U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Treatment Technologies

In Situ Oxidation

Halogenated Monoaromatics

Chlorobenzene, 1,2-Dichlorobenzene, 1,3-Dichlorobenzene, and 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene are generally amenable to in situ oxidation by Fenton's reagent, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and activated sulfate (activated persulfate for 1,2-DCB). However, they appear to be poorly reactive with permanganate (Huling and Pivetz 2006). Site-specific conditions can make one oxidant preferable over others.

Example Sites

Eastland Woolen Mill, Corinna, Maine
U.S. EPA, Superfund Site Progress Profile.

The former Eastland Woolen Mill and local areas are contaminated by the release of hazardous substances from the mill, which began operation around 1909. Chlorobenzenes, a major component of the dye process, are present in both dissolved and DNAPL form. Treatment technologies chosen included ex situ thermal desorption of contaminated soil, pump and treat, and ISCO (sodium persulfate).

ARKEMA, Inc., Portland, Oregon
Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Environmental Cleanup Site Information (ECSI) Database Site Summary Report.

Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing began manufacturing operations at the site in 1941 and ceased in 2001. The facility produced various chemicals, including sodium chlorate, potassium chlorate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, DDT, sodium orthosilicate, magnesium chloride hexahydrate, ammonia, hydrogen, ammonium and sodium perchlorate (rocket fuel), and hydrochloric acid. The major contaminants of concern are DDT, chlorobenzene (DNAPL), and hexavalent chromium. SVE and ISCO (sodium persulfate) were chosen to treat the chlorobenzene and DDT.

Adobe PDF LogoCost and Performance Report for Persulfate Treatability Studies
S. Rosansky and A. Dindal.
Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA. TR-2333-ENV, 103 pp, 2010

Five persulfate pilot projects at four Navy sites and one Marine Corps site conducted between 2006 and 2009 yielded useful information on the performance of ISCO using different activators and under different site conditions. The demonstrations took place at Naval Air Station North Island (TCE, DCE); NAS Alameda (VC); Alleghany Ballistics Laboratory (TCE, 1,2-DCE, 1,1,1-TCA, methylene chloride, acetone); Marine Corps Base Quantico (1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, TCE, PCE, DCE, VC); and Washington Yard (LNAPL). ISCO at Washington Yard occurred in June 2009 and data were not available for this report. Performance data from the first 4 sites indicate that persulfate application was successful at reducing chlorinated solvent constituents; however, reductions were not uniform across the sites, possibly due to the difficulty of distributing the reagent evenly throughout the target treatment areas. Specific conclusions pertaining to contaminant reduction at the first four sites are provided.


Engineering Issue Paper: In Situ Chemical OxidationAdobe PDF Logo
Huling, S.G. and B.E. Pivetz.
EPA 600-R-06-072, 60 pp, 2006