U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners Site Profiles

One Hour Martinizing, Salina, Kansas

Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

Between 1991 and 1992, KDHE conducted an Expanded Site Investigation (ESI) of the Salina PWS Wells Site. The purpose was to evaluate the Salina PWS Wells Site as a candidate for the National Priority List. In November of 1991, KDHE collected soil gas and groundwater samples at the Former One Hour Martinizing Site. The ESI concluded PCE contamination detected in the PWS wells was most likely a result of impropert storage or disposal of PCE-containing waste solvents at the Former One Hour Martinizing.

Remediation Status: In active remediation

Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.

Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater
Trichloroethene (TCE) soil

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   68ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 6,000ft
Plume Width: 1,000ft
Plume Thickness: 50ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   35ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

  silty clay
Depth: 0-9.5ft bgs
9.5ft thick
Conductivity: 0.00035ft/day
Gradient: 0.002ft/ft
  clay with some silt
Depth: 9.5-15.5ft bgs
6ft thick
  fine sand
Depth: 15.5-21.5ft bgs
6ft thick
  medium sand and some black clay balls (~1 inch diameter)
Depth: 21.5-25ft bgs
3.5ft thick
Depth: 25-32ft bgs
7ft thick
  medium/coarse-grained sand mixed with some gravel
Depth: 32-65ft bgs
33ft thick

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

DNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Reduce PCE groundwater contamination to below federal Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 5 ppm.
Reduce soil contamination in accordance with KDHE Risk-Based Standards


In Situ Soil Vapor Extraction

Why the technology was selected:
Factors that influenced KDHE's selection of SVE include: cost, effectiveness of the technology, and expected duration of cleanup. Soil conductivity probes indicated soil was conducive to SVE, which led KDHE to select the SVE system.

Date implemented:
November 23, 1998.

Final remediation design:
Three SVE wells were installed in the North-south alley on the east side of the Former One Hour Martinizing building. An additional SVE well was installed inside the building adjacent to the sanitary sewer line. The SVE wells were bored with an 8.5 inch hollow stem auger to a depth of 25 feet. Wells were completed with 4 inch ID schedule 40 PVC screen and casing. 10 feet of 0.010 inch machine slotted screen were utilized with a 10-20 grade filter pack. A 'T' fitting was installed in-line to connect the SVE wells to the associated piping. The wells were finished with a water-tight, self-sealing J-plug. The well heads were completed with an 8-inch diameter flush-mount protective cover set in a 2 foot by 2 foot concrete pad. The subsurface piping consists of 2 inch ID schedule 40 PVC. Flexible tubing connects the PVC risers to the header system. The venting blower is a EG&G Rotron Model DR505AS72M SVE blower with a design capacity of 160 CFM at 60 inches of water vacuum. The blower is a regenerative type powered by a 2 horsepower, 230 volt, 3-phase motor. All system components are lag bolted to the wall/floor of a 8 foot by 8 foot remediation enclosure shed. The shed contains a small electric heater to prevent the knockout tank from freezing during winter and a ceiling-mounted exhaust fan to prevent excessive heat buildup in the summer.

Results to date:
The SVE system has dramatically reduced the contamination in the subsurface. Groundwater concentrations have declined to 16 ug/L as of January 2006 from concentrations as high as 450 ug/L in 2002. The SVE system has removed 7,500 pounds of volatiles as of 2005. The pounds removed may be misleading since the PCE plume is comingled with BTEX plumes from two leaking storage tank sites in the immediate vicinity.

Next Steps:
KDHE plans to install an additional monitoring well inside the Former One Hour Martinizing building next to SVE-1 to determine the remaining PCE in the groundwater at the source area. KDHE also plans to collect air samples from the SVE lines and submit the samples for TO-14 analysis in order to determine the contributions from the PCE to the total VOC readings.

Cost to Design and Implement:


Cost for Assessment:
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
Total Costs for Cleanup:

Lessons Learned

To protect the City of Salina's PWS wells from further contamination and to allow use of wells currently out-of-service due to contaminant levels, the KDHE Drycleaning Trust Fund and Underground Storage Tank (UST) Trust Fund implemented a packed tower air-stripper remediation system at the City of Salina water treatment plant. KDHE's Drycleaning Trust Fund and UST Trust Fund split the cost of the packed tower air-stripper remedial system based on contamination caused by facilities covered under both Funds.


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