U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

Treatment Technologies

In Situ Reduction

Halogenated Alkanes


Jump to
Bromoform | Bromochloromethane | Dibromochloromethane | Bromodichloromethane | Methylene Chloride | Chloroform | Carbon Tetrachloride | Trichlorofluoromethane | Ethylene Dibromide | 1,1-Dichloroethane | 1,2-Dichloroethane | 1,1,1-Trichloroethane | 1,1,2-Trichloroethane | 1,1,2,2- Tetrachloroethane | 1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane | 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane | 1,2-Dichloropropane

Bromoform

Zero-valent iron is effective in treating bromoform (ITRC 2005).

Example Site

Western Farm Service, Stockton, California (former Pure Gro/Brea)
California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region.

Contaminants include 1,2-DCP, PCE, 1,1-DCA, dibromochloromethane, bromochloromethane, bromodichloromethane, chloroform, and bromoform. Some soil was removed; two source soil areas are capped. Semi-annual groundwater monitoring and long-term cap maintenance continues. Western Farm Service injected zero-valent iron (ZVI) amended with a soluble carbon compound (EHC, a brand name for ZVI amended with chitin) in a pilot study (2006-2008) to treat 1,2-DCP, nitrate, and ammonium in groundwater. The iron provides electrons for the chemical reduction of 1,2-dichloropropane, and the carbon provides energy for biological degradation of nitrate and ammonium. The pilot study will assist in developing design parameters for a larger scale application.

References

Permeable Reactive Barriers: Lessons Learned/New Directions Adobe PDF Logo
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) Permeable Reactive Barriers Team. PRB-4, 202 pp, 2005

Bromochloromethane

No examples of addressing BCM with zero-valent iron (ZVI) were found; however, some of the di- and mono-halogenated methanes are not reduced by ZVI, and BCM might be one of them (Gillham and Hannesin 1994, Gavaskar et al. 2000, ITRC 2005).

References

Enhanced Degradation of Halogenated Aliphatics by Zero-Valent IronAdobe PDF Logo
Gillham, R.W. and S.F. O'Hannesin.
Ground Water 32(6):958-967(1994)

This article discusses a bench scale experiment to determine reactivity of various halogenated aliphatics with zero-valent iron. One finding was that dichloromethane was not reactive.

Final Design Guidance for Application of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Groundwater Remediation Adobe PDF Logo
Gavaskar, A., N. Gupta, B. Sass, R. Janosy, and J. Hicks.
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), Arlington, VA. 247 pp, 2000

Permeable Reactive Barriers: Lessons Learned/New DirectionsAdobe PDF Logo
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) Permeable Reactive Barriers Team.
PRB-4, 202 pp, 2005

Dibromochloromethane

Zero-valent iron is effective in treating DBCM (Li et al. 2006 and Plagentz et al. 2006).

References

Remediation of Ground Water Containing Chlorinated and Brominated Hydrocarbons, Benzene and Chromate by Sequential Treatment Using ZVI and GAC
Plagentz, V., M. Ebert, and A. Dahmke.
Environmental Geology 49(5)684-695(2006)

PCE, TCE, 1,1-DCE, DBCM, BDCM, TBM, MCB and chromate were remediated in contact with ZVI, while the remaining contaminants (1,1,2-TCA, 1,2-DCP, 1,2-DCE, benzene, and vinyl chloride) showed incomplete degradation. View abstract

Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles for Abatement of Environmental Pollutants: Materials and Engineering AspectsAdobe PDF Logo
Li, X.-Q., D.W. Elliott, and W.-X. Zhang.
Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences 31:111-122(2006)

Identifies common contaminants that can be remediated by nanoscale ZVI.

Bromodichloromethane

Zero-valent iron can be used to address trihalomethanes (Gavaskar et al. 2000, Plagentz et al. 2006).

References

Final Design Guidance for Application of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Groundwater Remediation Adobe PDF Logo
Gavaskar, A., N. Gupta, B. Sass, R. Janosy, and J. Hicks.
Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), 247 pp, 2000

Remediation of Ground Water Containing Chlorinated and Brominated Hydrocarbons, Benzene and Chromate by Sequential Treatment Using ZVI and GAC
Plagentz, V., M. Ebert, and A. Dahmke.
Environmental Geology 49(5):684-695(2006)
View abstract

In a laboratory setting, water containing BDCM among other contaminants was passed through a ZVI column. The BDCM was destroyed by the iron.

Methylene Chloride

Zero-valent iron is not effective in treating MC (Lens et al. 2005).

References

Soil and Sediment Remediation: Mechanisms, Technologies, and Applications
Lens, P., T. Grotenhuis, G. Malina, and H. Tabak, eds.
IWA Publishers, ISBN: 9781843391005, 544 pp, 2005
View abstract

Chloroform

Zero-valent iron is effective in treating chloroform (Hocking et al. 2000 and Gavaskar et al. 2000), although the reaction time for this chemical might be somewhat slower than for other compounds (Gavaskar et al. 2000).

References

Deep Reactive Barriers for Remediation of VOCs and Heavy MetalsAdobe PDF Logo
Hocking, G., S.L. Wells, and R.I. Ospina.
2nd International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA, May 22-25, 2000. Battelle Press, 2000

Final Design Guidance for Application of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Groundwater Remediation Adobe PDF Logo
A. Gavaskar, N. Gupta, B. Sass, R. Janosy, and J. Hicks.
Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Arlington, VA. 247 pp, 2000

Carbon Tetrachloride

Zero-valent iron is effective for treating CT (Gavascar et. al. 2006).

References

Cost and Performance Report: Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Technologies for Source RemediationAdobe PDF Logo
A. Gavaskar, L. Tatar, and W. Condit
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program, CR-05-007-ENV, 54 pp, 2005.

Trichlorofluoromethane

Zero-valent iron will reduce TCFM abiotically (ITRC 2005a); however, the reference was not clear on whether complete degradation was achieved.

References

Permeable Reactive Barriers: Lessons Learned/New Directions
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) Permeable Reactive Barriers Team.
PRB-4, 202 pp, 2005a

Ethylene Dibromide

Zero-valent iron is effective in treating EDB (Loraine et al. 2002 and Rajagopal and Burris 1999).

References

Mass Transfer Effects on Kinetics of Dibromoethane Reduction by Zero-Valent Iron in Packed-Bed Reactors
Loraine, G., D. Burris, L. Li, and J. Schoolfield.
AFRL-ML-TY-TP-2002-4537, 12 pp, 2002 (also published in Journal of Environmental Engineering 128(1):85-93(2002))

Reduction of 1,2-Dibromoethane in the Presence of Zero-Valent Iron
Rajagopal, V. and D. Burris.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18(8):1779-1782(1999)
View abstract

1,1-Dichloroethane

Zero-valent iron is effective in treating 1, 1-DCA (ITRC 2005).

References

Permeable Reactive Barriers: Lessons Learned/New Directions Adobe PDF Logo
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) Permeable Reactive Barriers Team.
PRB-4, 202 pp, 2005

1,2-Dichloroethane

Zero-valent iron is not a viable treatment technology for 1,2-DCA (Lai et al. 2006).

References

Field Monitoring of a Permeable Reactive Barrier for Removal of Chlorinated OrganicsAdobe PDF Logo
Lai, K.C.K., I.M.C. Lo, V. Birkelund, and P. Kjeldsen.
Journal of Environmental Engineering 132(2):199-210(2006)

1,1,1-Trichloroethane

Zero-valent iron is effective in treating 1,1,1-TCA (ITRC 2005).

References

Permeable Reactive Barriers: Lessons Learned/New Directions
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) Permeable Reactive Barriers Team.
PRB-4, 202 pp, 2005

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

1,1,2-TCA is treatable with zero-valent iron (ITRC 2005).

References

Permeable Reactive Barriers: Lessons Learned/New Directions Adobe PDF Logo
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) Permeable Reactive Barriers Team. PRB-4, 202 pp, 2005

1,1,2,2- Tetrachloroethane

Zero-valent iron is effective in treating 1,1,2,2-TetCA (Muegge 2008, Hiroyuki et al. 2003, Song and Carraway 2005, Gavaskar et al. 2000).

References

An Assessment of Zero Valence Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier Projects in California Adobe PDF Logo
J. Muegge, California Department of Toxic Substances Control, Document 1219, 154 pp, 2008

A review of the performance of 10 PRBs installed primarily to address chlorinated contaminants indicates that a ZVI PRB should not be expected to provide near-term improvement of water quality very far below its installation. The same levels observed downgradient of a PRB before its installation can persist for extended periods (often decades) despite the presence of a PRB. The PRBs were installed at Alameda Naval Air Station, BP-Hitco, DuPont Oakley, Fairchild/Applied Materials, Intersil, Moffett Field, Mohawk Laboratory, Sierra Army Depot (2 separate PRBs), and Travis Air Force Base.

Degradation of Polychlorinated Ethanes and Methanes Using Zero-Valent Iron Powder
Hiroyuki, I., S. Koichi, I. Chihiro, and C. Tadashi.
Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment 26(10):637-642(2003)

Using iron powder E-200, tetrachloroethanes and tetrachloromethane were easily degraded in the aqueous layer, but dichloroethanes, chloroethane, dichloromethane, and chloromethane were only slightly degraded. The rate constants and the reaction products of polychlorinated ethane isomers (i.e., 1,1,2,2-TetCA and 1,1,1,2-TetCA, or 1,1,1-TCA and 1,1,2-TCA) were significantly different from each other, which indicates that the main degradation pathways of these compounds are different.

Final Design Guidance for Application of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Groundwater RemediationAdobe PDF Logo
A. Gavaskar, N. Gupta, B. Sass, R. Janosy, and J. Hicks.
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), Arlington, VA. 247 pp, 2000

Reduction of Chlorinated Ethanes by Nanosized Zero-Valent Iron: Kinetics, Pathways, and Effects of Reaction Conditions
Song, H. and E. Carraway.
Environmental Science & Technology 39(16):6237-6245(2005)
View abstract

1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane

Zero-valent iron is effective in treating TCTFE (Hocking et al. 2000 and Gavaskar et al. 2000), although the reaction time may be somewhat slower than for other compounds (Gavaskar et al. 2000).

References

Deep Reactive Barriers for Remediation of VOCs and Heavy MetalsAdobe PDF Logo
Hocking, G., S.L. Wells, and R.I. Ospina.
2nd International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA, May 22-25, 2000

Final Design Guidance for Application of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Groundwater Remediation Adobe PDF Logo
A. Gavaskar, N. Gupta, B. Sass, R. Janosy, and J. Hicks.
Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Arlington, VA. 247 pp, 2000

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane

Zero-valent iron is effective in treating DBCP (ITRC 2005).

References

Permeable Reactive Barriers: Lessons Learned/New Directions
ITRC (Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council) Permeable Reactive Barriers Team.
PRB-4, 202 pp, 2005

1,2-Dichloropropane

Zero-valent iron can be effective in treating 1,2-DCP, but the process is slow (Plagentz et al. 2006 and Onanong et al. 2007).

References

Remediation of Ground Water Containing Chlorinated and Brominated Hydrocarbons, Benzene and Chromate by Sequential Treatment Using ZVI and GAC
Plagentz, V., M. Ebert, and A. Dahmke.
Environmental Geology 49(5):684-695(2006)

The bench study showed that zero valent iron only partially degraded 1,2-dichloropropane. View abstract

Using Gas-Phase Molecular Descriptors to Predict Dechlorination Rates of Chloroalkanes by Zerovalent Iron
Onanong, S., S. Comfort, P. Burrow, and P. Shea.
Environmental Science & Technology 41(4):1200-1205(2007)

This article reports that 1,2-DCP is degraded slowly by zero-valent iron. View abstract