U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Treatment Technologies

In Situ Flushing

Halogenated Monoaromatics

Chlorobenzene is amenable to surfactant/cosolvent flushing (Londergan et al. 2002).

1,2-DCB is probably amenable to surfactant/cosolvent flushing (Zhao et al. 2006, Penell et al. 1997).

1,3-DCB is probably amenable to surfactant/cosolvent flushing (Zhao et al. 2006, Penell et al. 1997).

1,2,4-TCB is probably amenable to surfactant/cosolvent flushing (Jawitz et al. 2001, Clark 2005).


Reduction of a Field Generated Waste Microemulsion by Electrolytic Addition
Clark, C.J., II.
Journal of Environmental and Engineering Science 4(2005)

The waste effluent was a single-phase micro-emulsion that contained a surfactant (Brij 97), cosurfactant (pentanol), and a complex NAPL mixture, including petroleum fuel wastes and 1,2,4-TCB, which was removed by in situ flushing from an isolated contaminated area of soil at Hill AFB, Utah.

Evaluation of Remediation Performance and Cost for Field-Scale Single-Phase Microemulsion (SPME) Flushing
Jawitz, J.W., M.D. Annable, P.S.C. Rao, and R.D. Rhue.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A 36(8):1437-1450(2001)

A surfactant/alcohol mixture was used to generate a Winsor Type I system, where the NAPL was solubilized and transported as a single-phase microemulsion. Of the ~200 constituents that have been identified in the NAPL at Hill AFB, 1,2,4-TCB, p-xylene, 1,2-DCB, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, naphthalene, and 4 decanes were the target analytes.

Surfactant-Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) Design ManualAdobe PDF Logo
Londergan, J., et al.
NAVFAC (Naval Facilities Engineering Command), TR-2206-ENV, 112 pp, 2002

Solubilization of Dodecane, Tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2-Dichlorobenzene in Micellar Solutions of Ethoxylated Nonionic Surfactants
Pennell, K.D., A.M. Adinolfi, L.M. Abriola, and M.S. Diallo.
Environmental Science & Technology 31(5):1382-1389(1997)
View abstract

Solubilization of DNAPLs by Mixed Surfactant: Reduction in Partitioning Losses of Nonionic Surfactant
Zhao, B., L. Zhu, and K. Yang.
Chemosphere 62(5):772-779(2006)
View abstract

For Further Information

Solubilization of Chlorinated Solvents by Ionic Surfactants
Baek, K., J.-Y. Lee, and J.-W. Yang.
The 19th Annual International Conference on Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water, 20-23 October 2003, University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Poster, 2003
View abstract