U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners Site Profiles

Joye Cleaners, Marion, South Carolina

Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

Joye Cleaners is a stand-alone business in Marion, SC. It is an active drycleaner using perchloroethene. It is in a commercial in the near vicinity of the drycleaner however, there is an adult daycare and residential areas nearby. The interesting thing about this site is that it is the first to teach us that sewer lines are sometimes a major contributor of contamination and can make delineating the plume difficult. Groundwater flow sent the contamination in one direction while the sewer line sent it in another.

Remediation Status: In active remediation

Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.

Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 2,320 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 62,900 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater 2,020 ppb
Vinyl Chloride groundwater 170 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   55ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 1,171ft
Plume Width: 628ft
Plume Thickness: 55ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   22ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

  Alternating layers of thin clays and sands, with silt present throughout. The sands ranged in grain size from very fine to coarse grained. Clay layers were soft to stiff and were mostly gray in color

Conductivity: 31.675ft/day
Gradient: 0.008944272ft/ft

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

DNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  MCLs - 5ppb for PCE, 70ppb for cis-1,2-DCE and 5ppb for TCE, Vinyl Chloride 2ppb


In Situ Bioremediation

Why the technology was selected:
DHEC likes the technology and wanted to try someone different for the design of the system. Engineered Products and Services out of Atlanta, GA was tasked with the design and construction of the system.

Date implemented:
November 2004

Final remediation design:
Thirty injection points were installed. Not all of them are currently in use. Some are in reserve for future use. Placement of these points was based on contamintion levels but had to take into consideration the location of buildings, roads, overhead lines and underground utilities. The system has a timer to allow rotation of ozone to different points. The points are separated into eight zones, where only a few of the points are operational at at time. The ozone system itself is housed in a building that was placed along-side the drycleaner. The system includes an autodialer to alert EPS or ET in case of upset conditions (power failure, compressor shutdown, high ozone levels). A trench was dug to place the 4" and 3" PVC and HDPE casings and the depth protects the casing from traffic loads. Horizontal drilling was used in areas where feasible to cut down on the asphalt cutting and patching. The sleeve pipes will carry 3/8" EPDM tubing to each sparge point.

Results to date:
Contamination lowered by two orders of magnitude in almost all areas.

Next Steps:
Next step is to continue with the injection of the ozone. The injection schedule may have to be reset. There is some petroleum contamination that is interferring with the reduction of PCE contamination in one area.

Cost to Design and Implement:


Cost for Assessment:
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
Total Costs for Cleanup:

Lessons Learned

An ozone system is only as good as it's design. The system used at this site was designed specifically for this project. The design was based upon the amount of ozone needed and where it was needed.


Lisa Appel, DHEC, 803-896-4060,
Bryan Wright/Walter Gerald, Earth Tech, 864-234-3017 or 864-234-8925

Site Specific References

Site Assessment Report January 2003
Feasibility Study January 2003
Record of Decision May 2003
Remedial Design December 2004


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