U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

This content is being minimally managed and was last updated in July 2021. EPA recognizes that this content is relevant to site remediation stakeholders and will continue streamlined review and maintenance of this content.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners Site Profiles

Springdale Cleaners, Portland, Oregon

Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

Springdale Cleaners is an active dry cleaning facility located in a strip mall. The local land use is a mix of high density residential and commercial development. Residents of a neighboring apartment building observed condensed water leaking onto a landscaped planter in the area between the strip mall and the apartment complex. Subsequent investigations in 1998 revealed high levels of perchloroethylene (PCE) in the soil and groundwater at Springdale Cleaners. Additional investigations conducted in May 1999 identified high levels of PCE in the shallow groundwater. The most likely source of PCE contamination is the leaking sewer line extending out of Springdale Cleaners. Investigation officials have confirmed that the drycleaner disposed of wastewater in a floor drain, which led to the sewer line. PCE likely accumulated in low points of the sewer main and leaked into the soil and groundwater. The investigation also indicated that dissolved PCE may have come out of solution and formed DNAPL contamination. The accumulated contamination would then provide a continued source of soil and groundwater contamination even after disposal to the sewer system ceased.

Remediation Status: In active remediation

Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.

Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 740 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 120,000 ppb
Trichloroethene (TCE) groundwater 35,900 ppb
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene groundwater 390 ppb
Vinyl Chloride groundwater 1,920 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:  
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 150ft
Plume Width: 50ft
Plume Thickness: 15ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   20ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

  sandy, silty clay
Depth: 0-12ft bgs
12ft thick
Gradient: 0.0001ft/ft
  grey, silty clay w/increasing sand
Depth: 12-23ft bgs
11ft thick

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

checkDNAPL Present

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Typically, DEQ risk-based concentrations for human health are the remediation goal. The extent of contamination makes it difficult to meet risk-based concentrations in soil and groundwater, although PCE and TCE mass has decreased substantially. Vapor collection before migration into the building is a needed secondary remedial measure.
Remedy Level:
  Interim Action


in Situ Bioremediation

Why the technology was selected:
Technologies like soil vapor extraction would be unsuitable for this confined site because there is poor access and limited permeability in the fine-grained soil. The Springdale site contains high concentrations of contaminants in a moderately small area. The soil is shallow and soft, and can therefore be readily probed. biological amendments (e.g. HRC) can be applied cost effectively. The slow-release HRC should provide lower concentrations of lactate over a longer period. The slow release may be ideal for sites that contain high chlorinated solvent concentrations or when remediation officials seek to decrease the number of injection events.

Date implemented:
1999-Hydrogen Release Compound Injection. Regenesis Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC) was injected into shallow groundwater Two types of HRC were used: (1) approximately 1,900 pounds of regular HRC were injected near monitoring wells MW-2 and MW-4, cov

Date completed:
2012-installation of four bioremediation substrate injection wells, and the application of 3DMe bioremediation substrate to enhance bioremediation of chlorinated solvent hydrocarbons in groundwater. Approximately 150 gallons of concentrated bioremediat

Final remediation design:
injections summarized above. Vapor mitigation described below.

Results to date:
The groundwater monitoring results indicate that amendment injections have enhanced the degradation of PCE to daughter products. Initially PCE and TCE levels decreased but overall mass remained the same (i.e., stalled at cis-DCE and vinyl chloride. Recent monitoring since 2012 have shown substantial mass reductions (i.e., cis-DCE and vinyl converted to ethenes).

Next Steps:
Bi-annual monitoring.

Cost to Design and Implement:
~$150,000 for four treatment events spanning 12 years.


Cost for Assessment:
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
Total Costs for Cleanup:

Lessons Learned

Adding biological amendments to fine-grained soils can work, but requires more time for delivery and more injestion points and vertical incremental application.

2. Operating dry cleaners using PCE can make meeting relatively low risk-based standards difficult.

3. Vapor collection is a proven technology but requires a good understanding of the source area and vapor intrusion mechanisms and preferential pathways.


Mark Pugh, Project Manager
OR DEQ, Northwest Region
2020 SW Fourth Avenue, Suite 400
Portland, OR 97201-4987
503 229-5587

Jacobs Engineering, Inc.
1527 Cole Blvd, Suite 100
Golden, CO 80401

Site Specific References

Ash Creek Associates, Inc. (Ash Creek), 2012. 2012 Vapor Mitigation Interim Remedial Action Work Plan, Springdale Cleaners, ECSI No. 2290, Portland, Oregon. March 14, 2012.

Ash Creek Associates, Inc. (Ash Creek), 2009. Interim Remedial Action Work Plan, Springdale Cleaners,
ECSI No. 2290, Portland, Oregon. November 24, 2009.

Ash Creek, 2010. Sub-Slab Vapor Sampling Work Plan, Springdale Cleaners, ECSI No. 2290, Portland,
Oregon. September 20, 2010.
Ash Creek, 2011. Vapor Sampling Work Plan Addendum, Springdale Cleaners, ECSI No. 2290, Portland,
Oregon. April 13, 2011.

2013 Data Report
Springdale Cleaners
ECSI No. 2290
Portland, Oregon
November 14, 2003


Top of Page