U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners Site Profiles

Dryclean USA #11301, Coral Springs, Florida

Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

PCE drycleaning operations were conducted at this facility from 1977 until early 1985. The facility is located in a strip mall in a retail commercial/residential setting.

Remediation Status: In groundwater monitoring

Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.

Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 1,330 ppb
1,1-Dichloroethene groundwater 1.5 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 4.5 ppb
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 61 ppb
Vinyl Chloride groundwater 194 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   80ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 220ft
Plume Width: 50ft
Plume Thickness: 76ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   5.53ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

  fine-grain sand with shell fragments & some organic matter
Depth: 0-5ft bgs
5ft thick
Conductivity: 50ft/day
Gradient: 0.0006ft/ft
  sandy, fossiliferous limestone with quartz sand nodules
Depth: 5-8ft bgs
3ft thick
  fine to coarse carbonate and quartz sand with shells
Depth: 8-50ft bgs
42ft thick
  sandy, fossiliferous limestone
Depth: 50-76ft bgs
26ft thick

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

DNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Soil: PCE - 30 ug/kg

Groundwater: PCE - 3 ug/l, TCE - 3 ug/l, cis 1,2-DCE - 70 ug/l, trans 1,2-DCE - 100 ug/l, vinyl chloride - 1 ug/l
Remedy Level:
  Full Scale Remedy


In Situ Biostimulation

Why the technology was selected:
Biostimulation was selected because conditions in groundwater are favorable for reductive dechlorination: dissolved oxygen concentrations: 0.14 - 0.68 mg/L; pH:6.50 to 7.36 standard units: ORP: -255 to -114 millivolts PCE degradation products were present in groundwater.

Date implemented:
May 2003

Final remediation design:
Seven injection events conducted. Injection wells screened 40-55 and 30-60 ft BLS. First injection event: May 30 - June 2, 2003. A solution of 4 gallons of 60% potassium lactate mixed with 525 gallons of water was injected into six (6) wells (525 gallons of solution/well. 1st molasses injection event: June 28, 2004. 130 gallons of 18% molasses solution injected into each of 8 injection wells. July 26, 2004: 130 gallons of 18% molasses solution injected into 8 wells. September 19, 2004: 260 gallons of 10% molasses solution/8 injection wells. October 24, 2004: 260 gal. 10% molasses solution/8 injection wells. January 9, 2006: 3,600 gallons of 0.2% molasses solution per each of 4 injection wells. May 24, 2010: 7,786 gal. of 0.2% molasses solution per each of 2 injection wells.

Results to date:
Seven (7) injection events have been conducted at ths site to date. Groundwater monitoring conducted in early February found the following contaminant concentrations in groundwater: 11.1 ug/l cis 1,2-DCE, 66.9 ug/l trans 1,2-DCE and 106 ug/l vinyl chloride.

Next Steps:
Site has been placed in monitored natural attenuation.


Cost for Assessment:
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
Total Costs for Cleanup:

Lessons Learned

Early molasses injection events used realtively high concentrations of molasses (10%-18%) with relatively low volumes of molasses solution ranging from 130 to 235 gallons per injection well. The last two injection events used lower concentrations of molasses (0.2%) but higher injection volumes (3,600-7,786 gallons per well) in an attempt to achieve a greater radius of influence.


Aaron Cohen
Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection
Bureau of Waste Cleanup, MS 4500
2600 Blair Stone Road
Tallahassee, Florida 32399

William Vogelsong, PG, Consultant
2081 Vista Parkway
West Palm Beach, Florida 33411
Phone: (561) 697-7000

Site Specific References

Site Assessment Report - 1999
Remedial Action Plan - 2003
Remedial Action Plan Modification - 2004
Groundwater Monitoring Reports - 2000 -present


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