U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners Site Profiles

One Hour Martinizing, Darlington, South Carolina

Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

Stand-alone drycleaning business using perchloroethylene(PCE). Normal business practices resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. Secondary source in area of former dumpster site. Spent filters caused PCE contamination in the soils of this area.

Remediation Status: In groundwater monitoring

Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.

Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 182 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 150,000 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   24ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 874ft
Plume Width: 400ft
Plume Thickness: 24ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   20ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

  Alternating layers of thin, stiff, dark clays and yellow-orangish to gray clean sands. Also, in 2 liths a shelly-hash layer was observed.

Conductivity: 35ft/day
Gradient: 0.025ft/ft

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

DNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  MCLs for groundwater. Region 9 levels for soils.


In Situ Chemical Oxidation

Why the technology was selected:
Potassium Permanganate was chosed as a result of the low levels and the relatively small area of contamination. It was necessary to implement a remedial technology as groundwater discharges to surface water near the site.

Date implemented:
June 2003

Final remediation design:
The Remedial Action Plan was implemented during June and July 2003. PCE-contaminated soil was removed to a depth of two ft, and the underlying residue was treated with Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4). An asphalt cap was constructed over the backfilled excavation. Next, 12,540 pounds of KMnO4 was injected at 24 single-elevation points and 6 dual-injection points. The configuration of the injection points had to be modified due to sand intrusion. This was overcome by including a PVC riser inside the direct-push rods from the top of the screen to the ground surface.

Results to date:
Contamination has been reduced to below 30 ppb in all areas.

Next Steps:
Continue monitoring.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$246,465 Includes O&M


Cost for Assessment:
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
Total Costs for Cleanup:

Lessons Learned

1. One thing is that you have to be careful with handling the permanganate. It is powder and gets away from you easily.
2. Companies underestimate how much of the permanganate is actually necessary to overcome the natural oxidant demand.


Lisa Appel
South Carolina DHEC
2600 Bull Street
Columbia SC 29201

Perry Kelso
1950 Commonwealth Lane
Tallahassee, Florida

Site Specific References

1. Site Assessment Report - September 2002
2. Record of Decision December 2002
3. Remedial Action Design - May 2003
4. Remedial Action Report - August 2003 (2005 report pending)


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