U.S. EPA Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN)

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division

State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners Site Profiles

Stuart Cleaners & Tailors, Stuart, Florida

Historical activity that resulted in contamination.

This is an active perchloroethylene (PCE) drycleaning facility that began operation in 1978. The facility is located in a stand-alone building in a mixed commercial/residential setting. A small creek, which drains to the Indian River Lagoon is located approximately 100 ft north and hydraulically downgradient of the facility. The contaminant source area at the site is near the rear door (service entrance) of the facility.

Contaminants present and the highest amount detected in both soil and groundwater.

Contaminant Media Concentration (ppb) Nondetect
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) groundwater 1,600 ppb
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) soil 3,300 ppb

Site Hydrology

Deepest Significant Groundwater Contamination:   20ft bgs
Plume Size:   Plume Length: 120ft
Plume Width: 130ft
Average Depth to Groundwater:   5ft

Lithology and Subsurface Geology

  Fine-grained sand, clay lense
Depth: 0-4ft bgs
4ft thick
Conductivity: 20.2ft/day
Gradient: 0.0069ft/ft
  Peat & fine-grained sand
Depth: 4-5ft bgs
1ft thick
  Fine-grained sand, clay lenses and peat
Depth: 5-13ft bgs
8ft thick
  Fine-grained sand
Depth: 13-36ft bgs
23ft thick
  Fine-grained sand & coquina
Depth: 36-42ft bgs
6ft thick

Pathways and DNAPL Presence

DNAPL Present

Vapor Intrusion Pathway

Has the potential for vapor intrusion (VI) been evaluated?
Has a vapor mitigation system been installed?
Type of Vapor Mitigation System(s):
  Soil Vapor Extraction

Remediation Scenario

Cleanup Goals:
  Groundwater (MCLs): PCE = 3 µg/l; TCE = 3 µg/l; cis 1,2-DCE = 70 µg/l; vinyl chloride = 1 µg/l
Soils (Cleanup target leachability standard): PCE - 30 µg/kg


In Situ Soil Vapor Extraction

Why the technology was selected:
SVE is a cost-effective technology for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from permeable, unsaturated soils.

Date implemented:
January 11, 2000

Final remediation design:
The soil vapor extraction (SVE) system utilized 14 horizontal extraction wells, four vertical vapor-inlet wells, and one horizontal vapor-inlet well. SVE wells were installed in the parking lot at the rear of the facility (service entrance) and outside the west wall of the facility. The four vertical vapor-inlet wells were installed through the facility floor slab and the horizontal vapor-inlet well was installed outside the east wall of the building. Depth: SVE wells 3 ft bgs; vapor-inlet wells 3 ft bgs Screen intervals 15-35 ft Radius of influence: > 8 ft Blower: 10 hp capacity, 300 cfm at design vacuum of 70 in. w.c. Flow rate: 289 cfm at vacuum of 28 in. w.c. Emissions treatment: 2 - 400 lb granular activated carbon (GAC) canisters The system operated for five and one-half months and was shut down on July 25, 2000.

Results to date:
Confirmatory soil sampling showed that the contaminant concentrations in soils were below soil cleanup target leachability levels. The SVE system is estimated to have removed 1.64 lbs of VOCs. Approximately 236 tons of soil were excavated during SVE System intallation. An estimated 0.55 lbs of PCE was contained in the excavated soil. The SVE system has been decomissioned. The last two groundwater monitoring events, conducted in April and August 2000, did not detect any contaminants in groundwater in concentrations exceeding regulatory MCLs. A Site Rehabilitation Completion Order has been issued for this facility. Facility was delisted 11/27/2000 and all wells have been properly plugged and abandoned by a State of Florida licensed well driller.

Cost to Design and Implement:
$159,717 (all technologies)

Ex Situ Soil Removal

Date implemented:
January 11, 2000

Cost to Design and Implement:
$159,717 (all technologies)


Cost for Assessment:
Cost for Operation and Maintenance:
  $25,564 System Close Out & Site Rehabilitation: $15,939
Total Costs for Cleanup:

Lessons Learned

1. Since the contaminant mass was situated in the unsaturated zone and the shallow portion of the water table, it is believed that a substantial portion of the mass was remediated during the trenching and subsequent soil removal for installation of the horizontal SVE wells.


Aaron Cohen
Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection
Bureau of Waste Cleanup, MS 4500
2600 Blair Stone Road
Tallahassee, Florida 32399

John McGovern, Contract Manager
Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation
759 South Federal Highway, Suite 100
Stuart, Florida 34994-3411

Site Specific References

1. Contamination Assessment Report - 11/3/97
2. Remedial Action Plan - 7/2/99
3. Remedial Action Report - 2/14/2000
4. Operation & Maintenance Reports - 4/2000 & 10/2000
5. P&A Letter Report - 10/1/2001


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