U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Treatment Technologies

In Situ Flushing

Halogenated Alkanes

Many chlorinated alkanes are (or are expected to be) amenable to In Situ Flushing.


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Bromoform | Bromochloromethane | Dibromochloromethane | Bromodichloromethane | Methylene Chloride | Chloroform | Carbon Tetrachloride | Trichlorofluoromethane | Ethylene Dibromide | 1,1-Dichloroethane | 1,2-Dichloroethane | 1,1,1-Trichloroethane | 1,1,2-Trichloroethane | 1,1,2,2- Tetrachloroethane | 1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane | 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane | 1,2-Dichloropropane | References

Bromoform

Bromoform has the physical-chemical properties that should make it amenable to surfactant/cosolvent flushing (ITRC 2003), but no examples were found.

Bromochloromethane

BCM probably is amenable to surfactant/cosolvent flushing (ITRC 2003), but no specific examples were found.

Dibromochloromethane

The compound has the physical and chemical properties that should make it amenable to surfactant/cosolvent flushing (ITRC 2003), but no examples were found.

Bromodichloromethane

BDCM probably is amenable to surfactant/cosolvent flushing (ITRC 2003); however, no specific examples were found.

Methylene Chloride

MC compound is amenable to surfactant/cosolvent flushing (ITRC 2003).

Chloroform

Because chloroform has chemical/physical properties that fall within a suitable range, surfactant/cosolvent flushing of the chemical should be possible (ITRC 2003 and Londergan et al. 2002); however, no published examples of chloroform flushing were found.

Carbon Tetrachloride

CT has chemical and physical properties that fall within a range suitable for surfactant/cosolvent flushing (ITRC 2003, Londergan et al. 2002). A 1991-1993 field demonstration of surfactant flushing for CT in Corpus Christi, Texas, was documented (Roote 1998), but no recent examples were found.

Trichlorofluoromethane

TCFM probably is amenable to surfactant/cosolvent flushing (ITRC 2003); however, no specific examples were found.

Ethylene Dibromide

Given its chemical structure and properties, surfactant/cosolvent flushing should be effective for EDB (ITRC 2003).

1,1-Dichloroethane

Surfactant/cosolvent flushing has been effectively demonstrated for 1,1-DCA as part of a DNAPL mass (ITRC 2003).

1,2-Dichloroethane

1,2-DCA is probably amenable to surfactant/cosolvent flushing (ITRC 2003)

1,1,1-Trichloroethane

Surfactant/cosolvent flushing has been effectively demonstrated for 1,1,1-TCA. ITRC(2003) contains a case study of in situ flushing of a 1,1,1-TCA DNAPL at the Alameda Naval Station (page 96).

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

1,1,2-TCA should be amenable to surfactant/cosolvent flushing. The examples given in ITRC (2003) are for 1,1,1-TCA.

1,1,2,2- Tetrachloroethane

1,1,2,2-TetCA should be amenable to surfactant/cosolvent flushing, but a literature search found no examples.

1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane

TCTFE has chemical/physical properties that fall within a range suitable for surfactant/cosolvent flushing (ITRC 2003). Although unpublished information on environmental contractor Web sites indicates application of in situ flushing to this compound, no examples of TCTFE flushing were found in the published literature.

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane

DBCP should be amenable to surfactant/cosolvent flushing, but a literature search did not find any examples.

1,2-Dichloropropane

1,2-DCP should be amenable to surfactant/cosolvent flushing, but a literature search did not find any examples.

References

Technical and Regulatory Guidance for Surfactant/Cosolvent Flushing of DNAPL Source ZonesAdobe PDF Logo
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC). DNAPLs-3, 151 pp, 2003

Surfactant-Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) Design ManualAdobe PDF Logo
Londergan, J., et al.
NAVFAC (Naval Facilities Engineering Command), TR-2206-ENV, 112 pp, 2002

Technology Status Report: In Situ FlushingAdobe PDF Logo
Roote, D.S.
Ground-Water Remediation Technologies Analysis Center, TS-98-01, Appendix: p 9-11, 1998