U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners Site Profiles

Fast One Hour Cleaners, Salina, Kansas

Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

Between 1991 and 1992, KDHE conducted an Expanded Site Investigation (ESI) of the Salina PWS Wells Site. The purpose was to evaluate the Salina PWS Wells Site as a candidate for the National Priority List. In November of 1991, KDHE collected soil gas and groundwater samples at the Former One Hour Martinizing Site. The ESI concluded PCE contamination detected in the PWS wells was most likely a result of impropert storage or disposal of PCE-containing waste solvents at the Former One Hour Martinizing. An Expanded Site Assessment was conducted during the summer of 1998 to determine the boundaries of the comingled plume from the Former Fast One Hour / Former One Hour Martinizing sites.

Remediation Status: In groundwater monitoring

Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.

Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 2.4 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 556 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 2,240 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater 9.04 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   68ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 3,500ft
Plume Width: 400ft
Plume Thickness: 30ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   35ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

  light brown-gray silty clay
Depth: 0-4.5ft bgs
4.5ft thick
Conductivity: 0.00035ft/day
Gradient: 0.002ft/ft
  brown silt w/ trace of clay
Depth: 4.5-5.5ft bgs
1ft thick
  yellow-brown silt with some clay and trace of fine sand
Depth: 5.5-9.5ft bgs
4ft thick
  very dark gray-brown clay with some silt
Depth: 9.5-15.5ft bgs
6ft thick
  light yellow-brown very fine sand
Depth: 15.5-18.5ft bgs
3ft thick
  light yellow-brown fine sand with red mottling
Depth: 18.5-21.5ft bgs
3ft thick
  light yellow-brown with some medium sand and some black clay balls (~1 inch diameter)
Depth: 21.5-23.5ft bgs
2ft thick
  brown-yellow medium sand with some coarse fraction
Depth: 23.5-25ft bgs
1.5ft thick
  clay, Relatively uniform
Depth: 25-32ft bgs
7ft thick
  medium/coarse-grained sand layer mixed with some gravel
Depth: 32-65ft bgs
33ft thick

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

DNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Reduce PCE groundwater contamination to below federal Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 5 ppm.
Reduce soil contamination in accordance with KDHE Risk-Based Standards


In Situ Soil Vapor Extraction

Why the technology was selected:
Factors that influenced KDHE's selection of SVE include: cost, effectiveness of the technology, and expected duration of cleanup. Soil conductivity probes indicated soil was conducive to SVE, which led KDHE to select the SVE system.

Date implemented:
April 10, 1998.

Final remediation design:
Four SVE wells were installed at the Former Fast One Hour site. One shallow-deep set was installed south of the building. The second shallow-deep pair was installed west of the building approximately 15 feet west of the boiler unit. The SVE wells were bored with an 8.5 inch hollow stem auger to a depth of 20 feet for the shallow wells and 25 feet for the deeper wells. Wells were completed with 4 inch ID schedule 40 PVC screen and casing. 10 feet of 0.010 inch machine slotted screen were utilized with a 10-20 grade filter pack. A 'T' fitting was installed in-line to connect the SVE wells to the associated piping. The wells were finished with a water-tight, self-sealing J-plug. The well heads were completed with an 8-inch diameter flush-mount protective cover set in a 2 foot by 2 foot concrete pad. The subsurface piping consists of 2 inch ID schedule 40 PVC. Flexible tubing connects the PVC risers to the header system. The venting blower is a EG&G Rotron Model DR454R72 SVE blower with a design capacity of 90 CFM at 30 inches of water vacuum. The blower is powered by a 1.5 horsepower, 460 volt, 3-phase motor. All system components are lag bolted to the wall/floor of a 8 foot by 8 foot remediation enclosure shed. The shed contains a small electric heater to prevent the knockout tank from freezing during winter and a ceiling-mounted exhaust fan to prevent excessive heat buildup in the summer.

Results to date:
The SVE system achieved cleanup goals to remediate the source area. The system was started in April of 1998 and high concentrations of 893 ppmv were detected by field sampling with a Photoionization detector. Recent field and laboratory sampling has indicated non-detect concentrations and the system was shut-down in June of 2001. During its operation of just over three years, the SVE system removed a total of 334 pounds of VOCs, with 80% of this amount being removed in the first year of operation.

Next Steps:
The groundwater concentrations of PCE has increased slightly since the system was shut down in June 2001. Most recent groundwater sampling event in January 2006 results indicated a PCE concentration of 40 ug/L. KDHE interprets the increase in groundwater PCE concentrations as migration of the plume from the upgradient One Hour Martinizing site. The site will remain in long-term monitoring unless concentrations indicate the need for re-installation of a remedial system. The SVE wells and piping remain at the site.

Cost to Design and Implement:
approx. $20,000


Cost for Assessment:
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
Total Costs for Cleanup:

Lessons Learned

To protect the City of Salina's PWS wells from further contamination and to allow use of PWS wells currently out-of-service due to contaminant levels, the KDHE Drycleaning Trust Fund and Underground Storage Tank (UST) Trust Fund installed a dual, packed tower air-stripper remediation system at the City of Salina water treatment plant. KDHE's Drycleaning Trust Fund and UST Trust Fund split the cost of the remedial system based on contamination caused by facilities covered under both Funds.


Kansas Identified Sites List


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