bromochloromethane, bromodichloromethane, chloroform, and bromoform. Some soil was removed; two source soil areas are capped. Semi-annual groundwater monitoring and long-term cap maintenance continues. Western Farm Service injected zero-valent iron (ZVI) amended with a soluble carbon compound (EHC, a brand name for ZVI amended with chitin) in a pilot study (2006-2008) to treat 1,2-DCP, nitrate, and ammonium in groundwater. The iron provides electrons for the chemical reduction of 1,2-dichloropropane, and the carbon provides energy for biological degradation of nitrate and ammonium. The pilot study will assist in developing design parameters for a larger scale application.

Bromochloromethane

BCM is unlikely to be the principal risk or technology selection driver at the hazardous waste sites for which it is listed in EPA's CERCLIS Database-the treatment technologies are selected primarily to address other, more concentrated contaminants.

Boomsnub/Airco, Vancouver, Washington
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

These 2 sites, a former metal plating facility and a compressed gas manufacturing plant, were combined into one site because contamination from the two facilities resulted in a commingled groundwater plume of VOCs and chromium covering 37 acres. Bromochloromethane, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and TCA are listed but are not the cleanup focus. Remediation goals include the reduction of Cr(VI) in groundwater to 80 µg/L and TCE to 5 µg/L. EPA conducted a soil removal action in OU-1 in 1994. The in-well stripping and SVE treatment systems for the VOC source area (OU-2) began operation in February 2004. The SVE system removed significant quantities of VOCs from the soil until removal rates reached asymptotic conditions in 2006. An extensive groundwater extraction network captures contaminated groundwater in OU-3. A pilot test of enhanced density driven convection (EDDC) to remove product dissolved in groundwater was conducted in 1999.

Western Farm Service, Stockton, California (former Pure Gro/Brea)
California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region.

Contaminants include 1,2-DCP, PCE, 1,1-DCA, dibromochloromethane, bromochloromethane, bromodichloromethane, chloroform, and bromoform. Some soil was removed; two source soil areas are capped. Semi-annual groundwater monitoring and long-term cap maintenance continues. Western Farm Service injected zero-valent iron (ZVI) amended with a soluble carbon compound (EHC, a brand name for ZVI amended with chitin) in a pilot study (2006-2008) to treat 1,2-DCP, nitrate, and ammonium in groundwater. The iron provides electrons for the chemical reduction of 1,2-dichloropropane, and the carbon provides energy for biological degradation of nitrate and ammonium. The pilot study will assist in developing design parameters for a larger scale application.

Dibromochloromethane

Although DBCM is listed for these sites, it is not the principal risk or technology selection driver. The treatment technologies are selected primarily to address other, more concentrated contaminants.

Brown & Bryant, Inc. (Arvin Plant)
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

Fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, and fumigants were formulated (and spilled) at this 5-acre site. The soil contains numerous pesticides, such as dinoseb, ethylene dibromide, and other fumigants. The groundwater also is contaminated with pesticides. Total trihalomethanes comprise the sum of bromodichloromethane, bromoform, dibromochloromethane, and chloroform. In 1991, dinoseb-contaminated soil was excavated, cleaned, treated, and returned to the ground. The water used to clean the soil was treated by UV/ozone technology. The 1993 remedy called for consolidation of contaminated soil, installation of a cap over it, and pump and treat for the first water-bearing unit. Design of these remedies was completed in early 1997. The design for the 2007 groundwater remedy of extraction and MNA is scheduled for completion in 2010.

Pagel's Pit Superfund Site, Winnebago County, Illinois
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The groundwater between the Page's Pit (a closed landfill) and Acme Solvent Reclaiming Superfund sites is contaminated with several VOCs, including chlorinated ethenes and aromatic hydrocarbons. DBCM, bromoform, and chloroform are listed as site contaminants but are not the cleanup focus. The ROD called for a cover, leachate and gas management systems, and a pump-and-treat system for the downgradient groundwater.

Western Farm Service, Stockton, California (former Pure Gro/Brea)
California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region.

Contaminants include 1,2-DCP, PCE, 1,1-DCA, dibromochloromethane, bromochloromethane, bromodichloromethane, chloroform, and bromoform. Some soil was removed; two source soil areas are capped. Semi-annual groundwater monitoring and long-term cap maintenance continues. Western Farm Service injected zero-valent iron (ZVI) amended with a soluble carbon compound (EHC, a brand name for ZVI amended with chitin) in a pilot study (2006-2008) to treat 1,2-DCP, nitrate, and ammonium in groundwater. The iron provides electrons for the chemical reduction of 1,2-dichloropropane, and the carbon provides energy for biological degradation of nitrate and ammonium. The pilot study will assist in developing design parameters for a larger scale application.

Bromodichloromethane

Although BDCM is listed for this sites, it likely is not the principal risk or technology selection driver. The treatment technologies are selected primarily to address other, more concentrated contaminants. Many technologies appropriate for remediation of chlorinated ethene and/or ethane contamination will also be effective for BDCM.

Tenth Street Site, Columbus, Nebraska
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile

The site is defined as those municipal drinking water wells that contain, or have contained, VOCs. While bromodichloromethane is listed as a contaminant of concern (20 µg/L) the principal threat is from PCE and its degradation products, which originate from a dry cleaning establishment. In September 2005, EPA issued a final ROD that included continued operation of the AS/SVE and pump and treat systems, limited action for the soils in two of the source areas, and chemical oxidation in the groundwater contaminant plume. The ISCO design was completed in September 2006, and injections have been conducted on a semi-annual basis starting in early 2007, with additional rounds planned for 2009.

Western Farm Service, Stockton, California (former Pure Gro/Brea)
California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region.

Contaminants include 1,2-DCP, PCE, 1,1-DCA, dibromochloromethane, bromochloromethane, bromodichloromethane, chloroform, and bromoform. Some soil was removed; two source soil areas are capped. Semi-annual groundwater monitoring and long-term cap maintenance continues. Western Farm Service injected zero-valent iron (ZVI) amended with a soluble carbon compound (EHC, a brand name for ZVI amended with chitin) in a pilot study (2006-2008) to treat 1,2-DCP, nitrate, and ammonium in groundwater. The iron provides electrons for the chemical reduction of 1,2-dichloropropane, and the carbon provides energy for biological degradation of nitrate and ammonium. The pilot study will assist in developing design parameters for a larger scale application.

Methylene Chloride

Electrical Resistive Heating at the Avery Dennison Site, Waukegan, Illinois (2003)
Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) Cost and Performance Database.

In May 1985, roughly 1,585 gallons of MC was released from an underground pipe. Site cleanup activities performed from 1985 through 1998 included excavation, SVE, groundwater pump and treat, and air sparging. After additional investigations indicated the presence of DNAPL in the soil, electrical resistive heating was used from December 1999 through November 2000 to address the DNAPL source in the unsaturated zone.

Pemaco, Maywood, California
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile

MC is one of many organic contaminants found at this hydrogeologically complex site. The treatment technologies selected include electrical resistive heating, SVE, pump and treat, and dual-phase extraction.

Chloroform

AIRCO, Calvert City, Kentucky
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The site includes contamination at Airco and the adjacent BF Goodrich facility. AIRCO allegedly used the landfill for the disposal of an estimated 18,000 tons (dry basis) of unknown types of waste material from its Calvert City plant. The suspected wastes include caustics, acids, volatile organics, zinc acetate, mercuric acetate, and mercuric chloride. A pit area south of the BF Goodrich Landfill was used for the burning and burial of ~2.6 million gallons of liquid chlorinated organic wastes between 1965 and 1968, and an adjacent area was used once in 1972 to bury ~370 cubic yards of salt-brine sludge. From 1970 to 1983, scrap lumber and fuel oil were burned in this area two to three times per year for fire training. While chloroform is one of the 13 indicator chemicals of concern, the principal chemical is 1,2-DCA. The chosen remedy was to cap contaminated areas (landfills and burn pit) and use SVE for the vadose zone and pump and treat for the groundwater.

Western Farm Service, Stockton, California (former Pure Gro/Brea)
California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region.

Contaminants include 1,2-DCP, PCE, 1,1-DCA, dibromochloromethane, bromochloromethane, bromodichloromethane, chloroform, and bromoform. Some soil was removed; two source soil areas are capped. Semi-annual groundwater monitoring and long-term cap maintenance continues. Western Farm Service injected zero-valent iron (ZVI) amended with a soluble carbon compound (EHC, a brand name for ZVI amended with chitin) in a pilot study (2006-2008) to treat 1,2-DCP, nitrate, and ammonium in groundwater. The iron provides electrons for the chemical reduction of 1,2-dichloropropane, and the carbon provides energy for biological degradation of nitrate and ammonium. The pilot study will assist in developing design parameters for a larger scale application.

Carbon Tetrachloride

Hastings Ground Water Contamination, Hastings, Nebraska
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile

At this large site with multiple sources, groundwater and soils are contaminated with various chlorinated solvents (two CT plumes related to grain fumigation), explosives (former Naval Ammunition Depot), PAHs, and metals. Remedy technologies selected include SVE, capping, enhanced in situ bioremediation, in-well aeration, pump and treat, and institutional controls.

Trichlorofluoromethane

Although TCFM is listed for these sites, it may not be the principal risk or technology selection driver. The treatment technologies are selected primarily to address other, more concentrated contaminants. Many technologies appropriate for remediation of chlorinated ethene and/or ethane contamination will also be effective for TCFM.

Metamora Landfill, Metamora, Michigan
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

This 80-acre closed landfill accepted industrial and municipal waste between 1955 and 1980. As many as 35,000 drums might be buried in the landfill. TCFM was found in the groundwater at concentrations up to 200 µg/L. The 1986 remedy consisted of excavation and off-site incineration of source area soils and drums. Following the RI/FS, a second ROD was issued in 1990 that specified pump and treat for groundwater and a RCRA-style cap for the landfill areas, with a gas collection and flaring system. TCFM is not cited as a chemical of concern in the second ROD. A 2001 ROD amendment changed the treatment technology from pump and treat to monitored natural attenuation.

Ethylene Dibromide

Brown & Bryant, Inc. (Arvin Plant)
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The Brown & Bryant, Inc. (Arvin Plant) began operations in 1960 as a formulator of agricultural chemicals: fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, and fumigants. The remedy for the 5-acre site included soil washing of the most contaminated soil, consolidation and capping of less contaminated soil, institutional controls, and groundwater pump and treat.

Del Monte Corp (Oahu Plantation)
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

Del Monte began growing pineapple on the 3,000-acre plantation in the 1940s and used fumigants, such as EDB, DBCP, and DCP, from the early 1940s until 1983 to control nematodes that infest the pineapple root. The site remedy includes institutional controls, capping, and soil vapor extraction.

Frontier Fertilizer, Davis, California
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The principal chemicals in groundwater and soil at the 8-acre site are three pesticides used as soil fumigants-EDB, DCP, and DBCP-as well as carbon tetrachloride and high levels of nitrate. Pump and treat was selected for the plume area and in situ electrical resistive heating for the source area.

Hastings Ground Water Contamination, Hastings, Nebraska
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The contaminants at this complex site include fumigants EDB and carbon tetrachloride. SVE was implemented at the pilot scale in 1990 to address the commercial grain fumigant contamination in the soil at the FAR-MAR-CO subsite. The SVE pilot removed over 1,200 pounds of carbon tetrachloride and EDB. Operation of a full-scale SVE system began in 1997, and system decommissioning and restoration activities were completed in December 2003. Groundwater contamination currently is addressed with pump and treat, and additional implementation of in situ bioremediation is planned.

Thermal Desorption at the T.H. Agriculture and Nutrition Site, OU2, Albany, GA (2005)
Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, Cost and Performance Case Studies Database.

Various liquids and dry formulations of pesticides and other chemical compounds were handled at the two former facilities for ~30 years. EDB is one of the chemicals of concern. The treatment technologies chosen were on-site ex situ thermal desorption and pump and treat. Additional information is available in EPA's NPL site summary.

1,1-Dichloroethane

A.O. Polymer, New Jersey
U.S. EPA Superfund Site Progress Profile.

1,1-DCA is one of many solvents found at the site of this former polymer manufacturer and solvent reclaimer. Wastes disposed of in a .42-acre pit contaminated the vadose zone soil and groundwater. An SVE system has removed 43,000 pounds of VOCs from this area, and the groundwater pump and treatment system has captured 23,584 pounds of solvent.

Chemical Sales Company Superfund Site, Commerce City, Colorado
Colorado Dept. of Public Health and Environment, Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Division.

Operations at the former warehouse included the storage and repackaging of bulk chemicals from rail cars and drums. Sources of PCE, TCE, 1,1-DCA, 1,1-DCE, and vinyl chloride at the site have affected the local water supply district. The remedies selected include SVE for soil, AS/SVE for groundwater, resin adsorption for extracted vapors, and hydraulic control of contaminated groundwater. Since 1999, SVE has removed over 2.5 million cubic ft of soil vapor. With the signing of the June 2007 ESD, active remediation formally transitioned from AS/SVE to ISCO via injection of a modified Fenton's reagent in the source area.

Sola Optical USA, Inc. Petaluma, California
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

Groundwater at this 35-acre facility optical manufacturing facility is contaminated with various chlorinated solvents, primarily 1,1-DCE and 1,1-DCA, with Freon 113 at very low levels. In March 2007, EPA amended the ROD to change the remedy from pump and treat to MNA and institutional controls. Since 2005, the remaining 1,1-DCA has steadily declined from a high of 20 ug/L to a value of 4.7 ug/L in 2009, below the cleanup goal of 5 ug/L.

Western Farm Service, Stockton, California (former Pure Gro/Brea)
California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region.

Contaminants include 1,2-DCP, PCE, 1,1-DCA, dibromochloromethane, bromochloromethane, bromodichloromethane, chloroform, and bromoform. Some soil was removed; two source soil areas are capped. Semi-annual groundwater monitoring and long-term cap maintenance continues. Western Farm Service injected zero-valent iron (ZVI) amended with a soluble carbon compound (EHC, a brand name for ZVI amended with chitin) in a pilot study (2006-2008) to treat 1,2-DCP, nitrate, and ammonium in groundwater. The iron provides electrons for the chemical reduction of 1,2-dichloropropane, and the carbon provides energy for biological degradation of nitrate and ammonium. The pilot study will assist in developing design parameters for a larger scale application.

1,2-Dichloroethane

Bridgeport Rental and Oil Services, New Jersey
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The BROS site, a 30-acre parcel of land formerly used as a waste oil storage and recovery facility, is contaminated with LNAPL, PCBs, and many solvents, including 1,2-DCA. Treatment technologies chosen for remediation include on-site incineration, pump and treat, phytohydraulics, in situ bioremediation, bioslurping, and in situ chemical oxidation.

Brio Refining
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

This re-refinery reclaimed petrochemicals from various source materials, mostly residues, tank bottoms, and tars. Contaminants include bis-(2-chloroethyl)ether, phenanthrene, 1,1,2-TCA, 1,1-DCE, 1,2-DCE, 1,1-DCA, 1,2-DCA, and vinyl chloride. On-site incineration was selected initially, but high concentrations of fugitive emissions from excavation activities led to a ROD amendment in 1997. The remedy was changed to a slurry wall for containment, pump and treat for hydraulic control, and a composite cap. The pump and treat system has removed over 157,000 gallons of DNAPL for treatment off site. Deletion of the site from the NPL was effective December 28, 2006.

Bruno Co-op Association/Associated Properties, Nebraska
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The contaminants of concern in the groundwater at this operating grain storage and farmers cooperative are carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and 1,2-DCA, which were used as grain fumigants. The selected treatment technology is pump and treat.

1,1,1-Trichloroethane

Firestone Tire and Rubber, Salinas, California
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The major chemical types and raw materials used at the 43-acre former tire manufacturing plant included carbon, rubber, processing oil, zinc oxide, solvents, anti-oxidants, steel wire, and petroleum fuels. 1,1,1-TCA was the plant's solvent of choice. Pump and treat was the selected treatment technology.

Fisher-Calo, La Porte, Indiana
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

In the early 1970s, Fisher-Calo and various subsidiaries used the facility for processing and distributing solvents, metal finishing supplies, and other industrial chemicals. Fisher-Calo also operated a solvent reclamation facility on the site for several years to recover and resell paint and metal cleaning solvents. 1,1,1-TCA is found in the soil and groundwater among other solvents. The treatment technologies chosen were SVE and pump and treat.

Fried Industries, East Brunswick, NJ
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The company manufactured industrial-strength aqueous detergent solutions, floor finishing products, adhesives, and algicides. Chemicals purchased in bulk quantities as ingredients included xylene, butyl cellosolve, methyl carbitol, sodium metasilicate, formaldehyde, sodium tripolyphosphate, ammonia, methylene chloride, soap, surfactants, mineral spirits, and quaternary amines. Fried Industries also produced chemical products from components such as toluene and 1,1,1-TCA. The site soil and groundwater are contaminated with a variety of VOCs, including 1,1,1-TCA (22,000 �g/L). The technologies selected were excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil and groundwater pump and treat.

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

MOTCO, Inc., La Marque, Texas
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The 11.3-acre MOTCO site was initially purchased for the purpose of recycling styrene tars generated by local industry. After the recycling business was discontinued in 1961, the pits on the site were used for disposal of industrial chemical wastes. 1,1,2-TCA is found on site in excess of 500 ppm in soil and is a major contaminant of concern. The remedy includes off-site incineration of liquids, sludges, and tars; an on-site landfill with cap; a slurry wall around the source area keyed into the clay aquitard; and pump and treat of groundwater and DNAPLs.

1,1,2,2- Tetrachloroethane

Otis Air National Guard Base/Camp Edwards, Falmouth, Massachusetts
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The CS-4 plume (PCE, TCE, and 1,1,2,2-TetCA) is ~4,900 feet long and a maximum of 800 feet wide. Groundwater samples between the source area and trailing edge of the CS-4 plume indicate that it has detached from its source area. Excavation with on-site ex situ thermal desorption was chosen for source zone soils and pump and treat for the groundwater plume.

Silresim Chemical Corporation, Lowell, Massachusetts
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The site consists of the 4.5-acre Silresim (a former chemical recycler) property with soil and groundwater contamination that extends to other nearby properties. Chemicals of concern include 1,1,2,2-TetCA, TCE, 1,2,4-trimethylebenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylebenzene, various PAHs, heavy metals, and PCBs. Initial treatment technologies were SVE (1998) for the source zones and pump and treat (1995) for the groundwater. The remedies were revisited in 2003, and the SVE system is being replaced by electric resistance heating (ERH). The ERH system should come on line in 2009-2010.

1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane

National Semiconductor Corp. and Monolithic Memories Sunnyvale, California
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

These two facilities manufactured semiconductors and other electronic parts until approximately 1989. The main chemicals of concern are TCE, TCA, cis-l,2-DCE, 1,1-DCE, and Freon 113 in the site soil and groundwater. Pump and treat was selected for groundwater and SVE for soil.

Sola Optical USA, Inc. Petaluma, California
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

Groundwater at this 35-acre facility optical manufacturing facility is contaminated with chlorinated solvents, including Freon 113 at very low levels. In March 2007, EPA amended the Record of Decision to change the remedy from pump and treat to MNA and institutional controls.

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane

Aberdeen Pesticide Dumps, Aberdeen, North Carolina
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The Aberdeen Pesticide Dumps Site consists of an inactive pesticide formulation plant and 4 areas where plant operators disposed of waste generated during the formulation process. Contaminated soils were treated using ex situ thermal desorption. Groundwater initially was addressed with pump and treat, which was replaced after 10 years with MNA and phytoremediation.

Brown & Bryant, Inc. (Arvin Plant), Arvin, California
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The Brown & Bryant, Inc. (Arvin Plant), which covers about 5 acres, began operations in 1960 as a formulator of agricultural chemicals, including fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, and fumigants. The company went out of business in 1989. The remedy included soil washing of the most contaminated soil, consolidation and capping of less contaminated soil, institutional controls, and groundwater pump and treat.

Frontier Fertilizer, Davis, California
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

At the 8-acre Frontier Fertilizer Superfund site, 3 pesticides-EDB, DCP, and DBCP-used as soil fumigants are the principal chemicals in groundwater and soil, along with carbon tetrachloride and high levels of nitrate. Pump and treat was selected for the plume area and in situ electrical resistive heating for the source area.

J.R. Simplot (Pond Area) Edison, California
California Department of Toxic Substances Control.

In 1984, 4,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil was removed from the pond area and taken to a Class 1 disposal site. Until 1991, investigators focused on the on-site pond area and determined that the soil underlying it contained DBCP, halogenated volatile organics, and chlorinated herbicides. Groundwater was encountered at a depth of about 330 feet below ground surface. During June 1991, an asphalt cap was constructed over the pond area.

South Fresno Regional Groundwater Plume, Fresno, California
California Department of Toxic Substances Control.

Pump and treat was chosen to address a large groundwater plume containing a mixture of pesticides and chlorinated solvents.

1,2-Dichloropropane

Del Monte Corp (Oahu Plantation)
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

Del Monte began growing pineapple on the 3,000-acre plantation in the 1940s and used fumigants, such as EDB, DBCP, and DCP, from the early 1940s until 1983 to control nematodes that infest the pineapple root. The site remedy includes institutional controls, capping, and soil vapor extraction.

Frontier Fertilizer, Davis, California
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The principal chemicals in groundwater and soil at the 8-acre site are three pesticides used as soil fumigants-EDB, DCP, and DBCP-as well as carbon tetrachloride and high levels of nitrate. Pump and treat was selected for the plume area and in situ electrical resistive heating for the source area.

Lorentz Barrel and Drum Superfund Site, San Jose, California
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

Site soils and groundwater are contaminated by metals, PCBs, and a variety of halogenated alkenes and alkanes, including 1,1,1-TCA, 1,2-DCP, 1,2-DCPA, and 1,1-DCA. The site remedy included removal and off-site disposal of highly contaminated soil, capping, SVE, and pump and treat.

Western Farm Service, Stockton, California (former Pure Gro/Brea)
California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region.

Contaminants include 1,2-DCP, PCE, 1,1-DCA, dibromochloromethane, bromochloromethane, bromodichloromethane, chloroform, and bromoform. Some soil was removed; two source soil areas are capped. Semi-annual groundwater monitoring and long-term cap maintenance continues. Western Farm Service injected zero-valent iron (ZVI) amended with a soluble carbon compound (EHC, a brand name for ZVI amended with chitin) in a pilot study (2006-2008) to treat 1,2-DCP, nitrate, and ammonium in groundwater. The iron provides electrons for the chemical reduction of 1,2-dichloropropane, and the carbon provides energy for biological degradation of nitrate and ammonium. The pilot study will assist in developing design parameters for a larger scale application.