U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners Site Profiles

Adams Family Drycleaners, Royal Palm Beach , Florida

Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

This is an active PCE drycleaning facility that has been in operation since 1988. The facility is located in a shopping center in a mixed retail commercial/residential setting. Previous contamination assessment work had been conducted in 1994-95, prior to the entry of the facility into the Drycleaning Solvent Cleanup Program. At that time contaminant concentrations detected in groundwater samples were as high as 730 ug/l PCE, 1,750 ug/l TCE and 995 ug/l cis 1,2-DCE. Prior to entering the Florida Drycleaning Solvent Cleanup Program, a pump & treat system utilizing two recovery wells (approximately 18 - 19 feet deep) and an air stripper was installed and operated from approximately October 1995 through September of 1996. One of the recovery wells was installed beneath the facility floor slab and the other well was installed just outside the service door of the facility. Operational details for the pump & treat system are unknown. The identified contamint source area was the soil beneath the facility floor slab in the near vicinity of the drycleaning machine.

Remediation Status: Site closed

Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.

Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 370 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 18 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 3,700 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater 100 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   20ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 60ft
Plume Width: 30ft
Plume Thickness: 14ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   6.59ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

  very fine-grained sand
Depth: 0-5ft bgs
5ft thick
Conductivity: 6.1ft/day
Gradient: 0.0004ft/ft
  fine-grained sand with some clay
Depth: 5-8ft bgs
3ft thick
  very fine sand, some silt
Depth: 8-38ft bgs
30ft thick

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

DNAPL Present

Vapor Intrusion Pathway

Has the potential for vapor intrusion (VI) been evaluated?
Has a vapor mitigation system been installed?

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Groundwater: PCE = 3 ug/l, TCE = 3 ug/l, cis 2,3-DCE = 70 ug/l

Soil: PCE = 30 ug/kg


In Situ Soil Vapor Extraction

Why the technology was selected:
SVE was chosen as the soil remedy because it is an effective technology for removing VOCs from permeable unsaturated sediments. Since soil contamination was limited to a small area under the facility floor slab, it was decided that a short-term SVE system was an appropriate remedial technology.

Date implemented:
May 15 - 17, 2002

Final remediation design:
One 2-inch diameter Schedule PVC recovery well installed to 4 ft. below the facility floor slab near the drycleaning machine. The vapor recovery well had 3 feet of 0.01-inch slot screen. A Carbon Air CE 505 package blower system was utilized. Vapors were routed to a 200-lb. G.A.C. unit. Flow ranged from 4.9 to 13.3 SCFM with vacuum at well ranging from 7.4 to 16.2 inches of water. An estimated 0.028 lbs. of VOCs was recoverd.

Results to date:
Confirmatory soil sampling found PCE concentrations slightly higher than the soil cleanup leaching target levels but Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure demonstrated that PCE in soils would not act as a source of groundwater contamination.

Next Steps:
The site met the No Further Action conditions (without institutional or engineering controls) and a Site Rehabilitation Completion Order was issued for the site on July 22, 2002.

Cost to Design and Implement:
Interim Remdial Measure: $11,100

Ex Situ Monitored Natural Attenuation

Why the technology was selected:
Monitored natural attenuation was chosen as the groundwater remedy because of the low contaminant concentrations, small size of the contaminant plume, presence of PCE daughter products and conditions favorable for reductive dechlorination.

Next Steps:
The site met the No Further Action conditions (without institutional or engineering controls) and a Site Rehabilitation Completion Order was issued for the site on July 22, 2002.

Cost to Design and Implement:
Interim Remdial Measure: $11,100


Cost for Assessment:
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
  Groundwater Monitoring: $35,300 Site Restoration: $4,500
Total Costs for Cleanup:

Lessons Learned

Short term operation of a small SVE system can be an effective way to remove a well-defined VOC source from the unsaturated zone.


Aaron Cohen
Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection
Bureau of Waste Cleanup, MS 4500
2600 Blair Stone Road
Tallahassee, Florida 32399

Bruce Wilson, PG
Ecology & Environment
1950 Commonwealth Lane
Phone (850) 574-1400

Site Specific References

Contamination Assessment Report - November 1997

Remedial System Operating Report - June 2002

Groundwater Monitoring Reports - 1999 to 2002


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