U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

Trichloroethylene (TCE)

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Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids Team
Contact: Eric Hausamann
Dept. of Environmental Conservation
625 Broadway, 11th Floor
Albany, NY 12047
P 518-402-9759 / F 518-402-9722

The DNAPLs Team began in 1999 to foster a better understanding of the applicability, cost, and limitations of technologies for characterizing and remediating dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids. DNAPLs are a significant problem to groundwater supplies when released as discarded industrial solvents or waste. Once released into the subsurface, DNAPLs exist as residual droplets, or ganglia, in the unsaturated zone and, depending on the nature of the release, can form insoluble pools in the saturated zone. Because of these characteristics, conventional remediation and characterization technologies have been mostly unsuccessful in removing substantial amounts of these contaminants.


Dense Chlorinated Solvents and other DNAPLs in Groundwater: History, Behavior, and Remediation
Pankow, J., and J. Cherry.
Waterloo Press, 522pp, 1996

Geophysical methods offer hydrogeologists unprecedented access to understanding subsurface parameters and processes. In this book, we outline the theory and application of electrical imaging methods, which inject current into the ground and measure the resultant potentials. These data are sensitive to rock type, grain size, porosity, pore fluid electrical conductivity, saturation, and temperature. Here, we describe the physical basis for electrical imaging, parallels between electrical flow equations and the groundwater flow equation, practical considerations for field investigations, data processing and inverse modeling of field data, and how to QA/QC data. We additionally cover two case studies, including a 2-D waterborne survey and a 4-D dataset from a biostimulation experiment.

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