U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division


Additional Resources

Literature References

Adobe PDF LogoGroundwater-Surface Water Exchange
Woessne, W.
The Groundwater Project, 158 pp, 2022

This book describes how groundwater is linked with surface water features such as rivers, lakes and wetlands and function as a continuous hydrologic system. The exchange of water is driven by differences in water levels, hydrogeologic properties of earth materials and the underlying geologic framework.

Adobe PDF LogoApplication of Biofilm Covered Activated Carbon Particles as a Microbial Inoculum Delivery System for Enhanced Bioaugmentation of PCBs in Contaminated Sediment: Phase 1 Final Report
Kjellerup, B. and S. Edwards.
SERDP Project ER-2135, 89 pp, 2013

Anaerobically dechlorinating biofilms were added to sediment as (1) bacteria localized and concentrated onto activated carbon (AC) surfaces in active biofilm communities or (2) enriched wastewater sludge biofilms. Both forms of dechlorinating biofilm were applied to mesocosms consisting of PCB-contaminated sediment from Grasse River, New York. The dechlorinating bacteria remained in the sediment throughout the experiment and increased almost 2-fold in numbers. Dechlorination by the biofilm-covered AC particles with DF1 culture was less extensive compared to the enriched sludge biofilm, but application of either system enhanced the dechlorination of PCBs in sediment and thus made the congeners available for subsequent aerobic degradation and removal.

Characterization of Sediments
USEPA Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation

This is a searchable database that contains numerous abstracts on sampling and analyzing sediments. Click on needs area, then select Sampling and Analytical Technologies for Potentially Contaminated Sediment, click on Submit Query. The database can also be searched on keywords. It is updated on a quarterly basis.

Contaminated Sediments Research
EPA, Office of Research and Development

Environmental Effects & Dredging and Disposal
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

This is a searchable literature database comprised of technical references covering a diverse range of topics related to environmental effects of dredging and dredged material disposal projects. While useful, it tends to be dated. There are abstracts and citations, as well as fully downloadable documents.

NATO/CCMS Pilot Study: Prevention and Remediation Issues in Selected Industrial Sectors - Sediments - Ljubljana, Slovenia June 17-22, 2007

Adobe PDF LogoAbstracts

The meeting dealt with the issues of sediment sites and questions of contamination by persistent organic pollutants; 19 technical presentations were given in the broad areas of sediment characterization and remediation.

Sediment Toxicology
USGS Columbia Missouri Office

This Web page contains numerous primarily USGS produced documents and studies concerning toxicity assessments of sediment.

Work Groups

The Cooperative Institute for Coastal and Estuarine Environmental Technology (CICEET)

CICEET develops and applies tools to detect, prevent, and reverse the impacts of coastal pollution and habitat degradation on coastal ecosystems and communities.

Guidance on Passive Sampling Methods to Improve Management of Contaminated Sediments: Summary of a SETAC Technical Workshop
Parkerton, T., K. Maruya, M. Lydy, P. Landrum, W. Peijnenburg, P. Mayer, B. Escher, U. Ghosh, S. Kane-Driscoll, M. Greenberg, and P. Chapman (eds).
Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), 20 pp, 2013

The Southern California Coastal Water Research Project technical workshop was held November 7-9, 2012 , to promote understanding of passive sampling methods and provide recommendations for current and future use in contaminated sediment management decisions. The workshop participants focused on the challenges of contaminated freshwater, estuarine, and marine sediments affected by major contaminant classes--hydrophobic organic chemicals; metals and metalloids, including arsenic; and other inorganic contaminants of concern, such as selenium. This brief report gives a concise overview of the proceedings and is posted with other SETAC workshop summaries.

International Association for Great Lakes Research

This Web site contains literature and data on contaminated sediments in and around the Great Lakes.

Adobe PDF LogoSERDP and ESTCP Workshop on Research and Development Needs for Long-Term Management of Contaminated Sediments
Thompson, T., S. Ells, M. Greenberg, A. Leeson, V. Magar, C. Menzie, C. Patton, M. Pound, D. Reible, D. Rider, J. Speicher, and J. Wakeman.
SERDP-ESTCP, 125 pp, 2012

This report describes the research, demonstration, and technology transfer needs identified during the workshop held July 25-26, 2012, in Seattle, Washington.

Web Sites

Commencement Bay-Nearshore Tideflats
USEPA Region 10

The Commencement Bay Nearshore/Tideflats (CB/NT) Superfund site is located in the City of Tacoma and the Town of Ruston at the southern end of Puget Sound in Washington. It encompasses an active commercial seaport and includes 12 square miles of shallow water, shoreline, and adjacent land, most of which is highly developed and industrialized. EPA placed the site on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1983 due to widespread contamination of the water, sediments, and upland areas. The site is divided into a number of separate Project Areas being managed as distinct sites.

Contaminated Sediments in Water
USEPA Office of Water

This Web page contains a number of links to various EPA documents and other agency websites and documents.

Dredging Operations and Environmental Research
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

This is the front page of the Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Laboratory. It contains links to numerous downloadable manuals and technical reports on all aspects of dredging.

Fluvial Sediment
U.S. Geological Survey, Office of Surface Water

This Web site is devoted to sediment issues in general and provides links to conferences, publications, and training

ISRAP: Interactive Sediment Remedy Assessment Portal
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific.

ISRAP is an online interactive portal designed to help users understand monitoring requirements and monitoring tools associated with sediment remediation. The website can also be useful in understanding data needs during the RI/FS, especially as they pertain to remedies themselves, and post-remedy monitoring. The main feature of the site is the sediment monitoring tools matrix, a database of sediment monitoring tool information that was developed to facilitate the design and optimization of sediment monitoring programs. The matrix can be browsed in a step-by-step mode, if desired. For first-time users, a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) link is provided. A tutorial offers a functional overview of the matrix design and navigation in addition to a short primer about sediment remediation monitoring needs and tools.

Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise

This Web site provides information on the Army Corps of Engineers coastal mapping activities. It has an extensive list of publications, many of which are downloadable.

Lower Duwamish Waterway Cleanup Areas
USEPA Region 10

EPA, Ecology, other government agencies, and private parties are working to clean up the Lower Duwamish Waterway. The cleanups are under EPA's Superfund program, EPA's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act program, and other authorities. The areas listed on this site are at various stages in the cleanup process.

Pesticide National Synthesis Project
USGS, National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program

Portland Harbor Community Advisory Group: Oregon DEQ Upland Sites Map

The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) has lead responsibility for cleanup of upland sites along the Portland Harbor. This site contains a map from the DEQ with links to information about each site.

Rouge River Project

This website contains information regarding the characterization and cleanup efforts in the Rouge River watershed. It provides examples of inventorying, characterization (sample and analysis of sediments) and cleanup (lake sediment dredging of PCB contaminated sediments.)


An online site designed by the South and Southwest region of the Hazardous Substance Research Centers (HSRC), to promote improvements in contaminated sediments management and research. It contains links to a variety of organizations concerned with sediments. Updating of the site ended September 2007.

Multimedia Resources

CLU-IN Archived Internet Seminars
CLU-IN archived Internet Seminars are two-hour web-based slide presentations with a companion audio portion. Below are past seminars on DNAPL topics. Check the website for future seminar dates.

Remediation of Contaminated Sediments: Technical Options and Environmental Consequences
Patterson, J.W.
Georgia Institute of Technology: 2011 Kappe Lecture. Lecture and video runtime: 54:11 minutes, 2011

This lecture focuses on the Lower Fox River (LFR), Wisconsin, a megasite that comprises ~39 miles of the LFR as well as the Bay of Green Bay and is one of the nations' largest sediment remediation sites. An estimated 279,000 to 881,000 pounds of PCBs were released to the river, almost entirely prior to 1972. The advantages and risks of alternative contaminated sediment remedial approaches and the utility of multiple approaches within individual sites are discussed.

Sedimentary, My Dear Watson. Passive Sampling Methods and Sediment Remediation (Podcast)
Greenberg, M.S.
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. Podcast runtime: 12:27 minutes, 2014

The management of contaminated sediment is often expensive and time-consuming, involving millions of dollars over many years at a single site. However, an easier solution may be coming to a regulatory agency near you. Passive sampling methods offer several advantages over traditional remediation and monitoring techniques, and are the focus of this podcast episode.

-Return to "Remediation"

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